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Enteral nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806296/the-risk-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-differs-among-preterm-pigs-fed-formulas-with-either-lactose-or-maltodextrin
#1
Randal K Buddington, Samantha L Davis, Karyl K Buddington
OBJECTIVES: When breast milk is unavailable for preterm infants, formulas are needed that won't increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Adding novel ingredients to formula to reduce NEC has not been effective clinically. Instead, we tested the prediction that NEC can be reduced by removing the maltodextrin now included in preterm formulas. METHODS: The preterm pig model of spontaneous NEC was used to evaluate growth, health, and intestinal responses to 6-7 days of feeding formulas that were identical except for the source of carbohydrate; either 100% lactose or maltodextrin; colostrum was used as the control...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805897/effects-of-grass-silage-quality-and-level-of-feed-intake-on-enteric-methane-production-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#2
D Warner, A Bannink, B Hatew, H van Laar, J Dijkstra
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a compound feed meal (70:10:20 on DM basis). Treatments consisted of 4 grass silage qualities prepared from grass harvested from leafy through late heading stage, and offered to dairy cows at 96 ± 2.4 (mean ± SEM) days in milk (namely, high intake) and 217 ± 2...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805777/-accelerated-postoperative-rehabilitation-in-patients-undergoing-pancreatoduodenectomy
#3
Z A Kovalenko, V K Lyadov, K V Lyadov
AIM: To assess safety and clinical-economic effectiveness of complex postoperative rehabilitation after pancreatoduodenectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 73 patients were included in the study. Main group consisted of 39 patients who underwent accelerated postoperative rehabilitation that was developed in our clinic. In the control group of 34 patients this protocol was not applied. The main components of rehabilitation were multicomponent analgesia, early enteral nutrition, physical rehabilitation by using of exercise therapy and physiotherapy...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803460/-gastrostomy-tubes-indications-and-infectious-complications-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#4
M J Muñoz-Dávila, J M Xandri Ruipera, G Yagüe Guirao, C Salvador García, M Segovia Hernández
OBJECTIVE: Gastrostomy tube is the best option for long-term enteral nutrition. Among its limitations, infections represent the most frequent minor complication. Our aim is the knowledge of the number and type of gastrostomy tubes and its main indication in our hospital. In addition, prevalence of infectious complications was studied paying attention to the main etiologic agents and their antibiotic susceptibility. METHODS: Observational retrospective study from January 2010 to July 2015 through the electronic clinical history and the clinical microbiology laboratory software...
August 14, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802289/home-enteral-nutrition-s-effects-on-nutritional-status-and-quality-of-life-after-esophagectomy
#5
Jian Zeng, Jian Hu, Qixun Chen, Jianguo Feng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the effect of home enteral nutrition (HEN) on the nutritional status and the quality of life (QOL) of esophageal cancer patients who underwent Ivor Lewis esophagectomy for cancer. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Sixty patients with esophageal cancer were assigned to receive either HEN (n=30) or standard care only (n=30) from 1 week to 24 weeks following surgery. Nutritional status was evaluated using The Mini Nutritional Assessment at 1 week preoperatively and at 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802288/efficacy-and-safety-of-pectin-supplemented-enteral-nutrition-in-intensive-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Fengchan Xi, Xingwei Xu, Shanjun Tan, Tao Gao, Jialiang Shi, Yanxi Kong, Wenkui Yu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Enteral nutrition (EN) can improve clinical outcomes as an important treatment in critically ill patients. However, when patients suffer from gastrointestinal function disorders, intestinal intolerance occurs and EN administration may be delayed and even fails to perform. Pectin, a structural heteropolysaccharide, could protect gastrointestinal function from disorders in many gastrointestianl diseases. The present study aimed to determine whether pectin-supplemented EN was safe and improved clinical outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801442/bangladesh-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-beed-study-protocol-for-a-community-based-intervention-study-to-validate-non-invasive-biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#7
