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Enteral nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326744/nutritional-parameters-and-carbohydrate-and-fat-metabolism-after-prolonged-salsolinol-administration-in-rats-fed-normal-or-high-fat-diets
#1
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that exogenous salsolinol might contribute to myenteric cell death and altered gastrointestinal motility. Because the entire gut mucosal, entero-endocrine and motor functions are integrated by the enteric nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged intraperitoneal salsolinol administration alters basic metabolism and nutritional parameters in adult Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps for 2 or 4 weeks and fed either a normal or high-fat diet...
December 22, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322077/enteral-nutrition-increases-interstitial-brain-glucose-levels-in-poor-grade-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients
#2
Mario Kofler, Alois J Schiefecker, Ronny Beer, Maxime Gaasch, Paul Rhomberg, John Stover, Bettina Pfausler, Claudius Thomé, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321138/student-preparation-for-pgy1-residency-training-by-us-colleges-of-pharmacy-survey-of-the-residency-program-director-perspective
#3
Alyssa B Mutz, Jacob Beyer, Whitney L Dickson, Irina Gutman, Filiz Yucebay, Marcie Lepkowsky, Juliana Chan, Kristen Carter, Christopher L Shaffer, Patrick D Fuller
Purpose: To evaluate current residents' level of preparation by US colleges of pharmacy for postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency training from the perspective of residency program directors (RPDs). Methods: RPDs were asked in an electronic survey questionnaire to rate PGY1 pharmacy residents' abilities in 4 domains: communication, clinical knowledge, interpersonal/time-management skills, and professionalism/leadership. Results: One hundred ninety-seven RPDs of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-accredited PGY1 programs completed the survey...
February 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320382/laparoscopic-t-tube-feeding-jejunostomy-as-an-adjunct-to-staging-laparoscopy-for-upper-gastrointestinal-malignancies-the-technique-and-review-of-outcomes
#4
Sze Li Siow, Hans Alexander Mahendran, Chee Ming Wong, Nirumal Kumar Milaksh, Myo Nyunt
BACKGROUND: In recent years, staging laparoscopy has gained acceptance as part of the assessment of resectability of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) malignancies. Not infrequently, we encounter tumours that are either locally advanced; requiring neoadjuvant therapy or occult peritoneal disease that requires palliation. In all these cases, the establishment of enteral feeding during staging laparoscopy is important for patients' nutrition. This review describes our technique of performing laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy and the clinical outcomes...
March 20, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317607/nutritional-aspects-of-dysphagia-management
#5
C Gallegos, E Brito-de la Fuente, P Clavé, A Costa, G Assegehegn
This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders)...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316968/a-stepwise-pilot-study-of-bovine-colostrum-to-supplement-the-first-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-infants-precolos-study-protocol-and-initial-results
#6
Yanqi Li, Sandra M Juhl, Xuqiang Ye, René L Shen, Elisabeth Omolabake Iyore, Yiheng Dai, Per T Sangild, Gorm O Greisen
STUDY PROTOCOL: The optimal feeding for preterm infants during the first weeks is still debated, especially when mother's own milk is lacking or limited. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) contains high amounts of protein, growth factors, and immuno-regulatory components that may benefit protein intake and gut maturation. We designed a pilot study to investigate the feasibility and tolerability of BC as the first nutrition for preterm infants. The study was designed into three phases (A, B, and C) and recruited infants with birth weights of 1,000-1,800 g (China) or gestational ages (GAs) of 27 + 0 to 32 + 6 weeks (Denmark)...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#7
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303478/effects-of-synbiotic2000%C3%A2-forte-on-the-intestinal-motility-and-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-tbi-mouse-model
#8
Limei Zhang, Jing Zeng, Yuanyuan Ma, Min Tan, Min Zhou, Huan Fang, Stig Bengmark, Jingci Zhu
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Synbiotic2000™ Forte on the intestinal motility and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model. Kunming mice were randomly divided into sham operation group (S group), enteral nutrition group with TBI (E group), and Synbiotic2000™ Forte group with TBI (P group). The contractile activity of the intestinal smooth muscle, densities and ultrastructure of the ICC, kit protein concentration, weight, and defecation of mice were monitored and analyzed...
March 16, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297827/-application-of-bedside-ultrasound-in-measuring-gastric-residual-volume-in-neurosurgical-critical-patients-with-enteral-nutrition-support
#9
L Cao, X H Ye, J Li, L N Zhang, L Li, W Y Zhang, L L Deng
Objective: To explore the effect of bedside ultrasound in measuring gastric residual volume in neurosurgical critical patients with enteral nutrition support. Method: From March to August 2016, 70 critically neurological patients with continues enteral nutrition who admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were randomized into two groups. The observation group applied the bedside ultrasound monitoring gastric residual volume every day to guide the implementation of enteral nutrition. The control group used syringes withdrawing every 8 hours to measure the gastric residual volume...
