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New ct contrast

V T S Kaluarachchi, Uditha Bulugahapitiya, Maulee Arambewela, Sonali Gunathilake
A 34-year-old mother with diabetes mellitus for 6 years presented in the late second trimester of her third pregnancy with new onset hypertension and characteristic hyperadrenergic spells. Clinical examination was unremarkable except a blood pressure of 170/110 mmhg. She had an elevated 24 hour urinary normetanephrine level with ultrasonic evidence of a hyperechoic hypervascular well-defined right supra renal mass of 6 x 5 cm in size which was very suggestive of a pheochromocytoma. Her management decisions were made by a multidisciplinary team which decided to deliver the baby by lower segment cesarean section (LSCS) as the pregnancy was advanced and to proceed with interval adrenalectomy after contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the abdomen with adrenal protocol...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Ran Zhang, Juan P Cruz-Bastida, Daniel Gomez-Cardona, John Hayes, Ke Li, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: The CT number accuracy, i.e., CT number bias, plays an important role in clinical diagnosis.When strategies to reduce radiation dose are discussed, it is important to make sure that the CT number bias is controlled within an acceptable range. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the dependence of CT number bias on radiation dose level and on image contrast (i.e., the difference in CT number between the ROI and the background) in Computed Tomography (CT). METHODS: A lesion-background model was introduced to theoretically study how the CT number bias changes with radiation exposure level and with CT number contrast when a simple linear reconstruction algorithm such as filtered backprojection (FBP) is used...
August 13, 2018: Medical Physics
Leonid Roshkovan, Harold Litt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CT angiography has become the gold standard for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism; however, continuous evolution in radiology has led to new imaging approaches that offer improved options for detection and characterization of pulmonary embolism while exposing patients to lower contrast and radiation dose. The purpose of this review is to summarize state of the art imaging approaches for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism, focusing on technical innovations in this field...
August 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Ana S Pires, Cláudia R Marques, João C Encarnação, Ana M Abrantes, Inês A Marques, Mafalda Laranjo, Rui Oliveira, João E Casalta-Lopes, Ana C Gonçalves, Ana B Sarmento-Ribeiro, Maria F Botelho
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is continuously classified as one of the most incidental and mortal types of cancer worldwide. The positive outcomes of the conventional chemotherapy are frequently associated with high toxicity, which often leads to the suspension of the treatment. Growing evidences consider the use of pharmacological concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), better known as vitamin C, in the treatment of cancer. The use of AA in a clinical context is essentially related to the adoption of new therapeutic strategies based on combination regimens, where AA plays a chemosensitizing role...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dengfeng Li, Wende Hu, Jie Wang, Qiwei Zhang, Xiao-Ming Cao, Xiang Ma, He Tian
White-light emitting organic materials attract broad attention which are ascribed to their potential for applications in lighting devices and display media. Most reported organic white-light emitters rely on the combination of several components that emit different colors of light (red/green/blue or orange/blue), which may cause problems to stability, reproducibility and device fabrication. By contrast, white-light emission from single-molecule systems offers opportunities to overcome these disadvantages, meanwhile engendering white-light with high quality...
July 14, 2018: Chemical Science
J Scott Kriegshauser, M Grace Knuttinen, Nan Zhang, Rahmi Oklu
PURPOSE: Demonstrate the use of a new steerable needle for CT-guided neural plexus blockade to avoid traversing the kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of 23 consecutive CT-guided neural plexus blockade procedures in which a new steerable needle was used in the last 13 and compared with the prior 10 procedures in which a standard needle was used. RESULTS: Use of the steerable needle was beneficial to reach the target area without traversing a kidney or other organs in 6/13 (46%) procedures; in the other 7 procedures there was no benefit...
August 4, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
K Egger, M Rijntjes
The differential diagnosis of atypical dementia remains difficult. The use of positron emission tomography (PET) still represents the gold standard for imaging diagnostics. According to the current evidence, however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is almost equal to fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, but only when using new big data and machine learning methods. In cases of atypical dementia, especially in younger patients and for follow-up, MRI is preferable to computed tomography (CT). In the clinical routine, promising MRI procedures are e...
