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Cognitive dysfunction associated with hormones

Sherifa A Hamed
Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine myelinosis, stroke, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropathies and myopathy...
December 2, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein, Kenneth E Rosenzweig
Background: Two large studies suggest that risk is not increased. But other studies have found increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and impaired cognition. Objective: To determine whether androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of impaired cognition or Alzheimer's disease in men with prostate cancer. Methods: We used data from MedWatch, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program. Machine-readable data from MedWatch, including adverse drug reaction reports from manufacturers, are part of a public database...
June 30, 2018: JAD Reports
Consuelo Guerri, María Pascual
Evidence obtained in recent decades has demonstrated that the brain still matures in adolescence. Changes in neural connectivity occur in different regions, including cortical and subcortical structures, which undergo modifications in white and gray matter densities. These alterations concomitantly occur in some neurotransmitter systems and hormone secretion, which markedly influence the refinement of certain brain areas and neural circuits. The immaturity of the adolescent brain makes it more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drug abuse, whose use can trigger long-term behavioral dysfunction...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Daiane Borba de Lima, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Kelem Vedovelli, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Familial caregivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients experience an emotional and physical burden which characterizes a chronic stress condition. The resulting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction favors an imbalance of neurotoxic/neuroprotective factors and causes cognitive impairments, increasing the caregivers' risk for cognitive decline and compromising their ability to provide adequate care of the patient. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the reversibility of the cognitive impairments of familial caregivers of AD patients during their caregiving-related chronic stress condition...
November 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jay Jay Thaung Zaw, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Rachel Heloise Xiwen Wong
Menopause is a critical period during which, without timely interventions, increased risks of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction and premature cognitive decline will contribute to diminished quality-of-life in women. Hormone therapy (HT) used to be the standard of care for managing vasomotor symptoms and prevention of chronic diseases until publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002. Concerned about risks highlighted in WHI publications, many symptomatic women promptly ceased HT which resulted in increased vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis-related-fractures and insomnia...
December 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Sabina Bhatta, Jeffrey A Blair, Gemma Casadesus
Pervasive age-related dysfunction in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is associated with cognitive impairments in aging as well as pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as the Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a major regulator of the HPG axis, the steroid hormone estrogen has been widely studied for its role in regulation of memory. Although estrogen modulates both cognition as well as cognition associated morphological components in a healthy state, the benefits of estrogen replacement therapy on cognition and disease seem to diminish with advancing age...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sean Jacobs, Karis Moxley, Jacqueline S Womersley, Georgina Spies, Sian Mj Hemmings, Soraya Seedat
Purpose: Previous studies have independently provided evidence for the effects of HIV infection, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and early life trauma on neurocognitive impairment (NCI). This study examined the interaction between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of two HPA axis genes, corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 ( CRHR1 ; rs110402, rs242924, rs7209436, and rs4792888) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-binding protein ( CRHBP ; rs32897, rs10062367, and rs1053989), childhood trauma, and HIV-associated NCI...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
C Gurvich, A Hudaib, E Gavrilidis, R Worsley, N Thomas, J Kulkarni
Cognitive impairments cause significant functional issues for people with schizophrenia, often emerging before the onset of hallucinations, delusions and other psychosis symptoms. Current pharmacological treatments do not target cognitive dysfunction. Several lines of evidence support the beneficial effects of estrogens on cognition. Raloxifene hydrochloride, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been associated with cognitive improvements in healthy postmenopausal women and in schizophrenia, although findings are inconsistent...
October 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mercedes Atienza, Jacob Ziontz, Jose L Cantero
Aging is characterized by a progressive increase in proinflammatory status. This state, known as inflammaging, has been associated with cognitive decline in normal and pathological aging. However, this relationship has been inconsistently reported, likely because it is conditioned by other factors also affected by the aging process. Sleep and adiposity are two factors in particular that show significant alterations with aging and have been related to both cognitive decline and inflammaging. Given the consequences this state also has for brain integrity and cognition, we discuss here evidence supporting the potential mediating role of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in the complex relationship between impaired sleep, dysfunctional adiposity, and cognitive decline through the common pathway of neuroinflammation...
August 16, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Cara L Wellman, Kelly M Moench
BACKGROUND: Stress is associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction, and increases risk for a variety of psychological disorders, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Prefrontal cortex is critical for executive function and emotion regulation, is a target for stress hormones, and is implicated in many stress-influenced psychological disorders. Extinction of conditioned fear provides an excellent model system for examining how stress-induced changes in corticolimbic structure and function are related to stress-induced changes in neural function and behavior, as the neural circuitry underlying this behavior is well characterized...
