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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732022/global-economic-trade-offs-between-wild-nature-and-tropical-agriculture
#1
Luis R Carrasco, Edward L Webb, William S Symes, Lian P Koh, Navjot S Sodhi
Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726911/feeding-a-sustainable-chemical-industry-do-we-have-the-bioproducts-cart-before-the-feedstocks-horse
#2
Bruce E Dale
A sustainable chemical industry cannot exist at scale without both sustainable feedstocks and feedstock supply chains to provide the raw materials. However, most current research focus is on producing the sustainable chemicals and materials. Little attention is given to how and by whom sustainable feedstocks will be supplied. In effect, we have put the bioproducts cart before the sustainable feedstocks horse. For example, bulky, unstable, non-commodity feedstocks such as crop residues probably cannot supply a large-scale sustainable industry...
July 20, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725366/vegetation-structure-and-photosynthesis-respond-rapidly-to-restoration-in-young-coastal-fens
#3
Anna M Laine, Anne Tolvanen, Lauri Mehtätalo, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Young coastal fens are rare ecosystems in the first stages of peatland succession. Their drainage compromises their successional development toward future carbon (C) reservoirs. We present the first study on the success of hydrological restoration of young fens. We carried out vegetation surveys at six young fens that represent undrained, drained, and restored management categories in the Finnish land uplift coast before and after restoration. We measured plant level carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) from 17 most common plant species present at the sites...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725360/a-geometrical-model-for-testing-bilateral-symmetry-of-bamboo-leaf-with-a-simplified-gielis-equation
#4
Shuyan Lin, Li Zhang, Gadi V P Reddy, Cang Hui, Johan Gielis, Yulong Ding, Peijian Shi
The size and shape of plant leaves change with growth, and an accurate description of leaf shape is crucial for describing plant morphogenesis and development. Bilateral symmetry, which has been widely observed but poorly examined, occurs in both dicot and monocot leaves, including all nominated bamboo species (approximately 1,300 species), of which at least 500 are found in China. Although there are apparent differences in leaf size among bamboo species due to genetic and environmental profiles, bamboo leaves have bilateral symmetry with parallel venation and appear similar across species...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722154/application-of-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-followed-by-gas-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-spme-gc-ms-to-determine-esters-of-carboxylic-acids-and-other-volatile-compounds-in-d-maculatus-and-d-ater-lipids
#5
Magdalena Cerkowniak, Mieczysława I Boguś, Emilia Włóka, Piotr Stepnowski, Marek Gołębiowski
A constant problem in veterinary medicine, human healthcare, agriculture, forestry or horticulture is the large number of pests, and the lack of effective methods to combat them which cause no harm to the rest of the environment. It is recommended and desired to reduce the use of chemicals and increase the use of agents based on the knowledge acquired in the field of biology, chemistry, and agrochemicals. To learn the defense mechanisms of insects we should consider not only the site of their physiological ability to protect against external factors (cuticle), but also check the possibility of chemical protection, formed by all compounds on the surface and in the body of insects...
July 19, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715855/assessing-long-term-impact-of-land-use-change-on-hydrological-ecosystem-functions-in-a-mediterranean-upland-agro-forestry-catchment
#6
Paolo Nasta, Mario Palladino, Nadia Ursino, Antonio Saracino, Angelo Sommella, Nunzio Romano
During the second half of the 20th century farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe were progressively abandoned and the forest cover subsequently re-expanded. This paper investigates the environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on hydrological ecosystem functions (HEFs) in the Upper Alento River Catchment (UARC) in southern Italy. We document the human-driven post-war landscape in 1955 with its maximum expansion of pasture and crops. By 1998 forest cover had doubled and cropland had roughly halved due to decades of land abandonment and reduction in human pressure...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707260/historical-effects-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-export-and-land-management-decisions-on-the-watershed-scale-forest-carbon-budget-of-a-coastal-british-columbia-douglas-fir-dominated-landscape
#7
B P Smiley, J A Trofymow
BACKGROUND: To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688269/nature-based-solution-for-improving-mental-health-and-well-being-in-urban-areas
#8
Maja Vujcic, Jelena Tomicevic-Dubljevic, Mihailo Grbic, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Olivera Vukovic, Oliver Toskovic
The general disproportion of urban development and the socio-economical crisis in Serbia, followed by a number of acute and chronic stressors, as well as years of accumulated trauma, prevented the parallel physical, mental and social adaptation of society as a whole. These trends certainly affected the quality of mental health and well-being, particularly on the vulnerable urban population, increasing the absolute number of people with depression, stress and psychosomatic disorders. This study was pioneering in Serbia and was conducted in collaboration with the Faculty of Forestry, the Institute of Mental Health and the Botanical Garden in Belgrade, in order to understand how spending time and performing horticulture therapy in specially designed urban green environments can improve mental health...