August 3, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Frederik Giesel, Clemens Kratochwil, Thomas Lindner, Manfred Marschalek, Anastasia Loktev, Wencke Lehnert, Jürgen Debus, Dirk Jäger, Paul Flechsig, Annette Altmann, Walter Mier, Uwe Haberkorn
Purpose: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is overexpressed in cancer associated fibroblasts of several tumor entities. Recent development of quinoline based positron-emission-tomography (PET)-tracers that act as FAP-Inhibitors (FAPI) demonstrated promising results preclinically and already also in few clinical cases. Consecutively this novel tracer is now applied in our hospital to amend the diagnostics of cancer patients facing limitations of standard exams. Here we analyze the tissue biodistribution and preliminary dosimetry of two members of this new class of PET-radiopharmaceuticals...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Burak Kocak, Osman Kizilkilic, Amalya Zeynalova, Bora Korkmazer, Naci Kocer, Civan Islak
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the added diagnostic value of C-arm contrast-enhanced cone-beam CT (CE-CBCT) to routine contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) in detecting associated developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) in patients with sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations (ICMs). METHODS: Fifty-six patients (53 with single and three with double ICMs) met the inclusion criteria. All patients had routine CE-MRI scans performed at 1.5 Tesla. The imaging studies (CE-MRI and CE-CBCT) were retrospectively and independently reviewed by two observers, with consensus by a third...
July 31, 2018: European Radiology
Hanne D Heerkens, Marco van Vulpen, Beth Erickson, Onne Reerink, Martijn Pw Intven, Cornelis At van den Berg, I Quintus Molenaar, Frank P Vleggaar, Gert J Meijer
OBJECTIVE: We want to explore the safety and technical feasibility of MRI-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A custom-made abdominal corset was manufactured to reduce breathing induced tumour motion. Delineation of the tumour and organs at risk (OARs) was performed on CT and multiparametric MRI. Tumour motion was quantified with cine MRI. After treatment planning, the static dose distribution was convolved with the cine MRI-based motion trajectory to simulate the delivered dose to the tumour and OARs...
July 31, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Akihiro Nishie, Masaaki Sugimoto, Yoshiki Asayama, Kousei Ishigami, Yasuhiro Ushijima, Yukihisa Takayama, Daisuke Okamoto, Nobuhiro Fujita, Akira Yokomizo, Katsunori Tatsugami, Hiroshi Honda
AIM: To elucidate the relationship among tumor attenuation of pre-contrast-enhanced (TApre) computed tomography (CT), washout rate and clear cell ratio (CCR) in adrenal adenoma (AA) and propose a new approach for diagnosing AA on dynamic CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The training set consisted of 43 AAs and 15 non-AAs, while the validation set comprised 44 AAs and 11 non-AAs. Using the training set, the pairwise correlation between CCR, TApre and washout rate in AA was evaluated by linear regression analysis...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Lalee Varghese, Sramana Mukhopadhyay, Raghav Mehan, Regi Kurien, Meera Thomas, V Rupa
INTRODUCTION: Sinonasal organising haematoma is a recently described, rare, benign inflammatory condition, which closely resembles malignancy in its clinical presentation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of organising haematoma and to review the evolution of surgical options successfully used. METHODS: A retrospective review of charts of all patients with a histopathological diagnosis of sinonasal organising haematoma was performed...
July 17, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Gregory Basil, Timur Urakov, Margarete Grace Knudsen, Jacques Morcos
BACKGROUND: and Importance: Hemorrhagic meningiomas, while relatively uncommon, represent a distinct clinical entity. In some cases, these meningiomas can closely mimic a thrombosed aneurysm. We present a case of a jugular tubercle meningioma whose radiographic and clinical picture initially suggested a ruptured, thrombosed vertebrobasilar aneurysm. This case serves to highlight several key differences between these two pathologies which can assist in diagnosis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female presented to an outside hospital with a severe, sudden onset headache along with new-onset horizontal diplopia...
