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Mats Eriksson, Lotta Samuelson, Linnéa Jägrud, Eskil Mattsson, Thorsten Celander, Anders Malmer, Klas Bengtsson, Olof Johansson, Nicolai Schaaf, Ola Svending, Anna Tengberg
A growing world population and rapid expansion of cities increase the pressure on basic resources such as water, food and energy. To safeguard the provision of these resources, restoration and sustainable management of landscapes is pivotal, including sustainable forest and water management. Sustainable forest management includes forest conservation, restoration, forestry and agroforestry practices. Interlinkages between forests and water are fundamental to moderate water budgets, stabilize runoff, reduce erosion and improve biodiversity and water quality...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Management
W Brad Smith, Rubí Angélica Cuenca Lara, Carina Edith Delgado Caballero, Carlos Isaías Godínez Valdivia, Joseph S Kapron, Juan Carlos Leyva Reyes, Carmen Lourdes Meneses Tovar, Patrick D Miles, Sonja N Oswalt, Mayra Ramírez Salgado, Xilong Alex Song, Graham Stinson, Sergio Armando Villela Gaytán
Forests cannot be managed sustainably without reliable data to inform decisions. National Forest Inventories (NFI) tend to report national statistics, with sub-national stratification based on domestic ecological classification systems. It is becoming increasingly important to be able to report statistics on ecosystems that span international borders, as global change and globalization expand stakeholders' spheres of concern. The state of a transnational ecosystem can only be properly assessed by examining the entire ecosystem...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
I Kelnarova, E Jendek, V V Grebennikov, L Bocak
All more than 3000 species of Agrilus beetles are phytophagous and some cause economically significant damage to trees and shrubs. Facilitated by international trade, Agrilus species regularly invade new countries and continents. This necessitates a rapid identification of Agrilus species, as the first step for subsequent protective measures. This study provides the first DNA reference library for ~100 Agrilus species from the Northern Hemisphere based on three mitochondrial markers: cox1-5' (DNA barcode fragment), cox1-3', and rrnL...
May 22, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Carmen Maresca, Eleonora Scoccia, Annalisa Dettori, Andrea Felici, Roberta Guarcini, Stefano Petrini, Andrea Quaglia, Giovanni Filippini
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
I Labunska, V Kashparov, S Levchuk, D Santillo, P Johnston, S Polishchuk, N Lazarev, Y Khomutinin
This study reports for the first time temporal trends for the period of 2011-2016 in 137 Cs content in cow's milk originating from private farms and households of 14 settlements located in the territories of the Rivne region, Ukraine. These areas are still radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in 1986. In 2016, the average 137 Cs activity concentration in milk exceeded the Ukrainian Permissible Level (PL) for adults of 100 Bq/l in samples from 6 settlements and the PL for children of 40 Bq/l in 8 settlements, reaching activity concentration of around 500 Bq/l in some samples...
May 15, 2018: Environment International
Fangyan Liu, Ruidong Yu, Xiaodi Ji, Minghui Guo
The main aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effects of time on hydrothermal carbonization of holocellulose coming from the forestry residues. Based on the results, reaction time has a significant impact on the structural, chemical, fuel characteristics and combustion behavior of hydrochars. With increasing reaction time, holocellulose is gradually converted into the amorphous hydrochars with aromatic structure and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups; the O/C and H/C decrease from 0...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Giacomo Grassi, Roberto Pilli, Jo House, Sandro Federici, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances...
May 17, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Yueqiang Yu, Yanling Guo, Ting Jiang, Jian Li, Kaiyi Jiang, Hui Zhang, Yu Zhuang
Agricultural and forestry wastes are used as materials for selective laser sintering (SLS) to alleviate resource shortage, reduce the pollution of the environment, lower the cost of materials, and improve the accuracy of parts produced by SLS. However, the mechanical properties of wood⁻plastic parts are poor, and thus they cannot be applied widely. In order to improve the mechanical properties of wood⁻plastic parts, a new type of walnut shell polymer composite (WSPC) was prepared by a polymer mixing method and was used to produce parts via SLS...
May 11, 2018: Materials
Rie Tanaka, Mayumi Tsuji, Ayako Senju, Koichi Kusuhara, Toshihiro Kawamoto
Studies examining workers' diet according to smaller occupational groups within "large occupational categories" are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the potential differences in workers' diets based on the classification of workers into smaller occupational groups that comprise "large occupational categories". The subjects of this study were working fathers who had participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study (N = 38,656). Energy and nutrient intake were calculated based on data collected from the Food Frequency Questionnaire...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Pooja Sharma, James Humphreys, Nicholas M Holden
Abolition of the milk quota in the European Union and favourable market conditions have stimulated the expansion of the dairy sector in Ireland, causing more milk to be produced from poorly drained land. This work evaluated the environmental impacts of alternative agricultural uses for poorly drained farm land in Ireland using life cycle assessment (LCA). The avoided burden of the displaced product was used to calculate the net environmental consequences in the context of regional or global markets. The impact categories evaluated were climate change, eutrophication and acidification, all expressed per hectare of land for the alternative land uses, which were pasture-based milk, suckler beef and lowland sheep production and coniferous forestry...