July 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674479/developing-publicly-acceptable-tree-health-policy-public-perceptions-of-tree-breeding-solutions-to-ash-dieback-among-interested-publics-in-the-uk
#9
Paul R Jepson, Irina Arakelyan
The UK needs to develop effective policy responses to the spread of tree pathogens and pests. This has been given the political urgency following the media and other commentary associated with the arrival of a disease that causes 'dieback' of European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) - a tree species with deep cultural associations. In 2014 the UK government published a plant biosecurity strategy and linked to this invested in research to inform policy. This paper reports the findings of a survey of informed UK publics on the acceptability of various potential strategies to deal with ash dieback, including "no action"...
July 2017: For Policy Econ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647548/the-bioeconomy-in-poland-within-the-context-of-the-european-union
#10
REVIEW
Ewa Woźniak, Tomasz Twardowski
This article outlines the potential of the development of bioeconomy in Poland in the context of the European Union (EU). The analyses take into account the concept of bioeconomy, the overview of documents referring to the bioeconomy in the EU, including policy frameworks and agendas. Many countries including Poland emphasise the importance of bioeconomy, but have not yet developed a complex strategy. The state of bioeconomy in Poland is characterised by the sectors of agriculture, forestry and food production, as well as parts of the chemical, biotechnology and energy industries...
June 21, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646775/consequences-of-intensive-forest-harvesting-on-the-recovery-of-swedish-lakes-from-acidification-and-on-critical-load-exceedances
#11
Filip Moldan, Johanna Stadmark, Jens Fölster, Sara Jutterström, Martyn N Futter, Bernard J Cosby, Richard F Wright
Across much of the northern hemisphere, lakes are at risk of re-acidification due to incomplete recovery from historical acidification and pressures associated with more intensive forest biomass harvesting. Critical load (CL) calculations aimed at estimating the amount of pollutants an ecosystem can receive without suffering adverse consequences are dependent on these factors. Here, we present a modelling study of the potential effects of intensified forest harvesting on re-acidification of a set of 3239 Swedish lakes based on scenarios with varying intensities of forest biomass harvest and acid deposition...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634640/the-microbiome-of-eucalyptus-roots-under-different-management-conditions-and-its-potential-for-biological-nitrogen-fixation
#12
Eduardo da Siva Fonseca, Raquel Silva Peixoto, Alexandre Soares Rosado, Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro, James M Tiedje, Caio Tavora Coelho da Costa Rachid
Eucalyptus plantations offer a cost-effective and renewable source of raw material. There is substantial interest in improving forestry production, especially through sustainable strategies such as the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria. However, little is known about Eucalyptus microbiology. In this study, the endophytic bacterial community was assessed in Eucalyptus urograndis roots using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques with plants grown under different conditions. Three phyla accounted for approximately 95% of the community, with Actinobacteria corresponding to approximately 59%...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611840/deep-learning-for-plant-identification-in-natural-environment
#13
Yu Sun, Yuan Liu, Guan Wang, Haiyan Zhang
Plant image identification has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botanical taxonomy and computer vision. The first plant image dataset collected by mobile phone in natural scene is presented, which contains 10,000 images of 100 ornamental plant species in Beijing Forestry University campus. A 26-layer deep learning model consisting of 8 residual building blocks is designed for large-scale plant classification in natural environment. The proposed model achieves a recognition rate of 91.78% on the BJFU100 dataset, demonstrating that deep learning is a promising technology for smart forestry...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603912/regulation-of-bone-mineral-density-in-the-grey-squirrel-sciurus-carolinensis-bioavailability-of-calcium-oxalate-and-implications-for-bark-stripping
#14
C P Nichols, N G Gregory, N Goode, R M A Gill, J A Drewe
The damage caused when grey squirrels strip the outer bark off trees and ingest the underlying phloem can result in reduced timber quality or tree death. This is extremely costly to the UK forestry industry and can alter woodland composition, hampering conservation efforts. The calcium hypothesis proposes that grey squirrels ingest phloem to ameliorate a seasonal calcium deficiency. Calcium in the phloem predominantly takes the form of calcium oxalate (CaOx), however not all mammals can utilise CaOx as a source of calcium...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603538/testing-projected-climate-change-conditions-on-the-endoconidiophora-polonica-norway-spruce-pathosystem-shows-fungal-strain-specific-effects
