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Cognitive dysfunction associated with PTSD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031369/worse-baseline-executive-functioning-is-associated-with-dropout-and-poorer-response-to-trauma-focused-treatment-for-veterans-with-ptsd-and-comorbid-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Laura D Crocker, Sarah M Jurick, Kelsey R Thomas, Amber V Keller, Mark Sanderson-Cimino, Briana Boyd, Carie Rodgers, Elizabeth W Twamley, Amy J Jak
Although trauma-focused treatment, including Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), effectively reduces PTSD symptoms, treatment dropout, nonresponse, and relapse are substantial. Executive functioning (EF) is essential to engage the cognitive skills involved in CPT (e.g., inhibiting/evaluating distorted thoughts, flexibly generating alternative thoughts). It was hypothesized that worse baseline EF would be associated with reduced CPT completion and responsivity. Seventy-four Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans with PTSD and history of mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury were randomized to either standard CPT or modified CPT that included cognitive rehabilitation strategies (SMART-CPT)...
September 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937262/does-traumatic-brain-injury-attenuate-the-exposure-therapy-process
#2
Katie A Ragsdale, Michael A Gramlich, Deborah C Beidel, Sandra M Neer, Emily G Kitsmiller, Krystal I Morrison
Research indicates that exposure therapy is efficacious for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comorbid with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as is shown by reduced PTSD treatment outcome scores. What is unknown, however, is whether the process of fear extinction is attenuated in veterans with TBI history. Increased PTSD symptomatology and possible cognitive deficits associated with TBI sequelae may indicate additional or longer exposure sessions to achieve habituation and extinction comparable to individuals without TBI history...
July 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803894/impact-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-a-focus-on-short-and-long-term-vascular-effects
#3
REVIEW
S Zullino, T Simoncini
SSRIs are the first choice for the treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Despite the known side effects, the benefits/risks balance suggests their use. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are the main vascular effects of these drugs, with mechanisms that involves endothelial dysfunction in feto-placental system. These data are supported by animal models, even if preliminary findings are not yet adequately supported by molecular and clinical data...
September 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684628/inflammatory-markers-and-their-possible-effects-on-cognitive-function-in-women-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Risa Imai, Hiroaki Hori, Mariko Itoh, Mingming Lin, Madoka Niwa, Keiko Ino, Sei Ogawa, Makiko Ishida, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Mie Matsui, Hiroshi Kunugi, Tatsuo Akechi, Toshiko Kamo, Yoshiharu Kim
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with increased inflammation, albeit with some controversy. Another key feature of PTSD is compromised function in wide-ranging cognitive domains. Increased peripheral inflammation can contribute to cognitive dysfunction, although this relationship has not been studied in patients with PTSD. Here, we examined blood inflammatory markers in adult patients with PTSD compared to healthy controls taking account of potentially confounding effects of childhood maltreatment and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), and explored the association between inflammation and cognition...
July 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667267/the-cerebellum-after-trauma-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#5
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
August 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580893/d-cycloserine-facilitates-reversal-in-an-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Sophie A George, Mariana Rodriguez-Santiago, John Riley, James L Abelson, Stan B Floresco, Israel Liberzon
Many psychiatric disorders are associated with cognitive dysfunction that is ineffectively treated by existing pharmacotherapies and which may contribute to poor real-world functioning. D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonist that has attracted attention because of its cognitive enhancing properties, including in people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined the effect of DCS on reversal learning - a type of cognitive flexibility - following exposure to single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD...
July 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553438/the-protective-role-of-maternal-post-traumatic-growth-and-cognitive-trauma-processing-in-palestinian-mothers-and-infants-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532959/the-effects-of-trauma-type-and-executive-dysfunction-on-symptom-expression-of-polyvictimized-youth-in-residential-care
#8
Hilary B Hodgdon, Rachel Liebman, Lia Martin, Michael Suvak, Kari Beserra, Wendy Rosenblum, Joseph Spinazzola
Risk for traumatic sequelae is conveyed directly by risk factors (i.e., exposure to trauma), and via the disruption of developmental competencies. Exposure to caregiver trauma is an especially salient risk factor, as its early and pervasive nature is likely to undermine multiple facets of development, most notably the emergence of cognitive controls (i.e., executive function [EF]). Deficits in EF have been observed among youth exposed to multiple types of trauma and are associated with a range of functional impairments, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and behavioral disorders; they represent a mechanism by which the negative impact of caregiver trauma is conveyed...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515515/chronic-hypopituitarism-associated-with-increased-postconcussive-symptoms-is-prevalent-after-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Arundhati Undurti, Elizabeth A Colasurdo, Carl L Sikkema, Jaclyn S Schultz, Elaine R Peskind, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Charles W Wilkinson
The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25-50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287111/the-impact-of-pre-existing-anxiety-on-affective-and-cognitive-processing-of-a-virtual-reality-analogue-trauma
#10
Tina Schweizer, Julian Schmitz, Laura Plempe, Dali Sun, Christian Becker-Asano, Rainer Leonhart, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238095/increased-psychological-distress-among-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-is-associated-with-central-neuropathic-pain-rather-than-the-injury-characteristics
#11
Hila Gruener, Gabi Zeilig, Yocheved Laufer, Nava Blumen, Ruth Defrin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is common after spinal cord injury (SCI). The psychological impact of CNP is not clear. Previous studies reported depression and pain catastrophizing among patients with SCI and CNP; however, the lack of control groups prevented discerning whether these were attributed to CNP or to the SCI itself. The aim was to examine the psychological distress among individuals with SCI with and without CNP and controls to evaluate its impact and possible source...
