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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330699/accounting-of-ghg-emissions-and-removals-from-forest-management-a-long-road-from-kyoto-to-paris
#1
REVIEW
Joachim H A Krug
BACKGROUND: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others...
January 3, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324794/real-time-positioning-in-logging-effects-of-forest-stand-characteristics-topography-and-line-of-sight-obstructions-on-gnss-rf-transponder-accuracy-and-radio-signal-propagation
#2
Eloise G Zimbelman, Robert F Keefe
Real-time positioning on mobile devices using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology paired with radio frequency (RF) transmission (GNSS-RF) may help to improve safety on logging operations by increasing situational awareness. However, GNSS positional accuracy for ground workers in motion may be reduced by multipath error, satellite signal obstruction, or other factors. Radio propagation of GNSS locations may also be impacted due to line-of-sight (LOS) obstruction in remote, forested areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and other LOS obstructions on the GNSS accuracy and radio signal propagation quality of multiple Raveon Atlas PT GNSS-RF transponders functioning as a network in a range of forest conditions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324727/frequent-exertion-and-frequent-standing-at-work-by-industry-and-occupation-group-united-states-2015
#3
Taylor M Shockey, Sara E Luckhaupt, Matthew R Groenewold, Ming-Lun Lu
Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3)...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321910/why-does-oriental-arborvitae-grow-better-when-mixed-with-black-locust-insight-on-nutrient-cycling
#4
Xuedong Chen, Ming Tang, Xinlu Zhang, Chantal Hamel, Wei Li, Min Sheng
To identify why tree growth differs by afforestation type is a matter of prime concern in forestry. A study was conducted to determine why oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) grows better in the presence of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) than in monoculture. Different types of stands (i.e., monocultures and mixture of black locust and oriental arborvitae, and native grassland as a control) were selected in the Loess Plateau, China. The height and diameter at breast height of each tree species were measured, and soil, shoot, and root samples were sampled...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321628/realizing-mitigation-efficiency-of-european-commercial-forests-by-climate-smart-forestry
#5
Rasoul Yousefpour, Andrey Lessa Derci Augustynczik, Christopher P O Reyer, Petra Lasch-Born, Felicitas Suckow, Marc Hanewinkel
European temperate and boreal forests sequester up to 12% of Europe's annual carbon emissions. Forest carbon density can be manipulated through management to maximize its climate mitigation potential, and fast-growing tree species may contribute the most to Climate Smart Forestry (CSF) compared to slow-growing hardwoods. This type of CSF takes into account not only forest resource potentials in sequestering carbon, but also the economic impact of regional forest products and discounts both variables over time...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316856/food-functionality-research-as-a-new-national-project-in-special-reference-to-improvement-of-cognitive-and-locomotive-abilities
#6
Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka
In Japan, where a super-aging society is realized, we are most concerned about healthy longevity, which would ascertain the wellness of people by improving their quality of life (QOL). In 2014, the Cabinet Office proposed a strategic innovation promotion programme, launching a national project for the development of the agricultural-forestry-fisheries food products with new functionalities for the next generation. In addition to focusing on a conventional prevention of lifestyle-associated metabolic syndromes, the project targets the scientific evidence of the activation of brain cognitive ability and the improvement of bodily locomotive function...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315732/ultrastructure-and-distribution-of-sensilla-on-the-maxillary-and-labial-palps-of-chlorophorus-caragana-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#7
Yan-Ru Zhang, Li-Li Ren, Lu Zhang, Rong Wang, Yang Yu, Peng-Fei Lu, You-Qing Luo
Chlorophorus caragana is a species of long-horned beetle that damages Caragana davazamcii Sancz. (Fabales: Papilionaceae) bushes in desert areas in China. The beetles cause substantial damage to local forestry plantations and the environment. Sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of coleopterans a allow the insects to recognize their host plants. We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the ultrastructure, distribution, and abundance of various sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of C...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306134/production-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-from-starch-rich-food-waste-catalyzed-by-sulfonated-biochar
#8
Leichang Cao, Iris K M Yu, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Lei Wang, Xinni Xiong, Shicheng Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Eilhann E Kwon, Hocheol Song, Chi Sun Poon
Sulfonated biochar derived from forestry wood waste was employed for the catalytic conversion of starch-rich food waste (e.g., bread) into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Chemical and physical properties of catalyst were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, and elemental analysis. The conversion of HMF was investigated via controlling the reaction parameters such as catalyst loading, temperature, and reaction time...