July 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Saeed Jerban, Yajun Ma, Amin Nazaran, Erik W Dorthe, Esther Cory, Michael Carl, Darryl D'Lima, Robert L Sah, Eric Y Chang, Jiang Du
Bone stress injury (BSI) incidents have been increasing amongst athletes in recent years as a result of more intense sporting activities. Cortical bone in the tibia and fibula is one of the most common BSI sites. Nowadays, clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the recommended technique for BSI diagnosis at an early stage. However, clinical MRI focuses on edema observations in surrounding soft tissues, rather than the injured components of the bone. Specifically, both normal and injured bone are invisible in conventional clinical MRI...
July 30, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Junko Bamba, Hideki Ishida, Kazuyuki Araki
Two phantoms for a performance evaluation of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were developed and their efficiency was tested. The first phantom, for low-contrast resolution, consisted of an acrylic circular plate with three 0.5-1.0 mm diameter rods. These rods enable the user to visually evaluate the limit of observation. The second phantom, for geometric distortion, especially focused on the z-axis and consisted of two tabular acryl plates crossed perpendicularly with 1.0 mm-wide grooves in a grating form every 10...
July 25, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ioannis Vlahos, Konstantinos Stefanidis, Sarah Sheard, Arjun Nair, Charles Sayer, Joanne Moser
The accurate identification and characterization of small pulmonary nodules at low-dose CT is an essential requirement for the implementation of effective lung cancer screening. Individual reader detection performance is influenced by nodule characteristics and technical CT parameters but can be improved by training, the application of CT techniques, and by computer-aided techniques. However, the evaluation of nodule detection in lung cancer screening trials differs from the assessment of individual readers as it incorporates multiple readers, their inter-observer variability, reporting thresholds, and reflects the program accuracy in identifying lung cancer...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
D Kretz, J Hesser, G Glatting, S Diehl, F Wenz, W He, L Zheng
For selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) the calculation of the 3D distribution of spheres based on individual blood flow properties is still an open and relevant research question. The purpose of this work is to develop and analyze a new treatment planning method for SIRT to calculate the absorbed dose distribution. For this intention, flow dynamics of the SIRT-spheres inside the blood vessels was simulated. The challenge is treatment planning solely using high-resolution imaging data available before treatment...
July 23, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Katharina Kriegsmann, Maurizio Wack, Mark Kriegsmann, Martin Cremer, Thomas Bruckner, Anthony D Ho, Patrick Wuchter, Mathias Witzens-Harig
OBJECTIVE: Although not the gold standard, contrast-enhanced CT of neck, thorax, and abdomen/pelvis is routinely performed in diagnosis and response assessment of DLBCL. PD during first line treatment is a relatively rare event. The question arises if the imaging of initially involved regions only might be sufficient for response evaluation. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 167 DLBCL patients who had an extensive contrast-enhanced CT scan at first diagnosis...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Nathaniel Chiang, Odette A Rodda, Anna Kang, Jamie Sleigh, Thodur Vasudevan
OBJECTIVE: Wound dimensional assessments are important in determining the progress of a wound and the effect of interventions on wound healing. The FastSCAN (FS; Polhemus Inc, Colchester, Vermont) and Silhouette Mobile (SM; ARANZ Medical, Christchurch, New Zealand) are portable devices that quantify surface area, depth, and volume of wounds. This study evaluated their reliability in producing accurate wound measurements. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study was conducted at the Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand...
August 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Francesco Pisana, Holger Haubenreisser, Thomas Henzler, Stefan Schönberg, Marc Kachelrieß
Dynamic CT angiography provides much more information compared to static 3D CT angiography, in several clinical applications. The prolonged exposure, on the other hand, results in higher radiation dose for to the patient. Care should be taken when designing noise reduction algorithms so that temporal profiles and spatial resolution is not significantly compromised. In particular, in deep inferior epigastric perforators (DIEP) flap studies, the temporal enhancement of small abdominal subcutaneous and intramuscular vessels needs to be evaluated from the surgeons to plan breast reconstruction...
August 10, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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