Mustafa Mahfuz, Subhasish Das, Ramendra Nath Mazumder, M Masudur Rahman, Rashidul Haque, Md Muzibur Rahman Bhuiyan, Hasina Akhter, Md Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Dinesh Mondal, Syed Shafi Ahmed Muaz, A S M Bazlul Karim, Stephen M Borowitz, Christopher A Moskaluk, Michael J Barratt, William A Petri, Jeffrey I Gordon, Tahmeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subacute inflammatory condition of the small intestinal mucosa with unclear aetiology that may account for more than 40% of all cases of stunting. Currently, there are no universally accepted protocols for the diagnosis, treatment and ultimately prevention of EED. The Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (BEED) study is designed to validate non-invasive biomarkers of EED with small intestinal biopsy, better understand disease pathogenesis and identify potential therapeutic targets for interventions designed to control EED and stunting...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800397/association-between-the-7-day-moving-average-for-nutrition-and-growth-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
Gustave H Falciglia, Karna Murthy, Jane Holl, Hannah L Palac, Yuliya Oumarbaeva, Pratyusha Yadavalli, Donna Woods, Daniel T Robinson
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain at risk for postnatal growth restriction. Clinicians may have difficulty identifying growth patterns resulting from nutrition interventions, impeding prompt management changes intended to increase growth velocity. This study aimed to quantify the association between growth and nutrition intake through 7-day moving averages (SDMAs). METHODS: The first 6 weeks of daily nutrition intake and growth measurements were collected from VLBW infants admitted to a level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (2011-2014)...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796054/effects-of-early-enteral-nutrition-on-t-helper-lymphocytes-of-surgical-septic-patients-a-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Jia-Kui Sun, Shou-Tao Yuan, Xin-Wei Mu, Wen-Hao Zhang, Ying Liu, Lei Zou, Xiang Wang, Shu-Yun Zheng
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on T helper lymphocytes and the subpopulations ratios of surgical septic patients.We performed a retrospective study including 107 eligible patients from February 2014 to December 2015. Patients were divided into EEN, delayed enteral nutrition (DEN), or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group according to the duration before enteral feeding. Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg lymphocyte percentages were collected on days 3, 7, and 14 after admission...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795875/animal-models-for-studying-epithelial-barriers-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer
#10
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795644/efficiency-of-organic-acid-preparations-for-the-elimination-of-naturally-occurring-salmonella-in-feed-material
#11
Sonja Axmann, Veronika Kolar, Andreas Adler, Irmengard Strnad
Salmonella can enter animal stocks via feedstuffs, thus posing not only an infection risk for animals, but also threatening to contaminate food of animal origin and finally humans. Salmonella contamination in feeding stuffs is still a recurring and serious issue in animal production (especially for poultry sector) and is regularly detected upon self-monitoring by feed companies (self-checks) and official inspections authorities. Operators within the feed chain in certain cases need to use hygienic condition enhancers, such as organic acids, to improve the quality of feed for animal nutrition providing additional guarantees for the protection of animal and public health...
August 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794882/interruption-of-enteral-nutrition-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-single-center-survey
#12
Midori Uozumi, Masamitsu Sanui, Tetsuya Komuro, Yusuke Iizuka, Tadashi Kamio, Hiroshi Koyama, Hideyuki Mouri, Tomoyuki Masuyama, Kazuyuki Ono, Alan Kawarai Lefor
BACKGROUND: Interruption of enteral nutrition (EN) in the intensive care unit (ICU) occurs frequently for various reasons including feeding intolerance and the conduct of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, few studies have investigated the details of EN interruption practices including reasons for and duration of interruptions. There is no standard protocol to minimize EN interruptions. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 100 patients in the ICU staying more than 72 h and receiving EN in a 12-bed, medical/surgical ICU in a tertiary care center in 2013...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794309/enteral-formula-containing-egg-yolk-lecithin-improves-diarrhea
#13
Tetsuro Akashi, Ayano Muto, Yayoi Takahashi, Hiroshi Nishiyama
Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793989/early-enteral-tube-feeding-in-optimizing-treatment-of-hyperemesis-gravidarum-the-maternal-and-offspring-outcomes-after-treatment-of-hyperemesis-by-refeeding-mother-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Iris J Grooten, Marjette H Koot, Joris Am van der Post, Joke Mj Bais, Carrie Ris-Stalpers, Christiana Naaktgeboren, Henk A Bremer, David P van der Ham, Wieteke M Heidema, Anjoke Huisjes, Gunilla Kleiverda, Simone Kuppens, Judith Oeh van Laar, Josje Langenveld, Flip van der Made, Mariëlle G van Pampus, Dimitri Papatsonis, Marie-José Pelinck, Paula J Pernet, Leonie van Rheenen, Robbert J Rijnders, Hubertina Cj Scheepers, Tatjana E Vogelvang, Ben W Mol, Tessa J Roseboom, Rebecca C Painter
