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Immunologic diseases

Miki Nagashima, Madoka Koyanagi, Yutaka Arimura
Allergic diseases have increased in the last three decades. Mast cells play a critical role in allergic diseases along with allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Following mast cell degranulation elicited by ligation of the IgE-FcεRI receptor complex with allergen, allergic reactions are followed by various symptoms such as vascular hyperpermeability, mucous secretion, itching, sneezing, wheezing, rashes, fever, and anaphylactic shock. Susceptibility or inclination to allergy varies depending on individual genetic traits and living environment, and it has long been believed that such an inclination is determined by an immunologic balance of T helper cell types...
October 18, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Leslie Alejandra Ramírez, Elsy Arlene Pérez-Padilla, Francisco García-Oscos, Humberto Salgado, Marco Atzori, Juan Carlos Pineda
The serotonergic and immunological hypothesis of depression proposes that certain types of excessive stress distort the relationship between the activities of the innate immune and central nervous systems, so that the stress caused by an infection, or excessive psychological stress, activate toll-like receptors such as the TLR-4, the transcription factor NF-kB, the inflammasome NLRP3, as well as the secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other factors of the innate immune response, causing first, the general symptoms of the disease which appear with any infection, but also those characteristic of depressive illness such as dysphoria and anhedonia...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Houfang Sun, Sheng Wei, Lili Yang
OBJECTIVES: Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a rare type of lymphoproliferative disease caused by clonal antigenic stimulation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. METHODS: In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of the immunological dysfunctions associated with LGL leukemia and the associated disorders coexistent with this disease. Novel therapeutic options targeting known molecular mechanisms are also discussed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The pathogenesis of LGL leukemia involves the accumulation of gene mutations, dysregulated signaling pathways and immunological dysfunction...
October 18, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Antonio Del Vecchio, Caterina Franco, Karin Del Vecchio, Angela Umbaldo, Letizia Capasso, Francesco Raimondi
Infants born prematurely before 37 weeks of gestational age (GA), have particular anatomical, immunological and metabolic characteristics that predispose them, even in the absence of diseases at birth, to severe morbidity. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in the first year of life, as well as an important cause of respiratory outcomes as recurrent wheezing in industrialized countries or mortality in developing countries. Prematurity is an important risk factor for hospitalization for severe RSV disease, but epidemiological , environmental and demographic risk factors also play a role in RSV infection...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Marina Garcia-Prat, Daniel Álvarez-Sierra, Aina Aguiló-Cucurull, Sandra Salgado-Perandrés, Sara Briongos-Sebastian, Clara Franco-Jarava, Andrea Martin-Nalda, Roger Colobran, Isabel Montserrat, Manuel Hernández-González, Ricardo Pujol-Borrell, Pere Soler-Palacin, Mónica Martínez-Gallo
BACKGROUND: For the accurate diagnosis of immunodeficiencies is crucial to compare patients' immunology laboratory values with age-sex matched controls, yet there is a paucity of normal values for most populations. OBJECTIVES: To define appropriate reference values of extended lymphocyte subpopulations and T-cell receptor excision circle (TRECs) levels in healthy pediatric donors between 1 month and 18 years of age. METHODS: Extended immunophenotyping values were obtained by analysis of multiparameter flow cytometry panels for the following subpopulations: CD4+ and CD8+ Naive, Effector, Effector Memory and Central Memory, T helper subpopulations and their degrees of activation, T Regulatory cells, Recent Thymic Emigrants (RTE), B Lymphocyte subpopulations (Transitional, Naive, Preswitch-Memory, Switch-Memory, Plasmablasts, CD21low, and Exhausted), and subpopulations for Monocytes, NK cells and Dendritic Cells...
October 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Rasha Shaaban, Wael M El-Sayed, Safia Samir, Ehab El-Dabaa
Recombinant human interferon alpha2b (rhIFN-α2b) protein is FDA approved for treatment of many tumors and viral diseases. A rhIFN-α2b isoform has been produced and purified from the refolding reaction using high-resolution anion ion exchange chromatography. This isoform has a proper MW (19 kDa) and high purity and homogeneity. The conservation of native linear and conformational epitopes in this isoform was immunologically confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Mass spectrometry assessment of its intact mass showed average mass (19,337 Da) equivalent to that of the expressed rhIFN-α2b protein without any chemical modification and without the first methionine...
