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Melvin Cohn
Can we formulate a framework that would provide an agreed upon basis for discussions of immune behavior? An attempt to do this is, in the end, the main goal of this essay. If you tell a physicist that you have invented a perpetual motion machine, he wouldn't spend any time trying to reveal the flaw. Rather, he would shrug you off because in his framework, such a machine is an impossibility. However, immunologists lacking an agreed upon, preferably default, framework spend their time chasing into dead end alleys or take refuge in descriptive empiricism...
October 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Dana K Shaw, Ann T Tate, David S Schneider, Elena A Levashina, Jonathan C Kagan, Utpal Pal, Erol Fikrig, Joao H F Pedra
Recent scientific breakthroughs have significantly expanded our understanding of arthropod vector immunity. Insights in the laboratory have demonstrated how the immune system provides resistance to infection, and in what manner innate defenses protect against a microbial assault. Less understood, however, is the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on microbial-vector interactions and the impact of the immune system on arthropod populations in nature. Furthermore, the influence of genetic plasticity on the immune response against vector-borne pathogens remains mostly elusive...
October 6, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Andrew Blann
In 2018 the British Journal of Biomedical Science published one guideline (in reproductive science) and 40 research articles in the various disciplines the comprise biomedical science. The latter were 24 original articles and 16 'In Brief' short reports. Of these, 23 are of note to only one of the sub-disciplines (seven each to biochemists and microbiologists, six to cell pathologists, and one each to cytologists, immunologists and reproductive scientists). Reflecting the increasing complexity of laboratory science, thirteen papers crossed one boundary (three papers each relevant to biochemists and immunologists, and to haematologists and biochemists), whilst four papers were relevant to three or more disciplines...
October 8, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Eugene R Bleecker, Reynold A Panettieri, Sally E Wenzel
As seen in this CME online activity (available at, the various forms of asthma affect > 300 million people globally and > 25 million people in the United States. Asthma-related symptoms and exacerbations result in nearly 2 million ED visits annually, and many of these visits lead to inpatient hospital stays. There is an urgent need to improve the care of the estimated 5% to 15% of patients who have severe asthma. Importantly, studies have shown that severe asthma accounts for an outsized proportion of the disease-related morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs...
October 2018: Chest
Peter Olbrich, Alexandra F Freeman
The transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3 fulfill fundamental functions in non-immune and immune cells. The description and follow-up of patients with germline mutations that result in either loss-of-function (LOF) or gain-of-function (GOF) have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these regulators. Depending on the type of mutations, clinical symptoms are complex and can include infection susceptibility, immune dysregulation as well as characteristic non-immune features...
October 3, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Heidi Ledford, Holly Else, Matthew Warren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Nature
Christine McCusker, Julia Upton, Richard Warrington
Primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) refers to a large heterogeneous group of disorders that result from defects in immune system development and/or function. PIDs are broadly classified as disorders of adaptive immunity (i.e., T cell, B-cell or combined immunodeficiencies) or of innate immunity (e.g., phagocyte and complement disorders). Although the clinical manifestations of PIDs are highly variable, many disorders involve an increased susceptibility to infection. Early consultation with a clinical immunologist is essential, as timely diagnosis and treatment are imperative for preventing significant disease-associated morbidity...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
John W Hickey, Alyssa K Kosmides, Jonathan P Schneck
T cells are crucial contributors to mounting an effective immune response and increasingly the focus of therapeutic interventions in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity. Translation of current T cell immunotherapies has been hindered by off-target toxicities, limited efficacy, biological variability, and high costs. As T cell therapeutics continue to develop, the application of engineering concepts to control their delivery and presentation will be critical for their success. Here, we outline the engineer's toolbox and contextualize it with the biology of T cells...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Mathew A Huggins, Stephen C Jameson, Sara E Hamilton
Research using mouse models have contributed essential knowledge toward our current understanding of how the human immune system functions. One key difference between humans and typical laboratory mice, however, is exposure to pathogens in their respective environments. Several recent studies have highlighted that these microbial encounters shape the development and functional status of the immune system. For humans, such numerous and unavoidable encounters with viruses, bacteria, and parasites may be a defining factor in generating a healthy and robust immune system, poised to respond to new infections and to vaccination...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Daniel M Altmann
In the 20-or-so years that immunologists have spent describing the mechanisms and functions of regulatory T-cells, a very great deal has been learnt: a T-cell subset once described for the generic ability to harness autoimmunity in vivo or diminish T-cell proliferation in vitro is now appreciated to act on a plethora of cellular pathways using a diverse array of mechanisms. Recent studies have shed new light on basic and applied aspects of Treg function, including T-cell receptor usage, specialist functions of tissue-resident Tregs, and the therapeutic consequences of tuning Treg function up or down for applications in autoimmunity or cancer, respectively...
