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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893498/hydrothermal-liquefaction-of-agricultural-and-forestry-wastes-state-of-the-art-review-and-future-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Leichang Cao, Cheng Zhang, Huihui Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Gang Luo, Shicheng Zhang, Jianmin Chen
Hydrothermal liquefaction has been widely applied to obtain bioenergy and high-value chemicals from biomass in the presence of a solvent at moderate to high temperature (200-550°C) and pressure (5-25MPa). This article summarizes and discusses the conversion of agricultural and forestry wastes by hydrothermal liquefaction. The history and development of hydrothermal liquefaction technology for lignocellulosic biomass are briefly introduced. The research status in hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes is critically reviewed, particularly for the effects of liquefaction conditions on bio-oil yield and the decomposition mechanisms of main components in biomass...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890848/urbanization-alters-communities-of-flying-arthropods-in-parks-and-gardens-of-a-medium-sized-city
#2
Edward Lagucki, Justin D Burdine, Kevin E McCluney
Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885598/report-from-the-1st-mycokey-international-conference-global-mycotoxin-reduction-in-the-food-and-feed-chain-held-in-ghent-belgium-11-14-september-2017
#3
Sarah De Saeger, Antonio Logrieco
This conference is organized within the framework of the H2020-Research and Innovation Action-Societal Challenge 2-"Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy challenge"-GA 678781 MycoKey "Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain" [...].
September 8, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857057/health-sector-responses-to-address-the-impacts-of-climate-change-in-nepal
#4
Meghnath Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Raja Ram Pote-Shrestha, David A Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch
Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845775/preserving-and-maintaining-culinary-medicinal-royal-sun-mushroom-agaricus-brasiliensis-agaricomycetes-in-sterile-distilled-water
#5
L M Vargas-Del-Rlo, Sandra Montoya, J C Sepulveda-Arias
Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830360/comparative-mitochondrial-proteomic-physiological-biochemical-and-ultrastructural-profiling-reveal-factors-underpinning-salt-tolerance-in-tetraploid-black-locust-robinia-pseudoacacia-l
#6
Qiuxiang Luo, Mu Peng, Xiuli Zhang, Pei Lei, Ximei Ji, Wahsoon Chow, Fanjuan Meng, Guanyu Sun
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is an important phenomenon in plants because of its roles in agricultural and forestry production as well as in plant tolerance to environmental stresses. Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a polyploid plant and a pioneer tree species due to its wide ranging adaptability to adverse environments. To evaluate the ploidy-dependent differences in leaf mitochondria between diploid and tetraploid black locust under salinity stress, we conducted comparative proteomic, physiological, biochemical and ultrastructural profiling of mitochondria from leaves...
August 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823118/epidemiologic-characteristics-of-scrub-typhus-in-jeju-island-korea
#7
Sung Uk Lee
Purpose: Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Autumn season. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus in Jeju. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2016, total 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus in Jeju. Patient's personal and environmental factors that may relate to scrub typhus had been investigated and retrospectively analyzed...
August 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817639/impacts-of-forest-restoration-on-water-yield-a-systematic-review
#8
Solange Filoso, Maíra Ometto Bezerra, Katherine C B Weiss, Margaret A Palmer
BACKGROUND: Enhancing water provision services is a common target in forest restoration projects worldwide due to growing concerns over freshwater scarcity. However, whether or not forest cover expansion or restoration can improve water provision services is still unclear and highly disputed. PURPOSE: The goal of this review is to provide a balanced and impartial assessment of the impacts of forest restoration and forest cover expansion on water yields as informed by the scientific literature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#9
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813103/nutrition-facts-and-limits-for-micronutrients-in-tree-species-used-in-urban-forestry
#10
Flávia G K Brun, Eleandro J Brun, Dionatan Gerber, Denise A Szymczak, Eduardo K Londero, Evandro A Meyer, Márcio C Navroski
There is a huge lack of researches that evaluate the nutritional limits in tree species used in urban forestry, especially in terms of micronutrients. This study aimed to establish limits and range of micronutrients levels for the proper development of tree species utilized in urban forestry. The study was conducted in the city of Santa Maria-RS-Brazil. Through forest inventory, 23 forest species present in urban forest were selected, and 05 vegetative branches of each tree were collected, in which the contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were analyzed...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805020/evaluation-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-control-strategies-in-dairy-herds-in-hokkaido-japan-using-stochastic-modelling
#11
S Sekiguchi, P Presi, R Omori, K Staerk, M Schuppers, N Isoda, Y Yoshikawa, T Umemura, H Nakayama, Y Fujii, Y Sakoda
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in cattle can result in growth retardation, reduced milk production, reproductive disorders and death. Persistently infected animals are the primary source of infection. In Hokkaido, Japan, all cattle entering shared pastures in summer are vaccinated before movement for disease control. Additionally, these cattle may be tested for BVDV and culled if positive. However, the effectiveness of this control strategy aiming to reduce the number of BVDV-infected animals has not been assessed...