October 18, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Alastair Copland, David Bending
Since the identification of the regulatory T-cell (Treg)-associated transcription factor Foxp3, there have been intensive research efforts to understand its biology and roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. It is well established that thymic selection of a repertoire of self-reactive Foxp3+ T-cells provides an essential mechanism to minimize reactions to self-antigens in the periphery, and thus aid in the prevention of autoimmunity. It is clear from both genetic and immunological analyses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients that T-cells have a strong role to play in both the initiation and propagation of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ian A Cockburn, Robert A Seder
Development of a malaria vaccine remains a critical priority to decrease clinical disease and mortality and facilitate eradication. Accordingly, RTS,S, a protein-subunit vaccine, has completed phase III clinical trials and confers ~30% protection against clinical infection over 4 years. Whole-attenuated-sporozoite and viral-subunit vaccines induce between 20% and 100% protection against controlled human malaria infection, but there is limited published evidence to date for durable, high-level efficacy (>50%) against natural exposure...
October 17, 2018: Nature Immunology
Mary K Crow, Mikhail Olferiev, Kyriakos A Kirou
Type I interferons, which make up the first cytokine family to be described and are the essential mediators of antivirus host defense, have emerged as central elements in the immunopathology of systemic autoimmune diseases, with systemic lupus erythematosus as the prototype. Lessons from investigation of interferon regulation following virus infection can be applied to lupus, with the conclusion that sustained production of type I interferon shifts nearly all components of the immune system toward pathologic functions that result in tissue damage and disease...
October 17, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Eiji Kobayashi
Technological advances such as optical instruments and surgical tools have enabled the considerable contributions of microsurgery to surgical therapies. Accordingly, surgical therapeutics has provided the latest information across a wide range of medical specialties, including immunology and pharmacology, despite specialization according to organs and organ systems. The International Society for Experimental Microsurgery, an academic organization, has utilized experimental microsurgery technology in the identification of curative concepts for diseases that remain difficult to treat...
September 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Jovani Catalan-Dibene, Laura L McIntyre, Albert Zlotnik
Cytokines are important molecules that regulate the ontogeny and function of the immune system. They are small secreted proteins usually produced upon activation of cells of the immune system, including lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Many cytokines have been described, and several have been recognized as pivotal players in immune responses and in human disease. In fact, several anticytokine antibodies have proven effective therapeutics, especially in various autoimmune diseases. In the last 15 years, new cytokines have been described, and many remain poorly understood...
October 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
T Bopp, H Schild
Understanding the fundamental principles underlying the development, activation, regulation, plasticity, diversification, and even death of immune cells is a prerequisite for the development of targeted strategies to modulate the immune system in the fight against cancer. As our understanding of these processes evolves, their translation has led to the development of pioneering therapeutic approaches in the treatment of malignant diseases.
October 16, 2018: Der Pathologe
Wouter W van Willigen, Martine Bloemendal, Winald R Gerritsen, Gerty Schreibelt, I Jolanda M de Vries, Kalijn F Bol
Immune checkpoint inhibitors propelled the field of oncology with clinical responses in many different tumor types. Superior overall survival over chemotherapy has been reported in various metastatic cancers. Furthermore, prolonged disease-free and overall survival have been reported in the adjuvant treatment of stage III melanoma. Unfortunately, a substantial portion of patients do not obtain a durable response. Therefore, additional strategies for the treatment of cancer are still warranted. One of the numerous options is dendritic cell vaccination, which employs the central role of dendritic cells in activating the innate and adaptive immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alessia Liguori, Lucia Dello Iacono, Giulietta Maruggi, Barbara Benucci, Marcello Merola, Paola Lo Surdo, Jacinto López-Sagaseta, Mariagrazia Pizza, Enrico Malito, Matthew J Bottomley
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) is a major cause of sepsis and invasive meningococcal disease. A multicomponent vaccine, 4CMenB, is approved for protection against MenB. Neisserial adhesin A (NadA) is one of the main vaccine antigens, acts in host cell adhesion, and may influence colonization and invasion. Six major genetic variants of NadA exist and can be classified into immunologically distinct groups I and II. Knowledge of the crystal structure of the 4CMenB vaccine component NadA3 (group I) would improve understanding of its immunogenicity, folding, and functional properties and might aid antigen design...
