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New ct contrast

SayedMasoud Hashemi, Christopher Huynh, Arjun Sahgal, William Y Song, Håkan Nordström, Markus Eriksson, James G Mainprize, Young Lee, Mark Ruschin
A Contrast and Attenuation-map Linearity Improvement (CALI) framework is proposed for cone-beam CT (CBCT) images used for brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The proposed framework is tailored to improve soft tissue contrast of a new point-of-care image-guided SRS system that employs a challenging half cone beam geometry, but can be readily reproduced on any CBCT platform. CALI includes a pre- and post-processing step. In pre-processing we apply a shading and beam hardening artifact correction to the projections, and in post-processing step we correct the dome/capping artifact on reconstructed images caused by the spatial variations in X-ray energy generated by the bowtie-filter...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Siqi Li, Huiyan Jiang, Zhiguo Wang, Guoxu Zhang, Yu-Dong Yao
Background and objective: Pancreas cancer is a digestive tract tumor with high malignancy, which is difficult for diagnosis and treatment at early time. To this end, this paper proposes a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) model for pancreas cancer on Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) images. METHODS: There are three essential steps in the proposed CAD model, including (1) pancreas segmentation, (2) feature extraction and selection, (3) classifier design, respectively...
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Romina Grazia Giancipoli, Serena Monti, Olca Basturk, David Klimstra, Mary Louise Keohan, Orazio Schillaci, Giuseppe Corrias, Peter Sawan, Lorenzo Mannelli
RATIONALE: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare malignant vascular tumor of endothelial origin with a highly variable clinical presentation and natural history. Given its vascular origin, new therapies with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been introduced in the treatment of these patients and have shown promising results. Few reports have described the role of F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of this tumor after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Todd C Soesbe, Matthew A Lewis, Khaled Nasr, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Robert E Lenkinski
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast...
October 9, 2018: Academic Radiology
Kei Takase
Recent introduction of multidetector-row computed tomography(MDCT) with more than 64 scanners enabled high-speed scanning in wide range of the body. Electrocardiogram (ECG) gated scanning and 4-dimensional imaging provides precise evaluation of cardiac and vascular diseases. Fine vascular structures such as the artery of Adamkiewicz can be visualized due to improved spatial and temporal resolution of CT and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Interventional radiology also plays important roles in combination with surgical treatment...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Dong Nie, Li Wang, Yaozong Gao, Jun Lian, Dinggang Shen
Accurate segmentation of pelvic organs is important for prostate radiation therapy. Modern radiation therapy starts to use a magnetic resonance image (MRI) as an alternative to computed tomography image because of its superior soft tissue contrast and also free of risk from radiation exposure. However, segmentation of pelvic organs from MRI is a challenging problem due to inconsistent organ appearance across patients and also large intrapatient anatomical variations across treatment days. To address such challenges, we propose a novel deep network architecture, called ``Spatially varying sTochastic Residual AdversarIal Network'' (STRAINet), to delineate pelvic organs from MRI in an end-to-end fashion...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Yuta Matsunaga, Koichi Chida, Yuya Kondo, Kenichi Kobayashi, Masanao Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Minami, Shoichi Suzuki, Yasuki Asada
OBJECTIVES: To propose a new set of Japanese diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable doses (ADs) for 2017 and to verify the usefulness of Japanese DRLs (DRLs 2015) for computed tomography (CT), by investigating changes in the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol ) from 2014 to 2017. METHODS: Detailed information on the CT scan parameters used throughout Japan were obtained by questionnaire survey. The CTDIvol and dose-length product for the 11 commonest adult and 6 commonest paediatric CT examinations were surveyed and compared with 2014 data and DRLs 2015...
October 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Christopher J Goodenough, Tyler A Cobb, John B Holcomb
Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has become an increasingly popular alternative to emergency thoracotomy and aortic cross-clamping in patients with exsanguinating hemorrhage.1 This new capability is increasingly being used in non-trauma situations.2 3 This report demonstrates another novel use of REBOA for iatrogenic intra-abdominal hemorrhage. An 83-year-old man with multiple medical comorbidities and a history of chronic mesenteric ischemia was admitted to our institution for an elective mesenteric revascularization...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
Quan Zou, Jiani Huang, Xuejun Zhang
Theranostic materials are of great significance to a personalized precise medicine. However, conventional theranostic agents are mainly fabricated by combining presynthesized independent imaging probes and therapeutic agents, suffering from multiple synthesis procedures, poor morphological control, and time/reagent-consuming process. Herein, iodinated polypyrrole (I-PPy) nanoparticles are fabricated via a one-step synthesis strategy combining chemical oxidation and iodination for computed tomography (CT) imaging-guided photothermal therapy...
October 9, 2018: Small
Eszter Boros, Alan B Packard
Nuclear medicine is composed of two complementary areas, imaging and therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon imaging, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), comprise the imaging component of nuclear medicine. These areas are distinct in that they exploit different nuclear decay processes and also different imaging technologies. In PET, images are created from the 511 keV photons produced when the positron emitted by a radionuclide encounters an electron and is annihilated...
October 9, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Hanna Pihlman, Pauli Keränen, Kaarlo Paakinaho, Jere Linden, Markus Hannula, Iida-Kaisa Manninen, Jari Hyttinen, Mikko Manninen, Outi Laitinen-Vapaavuori
The advantages of synthetic bone graft substitutes over autogenous bone grafts include abundant graft volume, lack of complications related to the graft harvesting, and shorter operation and recovery times for the patient. We studied a new synthetic supercritical CO2 -processed porous composite scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate and poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) copolymer as a bone graft substitute in a rabbit calvarial defect. Bilateral 12 mm diameter critical size calvarial defects were successfully created in 18 rabbits...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
G H Sandmann, U Stöckle, T Freude, F M Stuby
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Fragility fractures of the pelvic ring in the elderly population are a serious problem in orthopaedics. The treatment options range from conservative treatment to diverse operative options. We present a balloon guided new technique of implanting cement augmented screws aiming at improved implant anchorage and reduced cement leakage. MATERIAL AND METHODS We describe a new technique of balloon- guided cement augmented iliosacral screws. After the balloon has been insufflated and contrast medium has been instillated for leakage detection, iliosacral screws can safely be placed with a relevant cement depot...
