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José Antonio Hernández-Aguilar, Héctor Sergio Cortina-Villar, Luis Enrique García-Barrios, Miguel Ángel Castillo-Santiago
Many studies have considered community-based forestry enterprises to be the best option for development of rural Mexican communities with forests. While some of Mexico's rural communities with forests receive significant economic and social benefits from having a community forestry enterprise, the majority have not formed such enterprises. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe factors limiting the formation of community forestry enterprise in rural communities with temperate forests in the Southern Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Management
S Jiang, Y F Duan, X H Pang, Y Bi, J Wang, L Y Zhao, S A Yin, Z Y Yang
Objective: To study the prevalence of delayed onset of lactation (later than 3 days) in lactating women in China and to analyze its influencing factors. Methods: Data were extracted from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance-Mothers, from mothers with children under 2 years of age (in 2013). A total of 11 178 women who were lactating or had lactated were selected from 55 counties of 30 provinces (excluding the Tibet Autonomous Region) in China, using the multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Achille Mauri, Giovanni Strona, Jesús San-Miguel-Ayanz
We present EU-Forest, a dataset that integrates and extends by almost one order of magnitude the publicly available information on European tree species distribution. The core of our dataset (~96% of the occurrence records) came from an unpublished, large database harmonising forest plot surveys from National Forest Inventories on an INSPIRE-compliant 1 km×1 km grid. These new data can potentially benefit several disciplines, including forestry, biodiversity conservation, palaeoecology, plant ecology, the bioeconomy, and pest management...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Data
Mashallah Aghilinejad, Elahe Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Zahra Imanizade, Hossein Danesh
BACKGROUND: Cancer has a high mortality rate in both developing and developed countries. 11%-15% of cancers are attributable to occupational risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine if specific occupational classes, based on the International Standard for Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08), are risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. METHODS: In this case-control study, 834 cancer patients were interviewed by a single physician...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Hao Li, Michael T Bennett, Xuemei Jiang, Kebin Zhang, Xiaohui Yang
Many payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs, such as the Slope Land Conversion Program (SLCP), are passive and require full participation by impacted households. In contrast, this study considers the alternative of "active and incomplete" participation in PES programs, in which participants are not obliged to contract their own land, and have the right to select into the program or not. This type of program has been popular over the last decade in China; however, there have been few studies on the characteristics of willingness to participate and implementation...
2017: PloS One
Anna Kostiukow, Elżbieta Kaluga, Włodzimierz Samborski, Elżbieta Rostkowska
INTRODUCTION: The study examines the problem of dominant arm function loss in rural adult patients due to work-related accidents. The types of risks involved in farmyard work include falling from a height, manually moving loads, overturning/accident whilst driving an agricultural tractor, noise and vibration, use of pesticides, and the risk of being cut or injured. The study focuses on adaptation of the non-dominant arm. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the study was evaluation of visual-motor coordination on the basis of performance of the non-dominant hand in patients after the loss of function of the dominant arm...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Thomas J Habib, Scott Heckbert, Jeffrey J Wilson, Andrew J K Vandenbroeck, Jerome Cranston, Daniel R Farr
The science of ecosystem service (ES) mapping has become increasingly sophisticated over the past 20 years, and examples of successfully integrating ES into management decisions at national and sub-national scales have begun to emerge. However, increasing model sophistication and accuracy-and therefore complexity-may trade-off with ease of use and applicability to real-world decision-making contexts, so it is vital to incorporate the lessons learned from implementation efforts into new model development. Using successful implementation efforts for guidance, we developed an integrated ES modelling system to quantify several ecosystem services: forest timber production and carbon storage, water purification, pollination, and biodiversity...
2016: PeerJ
Deepa S Pureswaran, Rob Johns, Stephen B Heard, Dan Quiring
Three main hypotheses have been postulated over the past century to explain the outbreaking population dynamics of eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). The Silviculture Hypothesis first arose in the 1920s, with the idea that outbreaks were driven by forestry practices favoring susceptible softwood species. In the 1960s, it was proposed that populations were governed by Multiple Equilibria, with warm weather conditions releasing low-density populations from the regulatory control of natural enemies...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
Casparus J Crous, Treena I Burgess, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, Bernard Slippers, Michael J Wingfield
Non-native trees have become dominant components of many landscapes, including urban ecosystems, commercial forestry plantations, fruit orchards, and as invasives in natural ecosystems. Often, these trees have been separated from their natural enemies (i.e. insects and pathogens) leading to ecological disequilibrium, that is, the immediate breakdown of historically co-evolved interactions once introduced into novel environments. Long-established, non-native tree plantations provide useful experiments to explore the dimensions of such ecological disequilibria...
