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Allergic diseases

Bin Chen, Jingwen Wang, Ying Wang, Jiaming Zhang, Changying Zhao, Nan Shen, Junjie Yang, Zhongtao Gai, Lei Zhang
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of microbes in allergic diseases has been demonstrated and our previous research indicates that microbiota causing gut disorders in children is associated with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura. However, the role of oral microbiota in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura remains unknown. METHOD: A total of 164 children were enrolled, of which 98 were patients with HSP and 66 were healthy children. Oral swab samples were collected for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, then analyzed for oral microbiota composition...
October 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jenny Hallberg, Natalia Ballardini, Catarina Almqvist, Marit Westman, Marianne van Hage, Gunnar Lilja, Anna Bergström, Inger Kull, Erik Melén
BACKGROUND: Both allergic and non-allergic rhinitis are associated with worse asthma control. However, it is unclear how IgE sensitization and/or rhinitis are associated to lung function. We therefore evaluated the effect of rhinitis and sensitization on lung function, including the periphery of the airway system, and inflammatory biomarkers in individuals with and without asthma. METHODS: Participants in the BAMSE longitudinal birth cohort study underwent measures of spirometry, impulse oscillometry and FeNO at age 16 years...
October 20, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Anna Kordowski, Anna T Reinicke, David Wu, Zane Orinska, Philipp Hagemann, Markus Huber-Lang, Jee-Boong Lee, Yui-Hsi Wang, Simon P Hogan, Jörg Köhl
BACKGROUND: Food-induced anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction caused by Fcε-receptor activation on mast cells (MCs). The exact mechanisms breaking oral tolerance and the effector pathways driving food allergy remain elusive. As complement is activated in food-induced anaphylaxis, we aimed to assess the role of C5a in disease pathogenesis. METHODS: Oral antigen-induced food-induced anaphylaxis was induced in BALB/c wildtype (wt) and C5ar1-/- mice. Readouts included diarrhea development, changes in rectal temperature, hematocrit, antigen-specific serum IgE, MCPT-1 and intestinal MC numbers as well as FcεR1-mediated MC functions including C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) regulation...
October 19, 2018: Allergy
Pannathee Prangtaworn, Urai Chaisri, Watee Seesuay, Kodchakorn Mahasongkram, Nattawat Onlamoon, Onrapak Reamtong, Anchalee Tungtrongchitr, Nitaya Indrawattana, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Nitat Sookrung
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) facilitates long-term resolution of allergic morbidity resulting in reduced drug use and increased refractoriness to new sensitization. AIT effectiveness has been demonstrated in seasonal and perennial allergies, and insect stings. However, data and studies in AIT relative to cockroach (CR) allergy are relatively scarce. In this study, mice allergic to American CR (Periplaneta americana) were treated with a liposome (L)-entrapped vaccine made of mouse Tregitope289-Per a 9 of the CR, Tregitope167-Per a 9, or Per a 9 alone - or placebo...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen, Saskia Braber, Reinilde Loonstra, Nicole Buurman, Lieke Rutten, Karen Knipping, Paul J Savelkoul, Lucien F Harthoorn, Frode L Jahnsen, Johan Garssen, Anita Hartog
The conditionally essential amino acid glycine functions as inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Moreover, it has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory compound in animal models of ischemic perfusion, post-operative inflammation, periodontal disease, arthritis and obesity. Glycine acts by binding to a glycine-gated chloride channel, which has been demonstrated on neurons and immune cells, including macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and lymphocytes. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of glycine on allergy development in a cow's milk allergy model...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Karin Hufnagl, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Vitamin A is an important micronutrient, from plants diet taken up as carotenoids, from animal food sources as retinol. Its active metabolite retinoic acid (RA) binds to nuclear hormone receptors, thereby regulating gene transcription programs in various cells. Adequate nutritional intake of vitamin A is essential for pre- and postnatal development, eyesight and reproduction, and it contributes to the maintenance and regulation of the immune system. Recent molecular studies indicate that lipocalins play an important role in the bioavailability of RA and its immune modulation against Th2 responses...
