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Cognitive dysfunction associated with PTSD

Nathaniel G Harnett, Edward W Ference, Kimberly H Wood, Muriah D Wheelock, Amy J Knight, David C Knight
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysfunction of the neural circuitry that supports fear learning and memory processes. However, much of what is known about neural dysfunction in PTSD is based on research in chronic PTSD populations. Less is known about neural function that supports fear learning acutely following trauma exposure. Determining the acute effects of trauma exposure on brain function would provide new insight into the neural processes that mediate the cognitive-affective dysfunction associated with PTSD...
September 1, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Kelly R Peck, Scott F Coffey, Adam P McGuire, Andrew C Voluse, Kevin M Connolly
Dysfunctional trauma-related cognitions are important in the emergence and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the modification of such cognitions is a proposed mechanism of trauma treatment. However, the authors are not aware of any research examining trauma-related cognitions as a treatment mechanism in a sample of individuals with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder (SUD). Accordingly, the present study sought to address this gap in the literature and examined the relationship between trauma-related cognitions and treatment outcomes within a sample of seventy-two veterans diagnosed with PTSD and SUD...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jessica Williams, Sandra Bucci, Katherine Berry, Filippo Varese
OBJECTIVES: This is the first review to identify, summarise and critically evaluate studies that examined psychological mediators of the relationship between childhood adversities and psychosis. METHODS: A database search (PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL) was conducted to identify eligible studies published between January 1980 and September 2017. A narrative synthesis and appraisal of methodological quality and statistical appropriateness of the primary studies was conducted...
November 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Laura D Crocker, Scott F Sorg, Madeleine L Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Although across-test intra-individual variability (IIV), or dispersion, has been shown to be a valuable marker of neurological health in a variety of clinical samples, IIV has not been well examined in the context of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In the present study, we examined measures of IIV in military Veterans with and without a history of mTBI. Secondly, we examined how measures of IIV relate to traditional indices of mean cognitive performance, TBI characteristics, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in mTBI...
October 2018: Neuropsychologia
Shigehiko Ogoh, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Mark B Badrov, Rosemary S Parker, Elizabeth H Anderson, Jessica L Wiblin, Carol S North, Alina M Suris, Qi Fu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with structural and functional alterations in a number of interacting brain regions, but the physiological mechanism for the high risk of cerebrovascular disease or impairment in brain function remains unknown. Women are more likely to develop PTSD after a trauma than men. We hypothesized that cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation is impaired in women with PTSD and it is associated with impairment in cognitive function. To test our hypothesis, we examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and cognitive function by using a transfer function analysis between arterial pressure and middle cerebral artery blood velocity and the Stroop Color and Word test (SCWT), respectively...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Angélica Torres-Berrio, Mauricio O Nava-Mesa
Cognitive and emotional impairment are a serious consequence of stress exposure and are core features of neurological and psychiatric conditions that involve memory disorders. Indeed, acute and chronic stress are high-risk factors for the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), two devastating brain disorders associated with memory dysfunction. Besides the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress response also involves the activation of the opioid system in brain regions associated with stress regulation and memory processing...
January 10, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Laura D Crocker, Sarah M Jurick, Kelsey R Thomas, Amber V Keller, Mark Sanderson-Cimino, Briana Boyd, Carie Rodgers, Elizabeth W Twamley, Amy J Jak
Although trauma-focused treatment, including Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), effectively reduces PTSD symptoms, treatment dropout, nonresponse, and relapse are substantial. Executive functioning (EF) is essential to engage the cognitive skills involved in CPT (e.g., inhibiting/evaluating distorted thoughts, flexibly generating alternative thoughts). It was hypothesized that worse baseline EF would be associated with reduced CPT completion and responsivity. Seventy-four Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans with PTSD and history of mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury were randomized to either standard CPT or modified CPT that included cognitive rehabilitation strategies (SMART-CPT)...
September 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Katie A Ragsdale, Michael A Gramlich, Deborah C Beidel, Sandra M Neer, Emily G Kitsmiller, Krystal I Morrison
Research indicates that exposure therapy is efficacious for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comorbid with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as is shown by reduced PTSD treatment outcome scores. What is unknown, however, is whether the process of fear extinction is attenuated in veterans with TBI history. Increased PTSD symptomatology and possible cognitive deficits associated with TBI sequelae may indicate additional or longer exposure sessions to achieve habituation and extinction comparable to individuals without TBI history...