October 16, 2018: MBio
Saima Naz, Rafiq Ahmad Khan, Jeevan Giddaluru, Srikanth Battu, Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma, Mabu Subahan, Vishnupriya Satti, Nooruddin Khan, Aleem Ahmed Khan
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a persistent inflammatory illness, which is clinically categorised as Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affecting millions of people worldwide. The precise cause behind the pathology of the disease remains unknown. However, the involvement of multiple factors including genetic predisposition, immunological deregulations, microbiota imbalance, and environmental triggers has been suggested. Amongst all these factors, the over-active immunological response reported in UC patients seems to be a promising target for therapy...
September 21, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Katri Korpela, Anne Salonen, Outi Vepsäläinen, Marjo Suomalainen, Carolin Kolmeder, Markku Varjosalo, Sini Miettinen, Kaarina Kukkonen, Erkki Savilahti, Mikael Kuitunen, Willem M de Vos
BACKGROUND: Infants born by caesarean section or receiving antibiotics are at increased risk of developing metabolic, inflammatory and immunological diseases, potentially due to disruption of normal gut microbiota at a critical developmental time window. We investigated whether probiotic supplementation could ameliorate the effects of antibiotic use or caesarean birth on infant microbiota in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Mothers were given a multispecies probiotic, consisting of Bifidobacterium breve Bb99 (Bp99 2 × 108 cfu) Propionibacterium freundenreichii subsp...
October 16, 2018: Microbiome
Miaomiao Zhang, Zhuotao Fu, Jiantao Chen, Boqiang Zhu, Ye Cheng, Linchun Fu
BACKGROUND: Abnormally increased immune activation is one of the main pathological features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to determine whether long-term nonprogression (LTNP) suppresses the upregulation of immune activation and to elucidate the mechanisms whereby the LTNP state is maintained. METHODS: For this study we selected 4 rhesus macaques(RMs) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that were long-term nonprogressors (LTNP); for comparison we chose 4 healthy RMs that were seronegative for SIV (hereafter referred to as the Control group), and 4 progressing infection (Progressive group) SIV RMs...
October 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Deborah A Grosenbaugh, Karelle De Luca, Pierre-Yves Durand, Bradley Feilmeier, Kristopher DeWitt, Cecile Sigoillot-Claude, Marie-Line Sajous, Michael J Day, Frederic David
BACKGROUND: Prevention of Lyme disease in dogs in North America depends on effective vaccination against infection by the tick vector-born spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Most vaccines effectively prevent spirochete transmission to dogs during tick feeding based on immunization with the outer-surface lipoprotein A (OspA) of B. burgdorferi. More recently, vaccines containing additional OspC protein moieties have been introduced. These are designed to enhance protection by forming a second line of defense within the vertebrate host, where OspC expression replaces OspA as the dominant surface antigen...
October 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Thomas A E Platts-Mills, Martin D Chapman
Martin Chapman has known Tom Platts-Mills for over 40 years. He was Tom's first PhD student and together they purified Der p 1 and developed some of the first allergen immunoassays. They worked together on the faculty at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2001 and continue to collaborate. It has been a pleasure!. Legends are celebrated for their accomplishments, their unique persona and style. They command respect and admiration and inspire others. Thomas Platts-Mills, a living legend, is the most insightful clinical investigator of allergic diseases of his generation...
October 16, 2018: Allergy
Daniel S Tylee, Jiayin Sun, Jonathan L Hess, Muhammad A Tahir, Esha Sharma, Rainer Malik, Bradford B Worrall, Andrew J Levine, Jeremy J Martinson, Sergey Nejentsev, Doug Speed, Annegret Fischer, Eric Mick, Brian R Walker, Andrew Crawford, Struan F A Grant, Constantin Polychronakos, Jonathan P Bradfield, Patrick M A Sleiman, Hakon Hakonarson, Eva Ellinghaus, James T Elder, Lam C Tsoi, Richard C Trembath, Jonathan N Barker, Andre Franke, Abbas Dehghan, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt
Individuals with psychiatric disorders have elevated rates of autoimmune comorbidity and altered immune signaling. It is unclear whether these altered immunological states have a shared genetic basis with those psychiatric disorders. The present study sought to use existing summary-level data from previous genome-wide association studies to determine if commonly varying single nucleotide polymorphisms are shared between psychiatric and immune-related phenotypes. We estimated heritability and examined pair-wise genetic correlations using the linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) and heritability estimation from summary statistics methods...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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