August 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804479/molecular-characterization-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-an-agroforestry-system-reveals-the-predominance-of-funneliformis-spp-associated-with-colocasia-esculenta-and-pterocarpus-officinalis-adult-trees-and-seedlings
#12
Alexandre Geoffroy, Hervé Sanguin, Antoine Galiana, Amadou Bâ
Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783914/nitrogen-and-phosphorus-concentrations-in-discharge-from-drained-peatland-forests-are-increasing
#13
Mika Nieminen, Tapani Sallantaus, Liisa Ukonmaanaho, Tiina M Nieminen, Sakari Sarkkola
The current understanding, based on previous studies, is that increased discharge nutrient concentrations from boreal peatlands drained for forestry return to similar levels as those of pristine peatlands within about 20years after their drainage. As an implicit consequence of this finding, it has been assumed that there are no long-term increasing trends in nutrient exports from these peatlands after the establishment of forestry. We analysed discharge total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentration data from 54 catchments with undrained pristine peatlands and 34 catchments with drained peatlands using data with considerably longer drainage history than in previous studies...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775252/conflict-between-conservation-and-development-cash-forest-encroachment-in-asian-elephant-distributions
#14
Peng Liu, Hui Wen, Franziska K Harich, Changhuan He, Lanxin Wang, Xianming Guo, Jianwei Zhao, Aidong Luo, Hongpei Yang, Xiao Sun, Yang Yu, Shaobo Zheng, Jing Guo, Li Li, Li Zhang
Over the last 4 decades, China has undergone major economic development, resulting in considerable impacts on its wildlife populations and habitats. It is essential to quantify the conflict between development and conservation to assist with policy-making because forestry policies and market trends affected indirectly the distribution of Asian elephants. Here, we mapped the historical distribution of elephants versus human land use. Elephant distributions appear to occur in unbroken natural forests only. However, over the 40-year period, the distribution ranges have become smaller and fragmented, with natural forest area also declining by 16%...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766741/the-role-of-social-license-in-conservation
#15
Dave Kendal, Rebecca M Ford
"Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding" (Zander et al. 2014). Or do they? There is growing acceptance within conservation science that community support for and engagement in ecosystem management programs is likely to lead to better conservation outcomes (Marvier & Wong 2012). However, the language used to characterize relations between conservation and the community is important, and use of the term social license may not always be a useful way to describe this relationship...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759350/usutu-virus-antibodies-in-blood-donors-and-healthy-forestry-workers-in-the-lombardy-region-northern-italy
#16
Elena Percivalle, Davide Sassera, Francesca Rovida, Paola Isernia, Massimo Fabbi, Fausto Baldanti, Piero Marone
Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is known to circulate at low prevalence in Northern Italy, and has been reported to cause overt infection. USUV was first reported in Europe in 2001, but a retrospective study showed that it has been present in Italy at least since 1996. Seroprevalence data for USUV antibodies in sera are being collected in different European countries, showing circulation at low prevalence in human populations. Interestingly, two consecutive studies in Northern Italy indicate a possible increase in the presence of the virus, from 0% to 0...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747170/spatial-prediction-and-validation-of-zoonotic-hazard-through-micro-habitat-properties-where-does-puumala-hantavirus-hole-up
#17
Hussein Khalil, Gert Olsson, Magnus Magnusson, Magnus Evander, Birger Hörnfeldt, Frauke Ecke
BACKGROUND: To predict the risk of infectious diseases originating in wildlife, it is important to identify habitats that allow the co-occurrence of pathogens and their hosts. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is a directly-transmitted RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans, and is carried and transmitted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, bank voles undergo 3-4 year population cycles, during which their spatial distribution varies greatly. METHODS: We used boosted regression trees; a technique inspired by machine learning, on a 10 - year time-series (fall 2003-2013) to develop a spatial predictive model assessing seasonal PUUV hazard using micro-habitat variables in a landscape heavily modified by forestry...
July 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732022/global-economic-trade-offs-between-wild-nature-and-tropical-agriculture
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Luis R Carrasco, Edward L Webb, William S Symes, Lian P Koh, Navjot S Sodhi
Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726911/feeding-a-sustainable-chemical-industry-do-we-have-the-bioproducts-cart-before-the-feedstocks-horse
#19
Bruce E Dale
A sustainable chemical industry cannot exist at scale without both sustainable feedstocks and feedstock supply chains to provide the raw materials. However, most current research focus is on producing the sustainable chemicals and materials. Little attention is given to how and by whom sustainable feedstocks will be supplied. In effect, we have put the bioproducts cart before the sustainable feedstocks horse. For example, bulky, unstable, non-commodity feedstocks such as crop residues probably cannot supply a large-scale sustainable industry...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725366/vegetation-structure-and-photosynthesis-respond-rapidly-to-restoration-in-young-coastal-fens
#20
Anna M Laine, Anne Tolvanen, Lauri Mehtätalo, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Young coastal fens are rare ecosystems in the first stages of peatland succession. Their drainage compromises their successional development toward future carbon (C) reservoirs. We present the first study on the success of hydrological restoration of young fens. We carried out vegetation surveys at six young fens that represent undrained, drained, and restored management categories in the Finnish land uplift coast before and after restoration. We measured plant level carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) from 17 most common plant species present at the sites...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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