October 2018: Immunology
Olabola Awosika, Azam Qureshi, Alison Ehrlich, Luz Fonacier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Dermatitis
Daniel M Altmann
Immunology was once a specialty prone to cause dismay or even scepticism among outsiders for its struggles to visualize poorly understood, complex interactions through descriptive models integrating cell types, their factors and functions. This was the age of 'too many soft ideas propped up by too little hard data'. Twenty-first century immunologists have the advantage of being able to marry this rich conceptual legacy to a contemporary toolkit offering such depth of hard data across different 'omics' platforms, that they are faced by the opposite dilemma: 'too much hard data to comprehend or synthesize into a meaningful narrative'...
September 2018: Immunology
Oliver Kindler, Franz Quehenberger, Martin Benesch, Markus G Seidel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The risk of cancer is higher, and its outcome is worse in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) than in members of the general population. Thus, the inter-relationship of malignant diseases with PIDs requires more study. RECENT FINDINGS: Large genetic screens identified a vast number of germline mutations in childhood cancer patient samples. Although TP53 was the most frequent single gene identified as mutated, many PID disorders like DNA repair defects are among the inborn causes of childhood cancer...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Usama Bin Zubair, Haris Majid
Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare central nervous system disorder in which the patient presents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. We herein present a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in which the patient initially presented in the psychiatric department. A 14-year girl was brought with complains of irritability, altered behaviour, abnormal movements, self biting, and decreased sleep for the past 10 days. Her condition deteriorated during the admission and she became mute, immobile, and drowsy. Her baseline investigations and CT scan brain were normal...
August 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Maria J Torres, Tahia D Fernández
Drug hypersensitivity is a worldwide health problem that has gained importance in the last years due to the increased number of patients labelled as drug allergic, especially to antibiotics, and to the onset of allergy to new drugs such as biologicals and chemotherapy. The 8th Drug Hypersensitivity Meeting (DHM), organized by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), took place in Amsterdam in 2018. DHM8 brought together international experts from different disciplines, including allergists, dermatologists, pharmacologists, immunologists, biologists, chemists, toxicologists, etc...
July 25, 2018: Allergy
Sonali R Gnanenthiran, John Yiannikas, Harry C Lowe, David Brieger, Sandhya Limaye
Dual antiplatelet therapy, consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, has been the cornerstone of management in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, reducing stent thromboses and cardiovascular events. Given the pivotal role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease management, patients with aspirin hypersensitivity pose complex clinical challenges. Allergy to aspirin is reported in 1.5-2.6% of patients presenting with cardiac disease. Identification of the subtype of aspirin hypersensitivity will determine suitability for aspirin desensitization, dictate choice of desensitization protocol and inform risk management...
September 2018: American Heart Journal
Marcelo V Aun, Jorge Kalil, Pedro Giavina-Bianchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite many international guidelines have been published in the last 10 years, anaphylaxis continues to be underdiagnosed, undernotified, and undertreated. Anaphylactic reactions in adults and children in emergency departments are frequently not recognized, leading to underutilization of epinephrine, and a higher risk of death. RECENT FINDINGS: A few studies have been recently published showing that educational intervention for both physicians and other healthcare professionals improve diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jamie Lorimer
Historians of science have identified an ecological turn underway in immunology, driven by the mapping of the human microbiome and wider environmentalist anxieties. A figure is emerging of the human as a holobiont, composed of microbes and threatened by both microbial excess and microbial absence. Antimicrobial approaches to germ warfare are being supplemented by probiotic approaches to restoring microbial life. This article examines the political ecology of this probiotic turn in Western health care. It focuses on Necator americanus-a species of human hookworm-and its relations with immunologists...
July 13, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Saba Sheikhbahaei, Roya Sherkat, Nadezhda Camacho-Ordonez, Razie Khoshnevisan, Asadollah Kalantari, Mansour Salehi, Seyed Saman Nazemian, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Christophe Klein
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) who survive to adulthood and willing to have a child mostly are worried whether their disease affects their fertility and/or pregnancy and also if their child would be predisposed to PID. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the outcome of conception, pregnancy and their management in 9 families with definite diagnosis of PID. A chronic granulomatous disease subject with an uneventful pregnancy developed fungal sacral osteomyelitis few weeks after delivery...
July 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
M Cohn
The peptide (P) ligand seen by the TCR is presented by an MHC-encoded restricting element (R). Peptide is viewed from two perspectives, that of the TCR and that of R. The TCR looks at P using an anti-P site that is somatically generated and selected, whereas R looks at P using a binding site that is germline generated and selected. The two segments of P, the one viewed by the TCR, the other viewed by R divide P into two repertoires, Ptcr and Pr that are recognized independently but function cooperatively. The consequences of this for an understanding of TCR specificity and signalling as well as the role of differential processing are analysed...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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