October 16, 2018: Immunology Letters
Kimberly Berger, Brenda Eskenazi, John Balmes, Katie Kogut, Nina Holland, Antonia M Calafat, Kim G Harley
BACKGROUND: Asthma and allergy prevalence is increasing in United States children. In utero exposure to chemicals used in personal care products and plastics may contribute to increase in these diseases. METHODS: We quantified urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in mothers twice during pregnancy in 1999-2000 in Salinas, California. We assessed probable asthma, aeroallergies, eczema, and spirometry in their age 7 children, and measured T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells in blood at ages 2, 5, and 7 (N=392)...
October 18, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
David A Osborn, John Kh Sinn, Lisa J Jones
BACKGROUND: Infant formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been widely advocated for preventing allergic disease in infants, in place of standard cow's milk formula (CMF). However, it is unclear whether the clinical trial evidence supports this. OBJECTIVES: To compare effects on allergic disease when infants are fed a hydrolysed formula versus CMF or human breast milk. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type of hydrolysed formula is most effective, including extensively or partially hydrolysed formula (EHF/PHF)...
October 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Behdad Zarnegar, Annika Westin, Syrmoula Evangelidou, Jenny Hallgren
Mast cells release disease-causing mediators and accumulate in the lung of asthmatics. The most common cause of exacerbations of asthma is respiratory virus infections such as influenza. Recently, we demonstrated that influenza infection in mice triggers the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung. This process starts early after infection and leads to the accumulation of mast cells. Previous studies showed that an adaptive immune response was required to trigger the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sonia Ventura, Florencia Cano, Yashaswini Kannan, Felix Breyer, Michael J Pattison, Mark S Wilson, Steven C Ley
TPL-2 MAP 3-kinase promotes inflammation in numerous mouse disease models and is an attractive anti-inflammatory drug target. However, TPL-2-deficient ( Map3k8 -/- ) mice develop exacerbated allergic airway inflammation to house dust mite (HDM) compared with wild type controls. Here, we show that Map3k8D270A/D270A mice expressing kinase dead TPL-2 had an unaltered response to HDM, indicating that the severe airway inflammation observed in Map3k8 -/- mice is not due to blockade of TPL-2 signaling and rather reflects a TPL-2 adaptor function...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
James Doonan, David Thomas, Michelle H Wong, Hazel J Ramage, Lamyaa Al-Riyami, Felicity E Lumb, Kara S Bell, Karen J Fairlie-Clarke, Colin J Suckling, Kathrin S Michelsen, Hui-Rong Jiang, Anne Cooke, Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
Parasitic helminths and their isolated secreted products show promise as novel treatments for allergic and autoimmune conditions in humans. Foremost amongst the secreted products is ES-62, a glycoprotein derived from Acanthocheilonema viteae , a filarial nematode parasite of gerbils, which is anti-inflammatory by virtue of covalently-attached phosphorylcholine (PC) moieties. ES-62 has been found to protect against disease in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and airway hyper-responsiveness...
October 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Miki Nagashima, Madoka Koyanagi, Yutaka Arimura
Allergic diseases have increased in the last three decades. Mast cells play a critical role in allergic diseases along with allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Following mast cell degranulation elicited by ligation of the IgE-FcεRI receptor complex with allergen, allergic reactions are followed by various symptoms such as vascular hyperpermeability, mucous secretion, itching, sneezing, wheezing, rashes, fever, and anaphylactic shock. Susceptibility or inclination to allergy varies depending on individual genetic traits and living environment, and it has long been believed that such an inclination is determined by an immunologic balance of T helper cell types...