September 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
João Vaz-Silva, Patrícia Gomes, Qi Jin, Mei Zhu, Viktoriya Zhuravleva, Sebastian Quintremil, Torcato Meira, Joana Silva, Chrysoula Dioli, Carina Soares-Cunha, Nikolaos P Daskalakis, Nuno Sousa, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Clarissa L Waites
Emerging studies implicate Tau as an essential mediator of neuronal atrophy and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the factors that precipitate Tau dysfunction in AD are poorly understood. Chronic environmental stress and elevated glucocorticoids (GC), the major stress hormones, are associated with increased risk of AD and have been shown to trigger intracellular Tau accumulation and downstream Tau-dependent neuronal dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which stress and GC disrupt Tau clearance and degradation in neurons remain unclear...
October 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Jessie S Carr, Luke W Bonham, Alicia K Morgans, Charles J Ryan, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Ethan G Geier
Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevalence varies by sex, suggesting that sex chromosomes, sex hormones and/or their signaling could potentially modulate AD risk and progression. Low testosterone levels are reported in men with AD. Further, variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene has been associated with AD risk and cognitive impairment. We assessed measures of plasma testosterone levels as a biomarker of AD in male participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Baseline testosterone levels were significantly different between clinical diagnosis groups [cognitively normal controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD], with the lowest testosterone levels in men with AD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Álvaro de Oliveira Franco, Rodrigo Tzovenos Starosta, Matheus Roriz-Cruz
One of the mechanisms proposed for chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related cognitive impairment is the accumulation of uremic toxins due to the deterioration of the renal clearance function. Cognition can be categorized into five major domains according to its information processing functions: memory, attention, language, visual-spatial, and executive. We performed a review using the terms 'uric acid', 'indoxyl sulfate', 'p-cresyl sulfate', 'homocysteine', 'interleukins' and 'parathyroid hormone'. These are the compounds that were found to be strongly associated with cognitive impairment in CKD in the literature...
August 9, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
C Gurvich, E Gavrilidis, R Worsley, A Hudaib, N Thomas, J Kulkarni
Cognitive impairments are a core feature of schizophrenia and contribute significantly to functional complications. Current pharmacological treatments do not ameliorate cognitive dysfunction and the aetiology of cognitive impairments are poorly understood. Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that regulate reproductive function have multiple effects on the development, maintenance and function of the brain and have been suggested to also influence cognition. The aim of the current study was to investigate how HPG axis hormones effect cognition, specifically exploring the influence of menopause status and menstrual cycle irregularity on cognitive performance in women with schizophrenia...
October 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Amina Chaalal, Roseline Poirier, David Blum, Serge Laroche, Valérie Enderlin
Hypothyroidism is a condition that becomes more prevalent with age. Patients with untreated hypothyroidism have consistently reported symptoms of severe cognitive impairments. In patients suffering hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone supplementation offers the prospect to alleviate the cognitive consequences of hypothyroidism; however, the therapeutic value of TH supplementation remains at present uncertain and the link between cellular modifications associated with hypothyroidism and neurodegeneration remains to be elucidated...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Tovah Wolf, Vera Tsenkova, Carol D Ryff, Richard J Davidson, Auriel A Willette
OBJECTIVE: Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (i.e., hyperglycemia) are characterized by insulin resistance. These problems with energy metabolism may exacerbate emotional reactivity to negatively valenced stimuli and related phenomena such as predisposition toward negative affect, as well as cognitive deficits. Higher emotional reactivity is seen with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. However, it is largely unknown how metabolic dysfunction correlates with related neural, hormonal, and cognitive outcomes...
June 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Arundhati Undurti, Elizabeth A Colasurdo, Carl L Sikkema, Jaclyn S Schultz, Elaine R Peskind, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Charles W Wilkinson
The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25-50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Rodrigo B Mansur, Yena Lee, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Elisa Brietzke, Roger S McIntyre
Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are highly prevalent and disabling conditions. Cognition is considered a core domain of their psychopathology and a principle mediator of psychosocial impairment, disproportionately accounting for overall illness-associated costs. There are few interventions with replicated evidence of efficacy in treating cognitive deficits in mood disorders. Evidence also indicates that cognitive deficits are associated with obesity and involve significant impairment across multiple domains...
July 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Anwesha Mandal, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake...
April 2018: Peptides
Thomas Münzel, Frank P Schmidt, Sebastian Steven, Johannes Herzog, Andreas Daiber, Mette Sørensen
Noise has been found associated with annoyance, stress, sleep disturbance, and impaired cognitive performance. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have found that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Observational and translational studies indicate that especially nighttime noise increases levels of stress hormones and vascular oxidative stress, which may lead to endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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