May 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sungjin Park, Pil Kyun Jung, Myungsup Choi, Hongdeok Seok, Hansol Kim, Sung-Soo Oh, Sang-Baek Koh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between occupational clusters and allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: The study was based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES: 2007-2015). This study included 46,965 individuals: 20,491 men and 26,474 women. AR was defined as having been diagnosed by a physician. Occupations were classified according to occupational characteristics and skill levels into white (chief executives, senior officials, legislators, managers, professionals, and technicians), pink (clerks, clerical support workers, services and sales workers), blue (craft and related trades workers, drivers, plant and machine operators, assemblers, elementary occupation workers), and green (skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers) categories...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
Enass Y A Salih, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Anna-Maija Lampi, Markku Kanninen, Olavi Luukkanen, Marketta Sipi, Mari Lehtonen, Heikki Vuorela, Pia Fyhrquist
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels, (Sudanese Arabic name: Darout الدروت) and Terminalia brownii Fresen (Sudanese Arabic name: Alshaf ألشاف) (Combretaceae) are used in Sudanese traditional folk medicine and in other African countries for treatment of infectious diseases, TB and its symptoms, such as cough, bronchitis and chest pain. AIM OF STUDY: Because of the frequent use of T. laxiflora and T. brownii in African traditional medicine and due to the absence of studies regarding their antimycobacterial potential there was a need to screen extracts of T...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tim Vlaar, Sofiane Kab, Yannick Schwaab, Nadine Fréry, Alexis Elbaz, Frédéric Moisan
In order to identify working environments at risk for Parkinson's disease (PD), we investigated the relation between the importance of industry sectors, used as a surrogate for occupational exposures, and PD incidence in French cantons. The number of incident PD cases (2010-2014) in 3689 cantons of metropolitan France was determined using drug claims from French National Health Insurance databases. The proportions of workers in 38 industry sectors in 2006 were calculated for each canton. Associations between the proportions of workers in industry sectors and PD age/sex-standardized incidence ratios were examined using incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated with multilevel negative binomial regressions with a random intercept at the canton-level and adjusted for smoking, deprivation index, and density of neurologists...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, Jan E Conn, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
The precise role that deforestation for agricultural settlements and commercial forest products plays in promoting or inhibiting malaria incidence in Amazonian Brazil is controversial. Using publically available databases, we analyzed temporal malaria incidence (2009-2015) in municipalities of nine Amazonian states in relation to ecologically defined variables: (i) deforestation (rate of forest clearing over time); (ii) degraded forest (degree of human disturbance and openness of forest canopy for logging) and (iii) impacted forest (sum of deforested and degraded forest patches)...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hui Xie, Dong Zhang, Guotao Mao, Fengqin Wang, Andong Song
Biomass is a very important renewable energy and plays an important role in the energy structure of China. Here, the role of forestry waste in producing energy in China was analyzed and the availability of forestry waste for biofuel production, theoretically collectable amounts of forest biomass, and density of forestry waste were assessed. Agricultural and forestry waste are important biomass resources. The potential for using forestry waste as a low cost substrate for producing fuel ethanol using existing forestry resources and techniques was analyzed, and the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol in different Chinese provinces was assessed using the specific situation for each province...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Kai Yang, Zhi-Wei Fu, Yun-Feng Cao, Sai-Nan Li, Zuo Du, Xiao-Yu Sun, Yong-Zhe Liu, Kun Yang, Zhong-Ze Fang
Chlorophenols (CPs) are important pollutants extensively utilized in industry, agriculture and forestry. The present study aims to determine the inhibition of CPs on the activity of the important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). 100 μM of fourteen CPs were used for preliminary screening using in vitro incubation. Furthermore, half inhibition concentration (IC50 ) and inhibition kinetics were determined for CPs with significant inhibition towards UGT isoforms...
April 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Amanda D Roe, Misha Demidovich, John Dedes
Laboratory insect colonies are an essential part of experimental insect science. Formalized naming of laboratory stocks is standard practice in model organisms such as mice and fruit flies, but crucial details such as colony origin and standard names are often lacking in nonmodel systems. For institutions involved in rearing multiple nonmodel species, effective monitoring requires standardized naming and nomenclature, from establishment to production, distribution, and publication. Insect rearing has been the cornerstone of the Insect Production and Quarantine Laboratories (IPQL) at the Great Lakes Forestry Centre for over 70 yr, but the histories of the insect colonies in this facility have not been adequately documented and formal, standardized names do not exist...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Mathilde De Keukeleire, Annie Robert, Victor Luyasu, Benoît Kabamba, Sophie O Vanwambeke
BACKGROUND: As forest is the preferred environment for ticks, forestry workers are exposed to tick bites and tick-borne diseases. We assessed the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) antibodies and investigated, using an integrated landscape approach, the individual and environmental factors associated with the seroprevalence of Bb in Belgian forestry workers, a high-risk group in Belgium. METHODS: A group of 310 Belgian forest workers was examined to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia IgG antibodies...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Chiti Tommaso, Blasi Emanuele, Pellis Guido, Perugini Lucia, Chiriacò Maria Vincenza, Valentini Riccardo
To evaluate the mitigation potential provided by the SOC pool, we investigated the impact of woody encroachment in the 0-30 cm depth of mineral soil across a natural succession from abandoned pastures and croplands to broadleaves forests on the central Apennine in Italy. In parallel, to assess the effect of the land use change (LUC) from cropland to pasture, a series of pastures established on former agricultural sites, abandoned at different time in the past, were also investigated. Our results show that woody encroachment on former pastures and croplands contributes largely to mitigate climate change, with an increase of the original SOC stock of 45% (40...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Iain Brown
Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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