Background: Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) leads to dehydration, poor nutritional intake, and weight loss. HG has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight. Information about the potential effectiveness of treatments for HG is limited.Objective: We hypothesized that in women with HG, early enteral tube feeding in addition to standard care improves birth weight.Design: We performed a multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial [Maternal and Offspring outcomes after Treatment of HyperEmesis by Refeeding (MOTHER)] in 19 hospitals in the Netherlands...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792861/predictive-value-of-the-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-for-parenteral-nutrition-associated-cholestasis-in-premature-infants-with-intestinal-perforation
#15
Kannikar Vongbhavit, Mark A Underwood
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Early predictors of PNAC would have clinical value. We sought to evaluate risk factors and liver function testing as predictors of PNAC in premature infants with intestinal perforation. METHODS: Medical records of infants with a gestational age <34 weeks, birth weight <2000 g, and intestinal perforation due to either necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation were reviewed...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791279/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Sally J Lawrence, Manish Sadarangani, Kevan Jacobson
Immunosuppressive therapy is a known risk factor for opportunistic infections. We report the first case of severe Pneumocystis jirovecii infection requiring intensive care in a pediatric patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The literature was reviewed and there were 92 reported cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with IBD. Most sources were case reports and there was likely reporting bias toward patients receiving immunomodulators, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy, and those who died...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779878/adult-classical-homocystinuria-requiring-parenteral-nutrition-pitfalls-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Christel Tran, Luisa Bonafé, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Julie Rieger, Mette M Berger
BACKGROUND: Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency presents with a wide clinical spectrum. Treatment by the enteral route aims at reducing homocysteine levels by using vitamin B6, possibly methionine-restricted diet, betaine and/or folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. Currently no nutritional guidelines exist regarding parenteral nutrition (PN) under acute conditions. METHODS: Exhaustive literature search was performed, in order to identify the relevant studies describing the pathogenesis and nutritional intervention of adult classical homocystinuria requiring PN...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777664/human-based-human-milk-fortifier-as-rescue-therapy-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-demonstrating-intolerance-to-bovine-based-human-milk-fortifier
#18
Amanjot Sandhu, Sharla Fast, Kari Bonnar, Ronald John Baier, Michael Narvey
OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of utilizing a human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMHMF) as rescue therapy to meet nutritional requirements in very low birth weight and preterm infants demonstrating feeding intolerance to bovine-based human milk fortifier (BHMF) in the Canadian Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At two Level III NICUs in Winnipeg, MB, Canada, a rescue protocol was implemented to provide HMHMF for infants demonstrating intolerance to BHMF...
August 4, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777338/effects-of-the-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-on-the-microbiota-profile-of-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Simona Gatti, Tiziana Galeazzi, Elisa Franceschini, Roberta Annibali, Veronica Albano, Anil Kumar Verma, Maria De Angelis, Maria Elena Lionetti, Carlo Catassi
The mechanisms behind the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in Crohn's disease (CD) remain poorly understood, despite the high rate of treatment response. Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years suggests that a positive shift of the disrupted microbiota is one of the treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to critically review and summarize data reporting the microbiological effects of EEN in patients with CD. Fourteen studies were considered in the review, overall involving 216 CD patients on EEN...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771821/lessons-learned-from-the-management-of-adults-who-have-undergone-augmentation-for-spina-bifida-and-bladder-exstrophy-incidence-and-management-of-the-non-lethal-complications-of-bladder-augmentation
#20
REVIEW
Douglas A Husmann
The present review provides clinical insights and makes recommendations regarding patient management garnered by the long-term follow up of patients undergoing enteric bladder augmentation for the management of congenital anomalies. A prospectively maintained database on 385 patients that have experienced an enteric bladder augmentation, using either the ileum or colon, was reviewed. Evaluations included methods used to prevent bladder calculi formation and recurrence, the incidence and etiology of renal calculi development, the incidence and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency, and the complications and need for surgical revisions for continent catheterizable stomas...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
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