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Usama Bin Zubair, Haris Majid
Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare central nervous system disorder in which the patient presents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. We herein present a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in which the patient initially presented in the psychiatric department. A 14-year girl was brought with complains of irritability, altered behaviour, abnormal movements, self biting, and decreased sleep for the past 10 days. Her condition deteriorated during the admission and she became mute, immobile, and drowsy. Her baseline investigations and CT scan brain were normal...
August 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Maria J Torres, Tahia D Fernández
Drug hypersensitivity is a worldwide health problem that has gained importance in the last years due to the increased number of patients labelled as drug allergic, especially to antibiotics, and to the onset of allergy to new drugs such as biologicals and chemotherapy. The 8th Drug Hypersensitivity Meeting (DHM), organized by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), took place in Amsterdam in 2018. DHM8 brought together international experts from different disciplines, including allergists, dermatologists, pharmacologists, immunologists, biologists, chemists, toxicologists, etc...
July 25, 2018: Allergy
Sonali R Gnanenthiran, John Yiannikas, Harry C Lowe, David Brieger, Sandhya Limaye
Dual antiplatelet therapy, consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, has been the cornerstone of management in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, reducing stent thromboses and cardiovascular events. Given the pivotal role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease management, patients with aspirin hypersensitivity pose complex clinical challenges. Allergy to aspirin is reported in 1.5-2.6% of patients presenting with cardiac disease. Identification of the subtype of aspirin hypersensitivity will determine suitability for aspirin desensitization, dictate choice of desensitization protocol and inform risk management...
July 4, 2018: American Heart Journal
Marcelo V Aun, Jorge Kalil, Pedro Giavina-Bianchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite many international guidelines have been published in the last 10 years, anaphylaxis continues to be underdiagnosed, undernotified, and undertreated. Anaphylactic reactions in adults and children in emergency departments are frequently not recognized, leading to underutilization of epinephrine, and a higher risk of death. RECENT FINDINGS: A few studies have been recently published showing that educational intervention for both physicians and other healthcare professionals improve diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jamie Lorimer
Historians of science have identified an ecological turn underway in immunology, driven by the mapping of the human microbiome and wider environmentalist anxieties. A figure is emerging of the human as a holobiont, composed of microbes and threatened by both microbial excess and microbial absence. Antimicrobial approaches to germ warfare are being supplemented by probiotic approaches to restoring microbial life. This article examines the political ecology of this probiotic turn in Western health care. It focuses on Necator americanus-a species of human hookworm-and its relations with immunologists...
July 13, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Saba Sheikhbahaei, Roya Sherkat, Nadezhda Camacho-Ordonez, Razie Khoshnevisan, Asadollah Kalantari, Mansour Salehi, Seyed Saman Nazemian, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Christophe Klein
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) who survive to adulthood and willing to have a child mostly are worried whether their disease affects their fertility and/or pregnancy and also if their child would be predisposed to PID. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the outcome of conception, pregnancy and their management in 9 families with definite diagnosis of PID. A chronic granulomatous disease subject with an uneventful pregnancy developed fungal sacral osteomyelitis few weeks after delivery...
July 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Melvin Cohn
The peptide (P) ligand seen by the TCR is presented by an MHC-encoded restricting element (R). Peptide is viewed from two perspectives, that of the TCR and that of R. The TCR looks at P using an anti-P site that is somatically generated and selected, whereas R looks at P using a binding site that is germline generated and selected. The two segments of P, the one viewed by the TCR, the other viewed by R divide P into two repertoires, Ptcr and Pr that are recognized independently but function cooperatively. The consequences of this for an understanding of TCR specificity and signaling as well as the role of differential processing are analyzed...
June 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Jan Boddaert, Hans Wils, Samir Kumar-Singh
Currently one of the few molecules that equally excites a neuroscientist, a cancer biologist, an immunologist, and a developmental biologist is progranulin (GRN/Grn)-a pluripotent growth factor that plays key roles in cell survival, proliferation, development, tissue regeneration, inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, the molecular pathways associated with GRN signaling involved in these varied physiological processes are not understood. Gene inactivation has been considered as one of the best methods to delineate the biological role of a protein, and gene targeting is a direct means to disrupt a gene's open reading frame and block its expression, for instance, in a mouse...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xuehua Ke, Abhishek Kavati, Debra Wertz, Qing Huang, Liya Wang, Vincent J Willey, Judith J Stephenson, Benjamin Ortiz, Brandee Paknis, Jonathan A Bernstein, Lisa A Beck
BACKGROUND: Omalizumab is indicated for the management of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in patients aged 12 years or older with persistent hives that are not adequately controlled by H1 antihistamines. While its safety and efficacy in CIU patients have been evaluated in multiple clinical trials, real-world use of omalizaumab in CIU has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To assess demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns of CIU patients who initiated omalizumab to better understand the usage of this agent in CIU management in the real world...
July 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Deborah Dunn-Walters, Catherine Townsend, Emma Sinclair, Alex Stewart
The human immunoglobulin repertoire is a hugely diverse set of sequences that are formed by processes of gene rearrangement, heavy and light chain gene assortment, class switching and somatic hypermutation. Early B cell development produces diverse IgM and IgD B cell receptors on the B cell surface, resulting in a repertoire that can bind many foreign antigens but which has had self-reactive B cells removed. Later antigen-dependent development processes adjust the antigen affinity of the receptor by somatic hypermutation...