December 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299291/regional-patterns-of-increasing-swiss-needle-cast-impacts-on-douglas-fir-growth-with-warming-temperatures
#9
E Henry Lee, Peter A Beedlow, Ronald S Waschmann, David T Tingey, Steven Cline, Michael Bollman, Charlotte Wickham, Cailie Carlile
The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) to the Coast Range of Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al., Plant Disease, 2000, 84, 773; Rosso & Hansen, Phytopathology, 2003, 93, 790; Shaw, et al., Journal of Forestry, 2011, 109, 109). However, knowledge remains limited on the history and spatial distribution of SNC impacts in the PNW. We reconstructed the history of SNC impacts on mature Douglas-fir trees based on tree-ring width chronologies from western Oregon...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298935/coupling-movement-and-landscape-ecology-for-animal-conservation-in-production-landscapes
#10
REVIEW
Tim S Doherty, Don A Driscoll
Habitat conversion in production landscapes is among the greatest threats to biodiversity, not least because it can disrupt animal movement. Using the movement ecology framework, we review animal movement in production landscapes, including areas managed for agriculture and forestry. We consider internal and external drivers of altered animal movement and how this affects navigation and motion capacities and population dynamics. Conventional management approaches in fragmented landscapes focus on promoting connectivity using structural changes in the landscape...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289843/the-relationship-between-urban-forests-and-race-a-meta-analysis
#11
Shannon Lea Watkins, Ed Gerrish
There is ample evidence that urban trees benefit the physical, mental, and social health of urban residents. The environmental justice hypothesis posits that environmental amenities are inequitably low in poor and minority communities, and predicts these communities experience fewer urban environmental benefits. Some previous research has found that urban forest cover is inequitably distributed by race, though other studies have found no relationship or negative inequity. These conflicting results and the single-city nature of the current literature suggest a need for a research synthesis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287742/investigating-real-time-monitoring-of-fatigue-indicators-of-new-zealand-forestry-workers
#12
Judy Bowen, Annika Hinze, Christopher Griffiths
The New Zealand forestry industry has one of the highest fatality and injury rates of any industrial sector in the country. Worker fatigue has been identified as one of the main contributing factors. Currently no independent and objective large data source is available that might support an analysis of this, or provide the basis for ongoing monitoring to further investigate. In order to successfully manage fatigue in the forestry workplace, we must identify suitable ways of detecting it. Industry partners are increasingly looking at monitoring solutions (particularly lightweight, wearable technology) that aim to measure worker activities and physiological metrics in order to determine if they are fatigued...
December 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287211/chemical-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-novel-chemical-treatment-methods-for-acid-sulfate-soils
#13
Eva Högfors-Rönnholm, Stephan Christel, Krister Dalhem, Tom Lillhonga, Sten Engblom, Peter Österholm, Mark Dopson
Naturally occurring sulfide rich deposits are common along the northern Baltic Sea coast that when exposed to air, release large amounts of acid and metals into receiving water bodies. This causes severe environmental implications for agriculture, forestry, and building of infrastructure. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of ultrafine-grained calcium carbonate and peat (both separately and in combination) to mitigate acid and metal release. The experiments were carried out aerobically that mimicked summer conditions when the groundwater level is low and acid sulfate soils are exposed to oxygen, and anaerobically that is similar to autumn to spring conditions...
December 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285562/phenological-cues-intrinsic-in-indigenous-knowledge-systems-for-forecasting-seasonal-climate-in-the-delta-state-of-nigeria
#14
Jennifer M Fitchett, Eromose Ebhuoma
Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260268/computation-of-the-inverse-additive-relationship-matrix-for-autopolyploid-and-multiple-ploidy-populations
#15
Matthew G Hamilton, Richard J Kerr
Rules to generate the inverse additive relationship matrix (A -1 ) are defined to enable the adoption restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) in autopolyploid populations with multiple ploidy levels. Many important agronomic, horticultural, ornamental, forestry, and aquaculture species are autopolyploids. However, the adoption of restricted maximum likelihood (REML), for estimating co/variance components, and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), for predicting breeding values, has been hampered in autopolyploid breeding by the absence of an appropriate means of generating the inverse additive relationship matrix (A -1 )...