March 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296670/intraoperative-feeding-improves-calorie-and-protein-delivery-in-acute-burn-patients
#10
David E Varon, Gil Freitas, Neha Goel, Jennifer Wall, Deepak Bharadia, Erin Sisk, Joshua C Vacanti, Bohdan Pomahac, Indranil Sinha, Vihas M Patel
Enteral nutrition support is a critical component of modern burn care for severely burned patients. However, tube feeds are frequently withheld during the perioperative period because of aspiration concerns. As a result, patients requiring multiple operative procedures risk accumulating significant protein-calorie deficits. The objective of this study was to describe our American Burn Association-certified burn center's experience implementing an intraoperative feeding protocol in severely burned patients defined as a cutaneous burn ≥20% TBSA...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294972/potential-impact-of-diet-on-treatment-effect-from-anti-tnf-drugs-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Vibeke Andersen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294445/the-challenge-of-nutritional-profiling-of-a-protein-free-feed-module-for-children-on-low-protein-tube-feeds-with-organic-acidaemias
#12
A Daly, S Evans, C Ashmore, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Enteral tube feeding for children with organic acidaemias (OA) is recommended. Protein restriction, providing minimum safe levels of protein intake, is advocated. Standard paediatric tube feeding formulae provide more than the minimum safe protein requirements and are unsuitable in OA without modification. Modified paediatric enteral feeds consist of several modular ingredients. The aim of this prospective longitudinal interventional study was to assess the efficacy of a premeasured novel protein-free module developed for children aged over 12 months compared to conventional practice...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293959/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-postnatal-growth-restriction-in-preterm-infants
#13
Sumru Kavurt, Kıymet Celik
AIM: Preterm infants are often significantly underweight at the time of hospital discharge. Growth impairment during early infancy can have permanent detrimental effects. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) in preterm infants. METHODS: This prospective study included 124 preterm infants in neonatal intensive care unit between January 2015 and June 2016. RESULTS: Of 140 preterm infants screened, postnatal growth retardation was detected in 46 babies (36...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292527/enteral-nutrition-volume-is-not-correlated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-patients-on-mechanical-ventilation
#14
A Colomar, B Guardiola, J A Llompart-Pou, I Ayestarán, J Rodríguez-Pilar, M Ferreruela, J M Raurich
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of enteral nutrition volume, gastrointestinal function and the type of acid suppressive drug upon the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). DESIGN: A retrospective secondary analysis was carried out. SETTING: The Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: Patients≥18-years-old expected to need MV for more than four days, and receiving enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube within 24h of starting MV...
March 11, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289881/modified-biliary-enteric-anastomosis-for-congenital-choledochal-cyst-clinical-and-prognostic-analysis-of-91-cases
#15
Ji Chen, Bin Jiang, Jun Yi, Lei Huang, Xinmin Si
PURPOSE: To report our experience with a modified biliary-enteric anastomosis procedure for the surgical treatment of congenital choledochal cysts. METHODS: Between January 2009 and December 2013, 91 children (19 boys, 72 girls; ages, 6-145 months) with congenital choledochal cysts were treated with our modified surgical procedure in our hospital. Of these patients, 69 had type I cysts, and 22 had type IV B cysts. The main parameters analyzed mainly included the operative time, duration of bowel recovery, resumption of diet, postoperative hospital stay, liver-function tests, postoperative complications, and prognosis...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289510/critical-analysis-of-feeding-jejunostomy-following-resection-of-upper-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#16
Andrew M Blakely, Saad Ajmal, Rachel E Sargent, Thomas T Ng, Thomas J Miner
AIM: To assess nutritional recovery, particularly regarding feeding jejunostomy tube (FJT) utilization, following upper gastrointestinal resection for malignancy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of a prospectively-maintained database of adult patients who underwent esophagectomy or gastrectomy (subtotal or total) for cancer with curative intent, from January 2001 to June 2014. Patient demographics, the approach to esophagectomy, the extent of gastrectomy, FJT placement and utilization at discharge, administration of parenteral nutrition (PN), and complications were evaluated...
February 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288028/the-obesity-paradox-is-not-observed-in-critically-ill-patients-on-early-enteral-nutrition
#17
Kimberley Harris, Jiachen Zhou, Xinggang Liu, Erkan Hassan, Omar Badawi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between body mass index and mortality in a large, ICU population and determine if the relationship is observed among a subgroup of patients ordered early enteral nutrition. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study within a national clinical mixed ICU database of patients admitted between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2015. SETTING: Initial ICU admissions among patients monitored by tele-ICU programs and recorded in the Philips eICU Research Institute database...
March 10, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287411/parenteral-nutrition-amino-acids
#18
REVIEW
Leonard John Hoffer
There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286877/il-22-controls-iron-dependent-nutritional-immunity-against-systemic-bacterial-infections
#19
Kei Sakamoto, Yun-Gi Kim, Hideki Hara, Nobuhiko Kamada, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Emanuela Tolosano, Miguel P Soares, José L Puente, Naohiro Inohara, Gabriel Núñez
Host immunity limits iron availability to pathogenic bacteria, but whether immunity limits pathogenic bacteria from accessing host heme, the major source of iron in the body, remains unclear. Using Citrobacter rodentium, a mouse enteric pathogen and Escherichia coli, a major cause of sepsis in humans as models, we find that interleukin-22, a cytokine best known for its ability to promote epithelial barrier function, also suppresses the systemic growth of bacteria by limiting iron availability to the pathogen...
February 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285661/colonization-and-beneficial-effects-on-annual-ryegrass-by-mixed-inoculation-with-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria
#20
Nádia L Castanheira, Ana Catarina Dourado, Isabel Pais, José Semedo, Paula Scotti-Campos, Nuno Borges, Gilda Carvalho, Maria Teresa Barreto Crespo, Paula Fareleira
Multi-strain inoculants have increased potential to accomplish a diversity of plant needs, mainly attributed to its multi-functionality. This work evaluated the ability of a mixture of three bacteria to colonize and induce a beneficial response on the pasture crop annual ryegrass. Pseudomonas G1Dc10 and Paenibacillus G3Ac9 were previously isolated from annual ryegrass and were selected for their ability to perform multiple functions related to plant growth promotion. Sphingomonas azotifigens DSMZ 18530(T) was included due to nitrogen fixing ability...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
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