December 23, 2016: AoB Plants
Chen-Wei Chang, Colin Webb
Lignocellulosic materials, mostly from agricultural and forestry residues, provide a potential renewable resource for sustainable biorefineries. Reducing sugars can be produced only after a pre-treatment stage, which normally involves chemicals but can be biological. In this case, two steps are usually necessary: solid-state cultivation of fungi for deconstruction, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulolytic enzymes. In this research, the utilisation of solid-state bioprocessing using the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum was implemented as a simultaneous microbial pretreatment and in-situ enzyme production method for fungal autolysis and further enzyme hydrolysis of fermented solids...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Dong Zhang, Ming Zhang, Chao Wang, Thomas Pape
An updated taxonomic catalog of all 32 species of the subfamily Paramacronychiinae so far known to occur in China is presented. The catalog includes data on type locality, references, distribution and information on type material for nominal species with a Chinese type locality. Additional specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Museum of Beijing Forestry University were examined. The genus Wohlfahrtiodes Villeneuve, 1910 and the species Wohlfahrtiodes marzinowskyi Rohdendorf, 1962 are new records from China...
December 18, 2016: Zootaxa
Richard Whittet, Joan Cottrell, Stephen Cavers, Mireia Pecurul, Richard Ennos
In recent years, numerous articles have addressed management strategies aimed at assisting forests to adapt to climate change. However, these seldom take into account the practical and economic implications of implementing these strategies, notably, supply of forest plants and seed. Using semi-structured interviews with practitioners involved in the plant and seed supply chain in Great Britain, we highlight a series of practical and economic bottlenecks commonly encountered in the supply of locally sourced seed and domestically produced planting stock for native woodland and hedging markets...
December 15, 2016: Land Use Policy
Nicholas T Homziak, Jesse W Breinholt, Akito Y Kawahara
Erebidae is one of the most diverse families within the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), with nearly 25,000 described species. The nominal subfamily Erebinae is among the most species rich and taxonomically complex. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics, where much of the fauna remains undescribed. Species in this subfamily feed on a broad range of host plants, with associated radiations on grasses and legumes, and some species are pests of agriculture and forestry. The Erebinae, as defined today, comprises a large portion of the former noctuid subfamily Catocalinae...
November 10, 2016: Zootaxa
Rocío Belinchón, Phil J Harrison, Louise Mair, Gergely Várkonyi, Tord Snäll
Understanding the relative importance of different ecological processes on the metapopulation dynamics of species is the basis for accurately forecasting metapopulation size in fragmented landscapes. Successful local colonization depends on both species dispersal range and how local habitat conditions affect establishment success. Moreover, there is limited understanding of the effects of different spatio-temporal landscape properties on future metapopulation size. We test which factors drive the future metapopulation size of the epiphytic model lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria in a managed forest landscape...
December 16, 2016: Ecology
Miodrag Stevanović, Alexander Popp, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Florian Humpenöder, Christoph Müller, Isabelle Weindl, Jan Philipp Dietrich, Hermann Lotze-Campen, Ulrich Kreidenweis, Susanne Rolinski, Anne Biewald, Xiaoxi Wang
The land use sector of agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) plays a central role in ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. Yet, mitigation policies in agriculture may be in conflict with food security related targets. Using a global agro-economic model, we analyze the impacts on food prices under mitigation policies targeting either incentives for producers (e.g., through taxes) or consumer preferences (e.g., through education programs). Despite having a similar reduction potential of 43-44% in 2100, the two types of policy instruments result in opposite outcomes for food prices...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rachadaporn Benchawattananon
Dansai District is located in Loei Province, Northeast Thailand, rich in natural resources and composes of many kinds of forests, such as evergreen forests and mixed-deciduous forests. The objectives of the study are to determine the diversity of mushrooms and investigate the values of the forest influencing the community way of life and exploration of problems and guidelines for developing the forest along with sufficiency economy theory. The study includes compilation of data from past studies, semi-structured interview with the local communities and discussion with focus group...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Sarah Mansfield
The expansion of eucalypt forestry worldwide has been accompanied by accidental and deliberate introductions of Australian insects associated with eucalypts. Local insect species have also colonized introduced eucalypts in many regions. This situation provides a unique opportunity to observe the development of new insect communities across trophic levels. Here the history of Australian invaders and native colonizers on eucalypts outside Australia is reviewed from the perspective of herbivore guilds: leaf chewers, sap suckers, wood borers, gall formers, termites...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Glenn D Wright, Krister P Andersson, Clark C Gibson, Tom P Evans
Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Martha V T Cely, Marco A Siviero, Janaina Emiliano, Flávia R Spago, Vanessa F Freitas, André R Barazetti, Erika T Goya, Gustavo de Souza Lamberti, Igor M O Dos Santos, Admilton G De Oliveira, Galdino Andrade
Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pascal Rousse, Gavin R Broad, Simon van Noort
We describe Genaemirum phagocossorum Rousse, Broad & van Noort, sp. n., a new ichneumonine parasitoid wasp reared from Eucalyptus nitens logs infested by the cossid moth Coryphodema tristis, which is considered a major pest of forestry and food crops in South Africa. This is the first plausible host association for the genus, and fits with the host association predictions of Heinrich. Two further undescribed species were found in the collections of the Natural History Museum in London and are described as Genaemirum phacochoerus Broad, Rousse & van Noort, sp...
2016: ZooKeys
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