December 19, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245711/a-new-species-of-the-genus-i-takydromus-i-squamata-lacertidae-from-tianjingshan-forestry-station-northern-guangdong-china
#16
Ying-Yong Wang, Shi-Ping Gong, Peng Liu, Xin Wang
Many early descriptions of species of the genus Takydromus were based on limited diagnostic characteristics. This has caused considerable challenges in accurate species identification, meaning that a number of cryptic species have been erroneously identified as known species, resulting in substantially underestimated species diversity. We have integrated evidence from morphology and DNA sequence data to describe a new species of the Asian Grass Lizard, Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov., based on two specimens from Tianjingshan Forestry Station, Ruyuan County, Guangdong Province, China...
October 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240920/an-appeal-for-a-more-evidence-based-approach-to-biopesticide-safety-in-the-eu
#17
Ben Raymond, Brian A Federici
EFSA responded to our perspective article on the safe use of the insect pathogen Bacillus thrurigiensis (Bt). In doing so they admitted that there is no direct evidence to suggest that B. thuringiensis can cause diarrhoea. They nevertheless continue to repeat the assertion that Bt cannot be distinguished from Bacillus cereus, even though nearly all Bt strains, and certainly all biopesticide strains, can be distinguished from B. cereus using multi-locus sequencing typing. EFSA also continue to repeat the unsupported and speculative hypothesis that Bt strains could be capable of causing cryptic infections in humans...
December 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237832/the-partitivirus-hetpv13-an1-mediates-severe-growth-debilitation-and-major-alterations-in-the-gene-expression-of-a-fungal-forest-pathogen
#18
Eeva J Vainio, Jaana Jurvansuu, Rafiqul Hyder, Muhammad Kashif, Tuula Piri, Tero Tuomivirta, Anna Poimala, Ping Xu, Salla Mäkelä, Dina Nitisa, Jarkko Hantula
The fungal genus Heterobasidion includes some of the most devastating conifer pathogens in the Boreal forest region. In this study we showed that the alphapartitivirus Heterobasidion partitivirus 13 from H. annosum (HetPV13-an1) is the main causal agent of severe phenotypic debilitation in the host fungus. Based on RNA sequencing using isogenic virus-infected and cured fungal strains, HetPV13-an1 affected the transcription of 683 genes, from which 60% were downregulated and 40% upregulated. Alterations observed in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism suggest that the virus causes a state of starvation, which is compensated for by alternative synthesis routes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236752/the-combined-fatigue-effects-of-sequential-exposure-to-seated-whole-body-vibration-and-physical-mental-or-concurrent-work-demands
#19
Marcus Yung, Angelica E Lang, Jamie Stobart, Aaron M Kociolek, Stephan Milosavljevic, Catherine Trask
Many occupations in agriculture, construction, transportation, and forestry are non-routine, involving non-cyclical tasks, both discretionary and non-discretionary work breaks, and a mix of work activities. Workers in these industries are exposed to seated whole body vibration (WBV) and tasks consisting of physical, mental, or a combination of demands. Risk assessment tools for non-routinized jobs have emerged but there remains a need to understand the combined effects of different work demands to improve risk assessment methods and ultimately inform ergonomists and workers on optimum work arrangement and scheduling strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235213/models-meet-data-challenges-and-opportunities-in-implementing-land-management-in-earth-system-models
#20
REVIEW
Julia Pongratz, Han Dolman, Axel Don, Karl-Heinz Erb, Richard Fuchs, Martin Herold, Chris Jones, Tobias Kuemmerle, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Patrick Meyfroidt, Kim Naudts
As the applications of Earth system models (ESMs) move from general climate projections toward questions of mitigation and adaptation, the inclusion of land management practices in these models becomes crucial. We carried out a survey among modeling groups to show an evolution from models able only to deal with land-cover change to more sophisticated approaches that allow also for the partial integration of land management changes. For the longer term a comprehensive land management representation can be anticipated for all major models...
December 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
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