February 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201993/traumatic-exposures-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-cognitive-functioning-in-world-trade-center-responders
#12
Sean Clouston, Robert H Pietrzak, Roman Kotov, Marcus Richards, Avron Spiro, Stacey Scott, Yael Deri, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Candace Stewart, Evelyn Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Introduction: This study examined whether World Trade Center (WTC)-related exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with cognitive function and whether WTC responders' cognition differed from normative data. Methods: A computer-assisted neuropsychological battery was administered to a prospective cohort study of 1193 WTC responders with no history of stroke or WTC-related head injuries. Data were linked to information collected prospectively since 2002...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958482/the-individual-contribution-of-dsm-5-symptom-clusters-of-ptsd-life-events-and-childhood-adversity-to-frontal-oscillatory-brain-asymmetry-in-a-large-sample-of-active-combatants
#13
James K Moran, Anselm Crombach, Thomas Elbert, Corina Nandi, Manassé Bambonyé, Christian Wienbruch, Ursula Lommen, Roland Weierstall
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been linked to deviations in lateralized frontal functional oscillatory activity. This is possibly because left and right DLPFC have differential roles in regulating both memory and stress response, which are both dysfunctional in PTSD. However, previous results are heterogeneous, and could be attributable to individual symptom clusters, traumatic or aggressive life events, early life stress, or the interaction of these factors. In a large sample of active combatants (N=401), we regressed these factors on frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry across 5 frequency bands (delta: 2-4Hz; theta: 4-8Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 12-24Hz; gamma: 24-48Hz)...
October 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799954/effects-of-systemic-glutamatergic-manipulations-on-conditioned-eyeblink-responses-and-hyperarousal-in-a-rabbit-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665526/cognitive-emotion-regulation-strategies-associated-with-the-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-criteria
#15
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Yinyin Zang, Natalie G Gay, Alan L Peterson, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Elisa V Borah, Katherine A Dondanville, Elizabeth A Hembree, Brett T Litz, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Edna B Foa
Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies have been proposed to contribute to the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prior work has focused on the relationship between these strategies and PTSD as a whole, rather than on how they are related to each PTSD symptom cluster. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether cognitive emotion regulation strategies are predictive of certain PTSD symptom clusters under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed...
August 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520663/contributions-to-executive-dysfunction-in-operation-enduring-freedom-operation-iraqi-freedom-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Sarah M Jurick, Laura D Crocker, Mark Sanderson-Cimino, Amber V Keller, Liljana S Trenova, Briana L Boyd, Elizabeth W Twamley, Carie S Rodgers, Dawn M Schiehser, Robin L Aupperle, Amy J Jak
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and executive function (EF) difficulties are prevalent in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans. We evaluated the contributions of injury variables, lower-order cognitive component processes (processing speed/attention), and psychological symptoms to EF. PARTICIPANTS: OEF/OIF Veterans (N = 65) with PTSD and history of mTBI were administered neuropsychological tests of EF and self-report assessments of PTSD and depression...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340069/the-association-of-post-traumatic-and-postmigration-stress-with-pain-and-other-somatic-symptoms-an-explorative-analysis-in-traumatized-refugees-and-asylum-seekers
#17
Naser Morina, Alexa Kuenburg, Ulrich Schnyder, Richard A Bryant, Angela Nickerson, Matthis Schick
Objective.:  Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatic symptoms, such as pain, are frequently seen in refugees. Their relationship is poorly understood, and the treatment of these comorbid conditions can be very challenging. The current cross-sectional study examined pain and other somatic symptoms and their relationship with trauma history, PTSD symptom clusters, and current living difficulties among treatment-seeking refugees. Methods.:  One hundred thirty-four treatment-seeking traumatized refugees (78% male, mean age = 42 years) were assessed regarding lifetime traumatic experiences, symptoms of post-traumatic stress, overall pain and somatic symptoms, and postmigration living difficulties...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326164/ptsd-symptom-severity-relates-to-cognitive-and-psycho-social-dysfunctioning-a-study-with-congolese-refugees-in-uganda
#18
Herbert E Ainamani, Thomas Elbert, David K Olema, Tobias Hecker
Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives: We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161453/rhythms-dysregulation-a-new-perspective-for-understanding-ptsd
#19
REVIEW
Jacques Dayan, Géraldine Rauchs, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex syndrome that may occur after exposure to one or more traumatic events. It associates physiological, emotional, and cognitive changes Brain and hormonal modifications contribute to some impairments in learning, memory, and emotion regulation. Some of these biological dysfunctions may be analyzed in terms of rhythms dysregulation that would be expressed through endocrine rhythmicity, sleep organization, and temporal synchrony in brain activity. In the first part of this article, we report studies on endocrine rhythmicity revealing that some rhythms abnormalities are frequently observed, although not constantly, for both cortisol and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity...
November 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089694/affective-and-cognitive-correlates-of-ptsd-electrocortical-processing-of-threat-and-perseverative-errors-on-the-wcst-in-combat-related-ptsd
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Julia A DiGangi, Autumn Kujawa, Darrin M Aase, Joseph M Babione, Christopher Schroth, David M Levy, Amy E Kennedy, Justin E Greenstein, Eric Proescher, Robert Walters, Holly Passi, Scott A Langenecker, K Luan Phan
PTSD is characterized by both affective and cognitive dysfunction. Affectively, PTSD is associated with both heightened emotional reactivity and disengagement. Cognitively, perseverative thinking is a core feature of the disorder. In order to assess the interactive effects of affective and cognitive correlates of PTSD symptoms, 47 OEF/OIF/OND veterans completed an emotional faces matching task while EEG (i.e., late positive potential; LPP) was recorded, and separately completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) to assess perseverative errors...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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