2018: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
Zhenglin Li, Xuelei Fan, Jing Liu, Ying Hu, Yingwei Yang, Zhuo Li, Ye Sun, Chunying Chen, Miao Yu
AIM: Polyethylene glycol modified mesoporous silica-coated bismuth nanohybrids (Bi@mSiO2 -PEG) are fabricated for chemothermotherapy and multimodal imaging. MATERIALS & METHODS: The Bi@mSiO2 -PEG are synthesized by coating mesoporous SiO2 onto metallic Bi cores, followed by PEG modification. Their cytotoxicity, photothermal effect, drug loading, antitumor effect and imaging abilities are evaluated. RESULTS: The nanohybrids show good biocompatibility, strong near-infrared absorbance, high photothermal conversion efficiency (∼36...
October 4, 2018: Nanomedicine
Ayumi Sakamoto, Pan Qi, Shinsuke Ohba, Seiichi Ohta, Yuichi Hara, Takayuki Ogawa, Masahiro Tomokiyo, Akari Sasaki, Harue Takizawa, Manabu Mochizuki, Taichi Ito, Muneki Honnami
The bone regeneration capacities of calcium phosphate (CaP)-loaded carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) nonwoven sheet (CMC/CaP) were evaluated using a dog lateral femoral condyle defect model. In addition, the effect of bFGF on bone regeneration when added to CMC/CaP sheet was investigated. The CMC and CMC/CaP sheets have high operability. The new bone formation rate in the CMC/CaP group was significantly higher than that in the control and CMC groups based on micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Neelu Kumari K S, Vijayabaskar S
Objective: This method is to reduce the risk of imprecise diagnosis associated with poor-quality CT images, this paper presents a new technique designed to enhance the quality of medical CT images. The main objective is to improve the appearance of CT images in order to obtain better visual interpretation and analysis, which is expected to ease the diagnosis process. The proposed technique involves applying a deblocking filter is to enhance the visual nature of a picture by diminishing the blocking artifacts...
September 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Selin Çeşmeli, Cigir Biray Avci
Cancer is one of the most common diseases all over the world; many people suffer from diverse types of cancer. However, currently there is no exact cure or therapy developed for cancer. On the other hand, nanoparticles are defined as microscopic particles that have dimensions less than 100 nm and they are known for their usage in health sciences and medicine, however a few harmful effects on different animal cells. Therefore, researchers began to use nanoparticles for cancer therapies and to develop new methods for much more effective therapies...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Zhifang Wu, Jingxin Ma, Anna-Liisa Brownell, Hongliang Wang, Chaomin Li, Xiaxia Meng, Ling Yuan, Haiyan Liu, Sijin Li, Jun Xie
INTRODUCTION: The limitations of [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18 F]FDG), including producing false-positive or -negative results, low image contrast in brain tumor diagnosis and poor differentiation of tumor and inflammatory, necessitate the development of new radiopharmaceuticals. In the present study, a novel [18 F]fluoroglycoconjugate tracer, [18 F]FDGly-NH-Phe, for tumor metabolism imaging was prepared and evaluated. METHODS: [18 F]FDGly-NH-Phe was prepared by condensing [18 F]FDG with L-4-aminophenylalanine in an acidic condition, and purified with semi-preparative-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 16, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Pablo G Tahoces, Luis Alvarez, Esther González, Carmelo Cuenca, Agustín Trujillo, Daniel Santana-Cedrés, Julio Esclarín, Luis Gomez, Luis Mazorra, Miguel Alemán-Flores, José M Carreira
PURPOSE: The shape and size of the aortic lumen can be associated with several aortic diseases. Automated computer segmentation can provide a mechanism for extracting the main features of the aorta that may be used as a diagnostic aid for physicians. This article presents a new fully automated algorithm to extract the aorta geometry for either normal (with and without contrast) or abnormal computed tomography (CT) cases. METHODS: The algorithm we propose is a fast incremental technique that computes the 3D geometry of the aortic lumen from an initial contour located inside it...
September 22, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Fei Jiang, Xiaohan Yang, Xin Meng, Zhixuan Zhou, Ning Chen
CBX7 is shown to down-regulate the expression of osteopontin (OPN) that is associated with osteoblast function. Here, we studied the role of CBX7 in the wound healing of tooth extraction socket in which osteoblast activity is critical via comparison between CBX7-knockout (CBX7-/- ) mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts of 6 weeks old with maxillary first molar extracted. Mice were euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 days after extractions, and alveolar sockets were assessed by semi-quantitative histomorphometry for hard tissue healing, including new bone fill (Masson's trichrome staining), osteoblast activity (OPN/osterix, Osx), osteoclast activity (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP), and for soft tissue healing, including blood vessels (alpha smooth muscle actin, α-SMA)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Xiaonan Shao, Mei Xu, Chun Qiu, Rong Niu, Yuetao Wang, Xiaosong Wang
Siemens SMART neuro attenuation correction (SNAC) is a new type of calculated attenuation correction (CAC) method. This article aimed to evaluate the effect of SNAC on the quantitative analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.Brain PET images of 52 healthy participants after reconstructed by SNAC and CT attenuation correction (CTAC) were analyzed qualitatively by visual analysis, and quantitatively by Scenium software to compare their contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of different brain regions...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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