July 2018: Immunological Reviews
T M Cook, N J N Harper, L Farmer, T Garcez, K Floss, S Marinho, H Torevell, A Warner, N McGuire, K Ferguson, J Hitchman, W Egner, H Kemp, M Thomas, D N Lucas, S Nasser, S Karanam, K-L Kong, S Farooque, M Bellamy, A McGlennan, S R Moonesinghe
BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is a serious complication for patients and anaesthetists. METHODS: The Sixth National Audit Project (NAP6) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists examined the incidence, predisposing factors, management, and impact of life-threatening perioperative anaphylaxis in the UK. NAP6 included: a national survey of anaesthetists' experiences and perceptions; a national survey of allergy clinics; a registry collecting detailed reports of all Grade 3-5 perioperative anaphylaxis cases for 1 yr; and a national survey of anaesthetic workload and perioperative allergen exposure...
July 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Jan Spacek, Michal Vocka, Irena Netikova, Helena Skalova, Pavel Dundr, Bohuslav Konopasek, Eva Zavadova, Petruzelka Lubos
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of immunosuppressive cytokines TGF beta 1 and VEGF and count of immune cells in peripheral blood in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 22 colorectal patients and 25 healthy controls before the start of treatment. All patients were examined by a clinical immunologist to exclude patients with immune disorders and autoimmune diseases. TGF beta 1 and VEGF were measured by ELISA, and anti-tumor cellular immunity cells (CD4, CD8, B cells, NK cells) were measured by flow cytometry...
June 20, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Kenneth L Hastings
Immunotoxicological research and testing have evolved from early studies of anaphylaxis to the robust and diverse field of immunotoxicology as we know it today. Early studies connecting immune dysfunction with exposure to exogenous agents focused on adverse reactions to immunogenic agents present in vaccines. Over time, work done by immunologists and pathologists leads to descriptions of characteristics of immunogenic agents as well as mechanisms by which anaphylaxis occurs and an understanding of the concept of immunosuppression...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marieke van Ham, Eric Reits, Christina Helbig, Janneke Samsom, Jacques Neefjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Ethan M Shevach
T regulatory (Treg) cells were discovered more than 20 years ago and have remained a topic of intense investigation by immunologists. The initial doubts about their existence were dissipated by the discovery in 2003 of the lineage specific transcription factor Foxp3. In this article, I will discuss some of the questions that I believe still need to be answered before we will be able to fully apply Treg therapy to the clinic. The major issue that remains to be resolved is how they mediate their suppressive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Scott Christley, Walter Scarborough, Eddie Salinas, William H Rounds, Inimary T Toby, John M Fonner, Mikhail K Levin, Min Kim, Stephen A Mock, Christopher Jordan, Jared Ostmeyer, Adam Buntzman, Florian Rubelt, Marco L Davila, Nancy L Monson, Richard H Scheuermann, Lindsay G Cowell
Background: Recent technological advances in immune repertoire sequencing have created tremendous potential for advancing our understanding of adaptive immune response dynamics in various states of health and disease. Immune repertoire sequencing produces large, highly complex data sets, however, which require specialized methods and software tools for their effective analysis and interpretation. Results: VDJServer is a cloud-based analysis portal for immune repertoire sequence data that provide access to a suite of tools for a complete analysis workflow, including modules for preprocessing and quality control of sequence reads, V(D)J gene segment assignment, repertoire characterization, and repertoire comparison...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Johanna Pott, Kevin J Maloy
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) linking polymorphisms in ATG16L1 with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have prompted mucosal immunologists to investigate the functional roles of macroautophagy/autophagy in different cell types in the gut. Here we present a recent study that addressed 2 key questions: in which cell type is autophagy deficiency most detrimental during chronic colitis and what is the functional role of autophagy in those cells? We report that autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) acts to limit intestinal inflammation by protecting them from TNF-induced apoptosis and we discuss the potential implications for IBD treatment...
May 25, 2018: Autophagy
Khashayar Arianpour, Peter F Svider, Brian Yuhan, Zamaan Hooda, Jean Anderson Eloy, Adam J Folbe
BACKGROUND: This analysis explores the increasing heterogeneity of trends in allergy management under the premise that the practice of allergy has undergone significant changes in national economics, healthcare delivery, and treatment options from 2007 to 2016. METHODS: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data were obtained for: (1) temporal trends in allergy immunotherapy injection (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] codes 95115, 95117) and testing (CPT 95004, 95024) from 2007 to 2016; (2) geographic trends; and (3) practitioners administering immunotherapy...
May 21, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Razek Georges Coussa, Fares Antaki, David E Lederer
Purpose: To report the longest ophthalmic follow-up and the associated ocular complications of HLA-A29 negative Birdshot-like chorioretinopathy (BLCR) associated with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Observations: A 22-year-old man known for CVID presented with a 3-month history of decreased visual acuity OS. Funduscopy revealed significant cystoid macular edema OS, as well as optic disk edema and chorioretinal infiltrates without signs of vitritis OU. No infectious, inflammatory or neoplastic etiologies were identified...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Stella Hartono, Michelina Rosa Ippoliti, Maria Mastroianni, Ricardo Torres, Nicholas L Rider
There are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: p. 1050-63, 2013, Semin Gastrointest Dis 8: p. 22-32, 1997, J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018). Using the IUIS document as a reference and cross-checking PubMed ( ), we found that approximately one third of the 354 diseases of impaired immunity have a gastrointestinal component [J Clin Immunol 38: p...
May 13, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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