#15
Riikka Linnakoski, Kristian M Forbes, Michael J Wingfield, Pertti Pulkkinen, Fred O Asiegbu
Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601061/intestinal-and-external-parasites-of-raccoon-dogs-nyctereutes-procyonoides-in-western-poland
#16
Natalia Osten-Sacken, Anna Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Jarosław Pacoń, Łukasz Skrzypczak, Anna Werner
Parasites of an invasive species, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from western Poland were investigated to clarify poorly known ecological key aspects of the species. The research was conducted in two study areas: the Ujście Warty National Park and the Bogdaniec Forestry District. Intestinal samples were collected from the intestinal tracks of 39 dead animals and 51 faecal samples were collected in all seasons from latrines of raccoon dogs. Macro-parasites, their eggs and protozoan parasites were investigated to assess the taxonomic composition of parasites, the level of infection and the risk of potential transfer of dangerous parasites from raccoon dogs to people and native species...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595226/-surgical-repair-for-the-ventricular-septal-perforation-following-blunt-chest-trauma-report-of-a-case
#17
Chihiro Yoshida, Kazutoshi Tano, Youichi Ichikawa
Ventricular septal perforation(VSP) after blunt chest trauma is rare. As the clinical symptoms and timing of presentation are varied, appropriate diagnosis can be difficult or delayed. An 86-year-old man presented with a traumatic VSP following a forestry injury. He showed a normal cardiac structure at the time of injury, but echocardiography after 9 days revealed VSP. He was treated successfully with surgical closure of the VSP.
June 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594870/spatial-planning-for-a-green-economy-national-level-hydrologic-ecosystem-services-priority-areas-for-gabon
#18
Joshua Howard Goldstein, Heather Tallis, Aaron Cole, Steven Schill, Erik Martin, Michael Heiner, Marie-Claire Paiz, Allison Aldous, Colin Apse, Barry Nickel
Rapidly developing countries contain both the bulk of intact natural areas and biodiversity, and the greatest untapped natural resource stocks, placing them at the forefront of "green" economic development opportunities. However, most lack scientific tools to create development plans that account for biodiversity and ecosystem services, diminishing the real potential to be sustainable. Existing methods focus on biodiversity and carbon priority areas across large geographies (e.g., countries, states/provinces), leaving out essential services associated with water supplies, among others...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592993/can-we-use-short-rotation-coppice-poplar-for-sugar-based-biorefinery-feedstock-bioconversion-of-2-year-old-poplar-grown-as-short-rotation-coppice
#19
Chang Dou, Wilian F Marcondes, Jessica E Djaja, Renata Bura, Rick Gustafson
BACKGROUND: Feedstock cost is a substantial barrier to the commercialization of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Poplar grown using a short rotation coppice (SRC) system has the potential to provide a low-cost feedstock and economically viable sugar yields for fuels and chemicals production. In the coppice management regime, poplars are harvested after 2 years' growth to develop the root system and establish the trees. The biomass from these 2-year-old trees is very heterogeneous, and includes components of leaf, bark, branch, and wood chip...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575022/investigating-the-effect-of-forestry-on-leaf-litter-arthropods-algonquin-park-ontario-canada
#20
M Alex Smith, Amanda Boyd, Amelia Chan, Simonne Clout, Paulson des Brisay, Sarah Dolson, Thanushi Eagalle, Sean Espinola, Aaron Fairweather, Sydney Frank, Christopher Fruetel, Cristina Garrido Cortes, James Hall, Chris Ho, Eryk Matczak, Sandra McCubbin, Megan McPhee, Kate A Pare, Kelsie Paris, Ellen Richard, Morgan Roblin, Cassandra Russell, Ryan Snyder, Carolyn Trombley, Tyler Schmitt, Caitlin Vandermeer, Connor Warne, Natasha Welch, Chelsie Xavier-Blower
Arthropods are the most diverse taxonomic group of terrestrial eukaryotes and are sensitive to physical alterations in their environment such as those caused by forestry. With their enormous diversity and physical omnipresence, arthropods could be powerful indicators of the effects of disturbance following forestry. When arthropods have been used to measure the effects of disturbance, the total diversity of some groups is often found to increase following forestry. However, these findings are frequently derived using a coarse taxonomic grain (family or order) to accommodate for various taxonomic impediments (including cryptic diversity and poorly resourced taxonomists)...
2017: PloS One
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