October 18, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Jason E Lang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a common chronic disease of the airways characterized by recurrent respiratory symptoms, bronchoreactivity, and airway inflammation. The high toll on quality of life has led to sustained efforts to understand the factors leading to asthma inception and poor disease control. Obesity is another increasingly common pediatric disease, which appears to increase the risk for incident asthma and worsened disease severity. Currently, our understanding of how obesity affects asthma risk and affects its phenotypic characteristics remains incomplete...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Ifrah Sohail, Sumit Ghosh, Santhosh Mukundan, Susan Zelewski, M Nadeem Khan
Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Spn ) is a colonizer of the human nasopharynx (NP), causing a variety of infections in humans including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The NP is an immune permissive site which allows for the persistence of commensal bacteria. Acute or chronic respiratory airway inflammation constitutes a significant risk factor for the manifestation of Spn infections. The inflammatory conditions caused by an upper respiratory viral infection or respiratory conditions such as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPDs) are implicated in the dysregulation of airway inflammation and tissue damage, which compromise the respiratory barrier integrity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mark A Wurth, Azadeh Hadadianpour, Dennis J Horvath, Jacob Daniel, Olivia Bogdan, Kasia Goleniewska, Anna Pomés, Robert G Hamilton, R Stokes Peebles, Scott A Smith
Sensitization to Aspergillus species is associated with allergic respiratory diseases. Allergen immunotherapy with nonstandardized Aspergillus extracts is commonly used as therapy in these patients. Unfortunately, no method exists to measure the relevant allergen protein content in diagnostic and therapeutic extracts. Thus, there is a critical need for Aspergillus extract standardization. We hypothesized that development of Aspergillus-specific human IgE mAbs would allow for the characterization of the relevant human allergenic epitopes among currently available commercial Aspergillus fumigatus extracts...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Young Hwan Park, Hyun Woo Kim, Hyuk Soon Kim, Seung Taek Nam, Dajeong Lee, Min Bum Lee, Keun Young Min, Jimo Koo, Su Jeong Kim, Young Mi Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Wahn Soo Choi
Mast cells are the most prominent effector cells of Type 1 hypersensitivity immune responses. CYC116 [4-(2-amino-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-5-yl)-N-[4-(morpholin-4-yl)phenyl] pyrimidin-2-amine] is under development to be used as an anti-cancer drug, but the inhibitory effects of CYC116 on the activation of mast cells and related allergy diseases have not reported as of yet. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, that CYC116 inhibited the degranulation of mast cells by antigen stimulation (IC50 , ~1.42 μM)...
October 11, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Caroline Chauché, Henry J McSorley
In a recent issue of Nature, Ordovas-Montanes et al. (2018) used cutting-edge genomic, epigenetic, and interventional techniques to characterize the cellular ecosystem in allergic chronic rhinosinusitis. They showed that basal epithelial cells "remember" type 2 inflammatory stimuli to maintain a chronic allergic disease phenotype.
October 16, 2018: Immunity
Akaninyene Otu, Philip Langridge, David W Denning
Many chronic lung diseases are characterized by the hypersecretion of mucus. In these conditions, the administration of mucoactive agents is often indicated as adjuvant therapy. N -acetylcysteine (NAC) is a typical example of a mucolytic agent. A retrospective review of patients with pulmonary aspergillosis treated at the National Aspergillosis Centre in Manchester, United Kingdom, with NAC between November 2015 and November 2017 was carried out. Six Caucasians with Aspergillus lung disease received NAC to facilitate clearance of their viscid bronchial mucus secretions...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Jihui Zhang, Jie Chen, Jie Zuo, Gary K Newton, Mark R Stewart, Trevor R Perrior, David R Garrod, Clive Robinson
Group 1 allergens of house dust mites (HDM) are globally significant triggers of allergic disease. They are considered as initiator allergens because their protease activity enables the development of allergy to a spectrum of unrelated allergens from various sources. This initiator-perpetuator function identifies Group 1 HDM allergens as attractive drug design targets for the first small-molecule approach directed towards a non-human, root cause trigger of allergic disease. The purpose of this study was to: (i) identify exemplar inhibitors of these allergens using Der p 1 as a design template, and (ii) characterise the pharmacological profiles of these compounds using in vitro and in vivo models relevant to allergy...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John P Bourke, Teofila Bueser, Rosaline Quinlivan
BACKGROUND: The dystrophinopathies include Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLDCM). In recent years, co-ordinated multidisciplinary management for these diseases has improved the quality of care, with early corticosteroid use prolonging independent ambulation, and the routine use of non-invasive ventilation signficantly increasing survival. The next target to improve outcomes is optimising treatments to delay the onset or slow the progression of cardiac involvement and so prolong survival further...
October 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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