July 2018: Behavior Therapy
S Zullino, T Simoncini
SSRIs are the first choice for the treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Despite the known side effects, the benefits/risks balance suggests their use. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are the main vascular effects of these drugs, with mechanisms that involves endothelial dysfunction in feto-placental system. These data are supported by animal models, even if preliminary findings are not yet adequately supported by molecular and clinical data...
September 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Risa Imai, Hiroaki Hori, Mariko Itoh, Mingming Lin, Madoka Niwa, Keiko Ino, Sei Ogawa, Makiko Ishida, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Mie Matsui, Hiroshi Kunugi, Tatsuo Akechi, Toshiko Kamo, Yoshiharu Kim
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with increased inflammation, albeit with some controversy. Another key feature of PTSD is compromised function in wide-ranging cognitive domains. Increased peripheral inflammation can contribute to cognitive dysfunction, although this relationship has not been studied in patients with PTSD. Here, we examined blood inflammatory markers in adult patients with PTSD compared to healthy controls taking account of potentially confounding effects of childhood maltreatment and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), and explored the association between inflammation and cognition...
July 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
August 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Sophie A George, Mariana Rodriguez-Santiago, John Riley, James L Abelson, Stan B Floresco, Israel Liberzon
Many psychiatric disorders are associated with cognitive dysfunction that is ineffectively treated by existing pharmacotherapies and which may contribute to poor real-world functioning. D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonist that has attracted attention because of its cognitive enhancing properties, including in people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined the effect of DCS on reversal learning - a type of cognitive flexibility - following exposure to single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD...
July 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hilary B Hodgdon, Rachel Liebman, Lia Martin, Michael Suvak, Kari Beserra, Wendy Rosenblum, Joseph Spinazzola
Risk for traumatic sequelae is conveyed directly by risk factors (i.e., exposure to trauma), and via the disruption of developmental competencies. Exposure to caregiver trauma is an especially salient risk factor, as its early and pervasive nature is likely to undermine multiple facets of development, most notably the emergence of cognitive controls (i.e., executive function [EF]). Deficits in EF have been observed among youth exposed to multiple types of trauma and are associated with a range of functional impairments, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and behavioral disorders; they represent a mechanism by which the negative impact of caregiver trauma is conveyed...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Arundhati Undurti, Elizabeth A Colasurdo, Carl L Sikkema, Jaclyn S Schultz, Elaine R Peskind, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Charles W Wilkinson
The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25-50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tina Schweizer, Julian Schmitz, Laura Plempe, Dali Sun, Christian Becker-Asano, Rainer Leonhart, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs...
2017: PloS One
Hila Gruener, Gabi Zeilig, Yocheved Laufer, Nava Blumen, Ruth Defrin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is common after spinal cord injury (SCI). The psychological impact of CNP is not clear. Previous studies reported depression and pain catastrophizing among patients with SCI and CNP; however, the lack of control groups prevented discerning whether these were attributed to CNP or to the SCI itself. The aim was to examine the psychological distress among individuals with SCI with and without CNP and controls to evaluate its impact and possible source...
February 2018: Spinal Cord
Sean Clouston, Robert H Pietrzak, Roman Kotov, Marcus Richards, Avron Spiro, Stacey Scott, Yael Deri, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Candace Stewart, Evelyn Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Introduction: This study examined whether World Trade Center (WTC)-related exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with cognitive function and whether WTC responders' cognition differed from normative data. Methods: A computer-assisted neuropsychological battery was administered to a prospective cohort study of 1193 WTC responders with no history of stroke or WTC-related head injuries. Data were linked to information collected prospectively since 2002...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
James K Moran, Anselm Crombach, Thomas Elbert, Corina Nandi, Manassé Bambonyé, Christian Wienbruch, Ursula Lommen, Roland Weierstall
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been linked to deviations in lateralized frontal functional oscillatory activity. This is possibly because left and right DLPFC have differential roles in regulating both memory and stress response, which are both dysfunctional in PTSD. However, previous results are heterogeneous, and could be attributable to individual symptom clusters, traumatic or aggressive life events, early life stress, or the interaction of these factors. In a large sample of active combatants (N=401), we regressed these factors on frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry across 5 frequency bands (delta: 2-4Hz; theta: 4-8Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 12-24Hz; gamma: 24-48Hz)...
October 2017: Biological Psychology
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
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