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Bi-Cheng Wang, Chen Fu, Jun-Li Liu, Yu-Ting Li, Tao Zhang, Gang Wu, Quentin Liu, Jun Xue
Metastatic cystic lesions may be considered as target lesions according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. However, cystic lesions are considered as non-measurable according to RECIST 1.0. Krukenberg tumors are cystic metastases from gastric cancer. The aim of the present case report was to address the question of whether a Krukenberg tumor can be considered as a target lesion. A 30-year-old female patient was diagnosed with stage IV gastric cancer 6 months after parturition. Subsequently, the patient received two courses of oxaliplatin/capecitabine plus trastuzumab (OCT) treatment...
December 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Jung Hee Kim, Jong Hyun Baek
RATIONALE: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation by open surgery is more difficult and dangerous in elderly patients than in infants. Nowadays, simple and safe interventional catheterization technology is used for the closure of uncomplicated isolated PDAs. Therefore, an alternative less invasive therapeutic option must be developed to treat complicated PDA. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old woman presented with gradually exacerbated dyspnea on effort and continuous cardiac murmurs...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Justine Wallyn, Nicolas Anton, Damien Mertz, Sylvie Begin-Colin, Francis Perton, Christophe Serra, Florence Franconi, Laurent Lemaire, Manuela Chiper, Helene Libouban, Nadia Messaddeq, Halina Anton, Thierry F Vandamme
Non-invasive diagnostic by imaging combined with contrast agent (CA) is by now the most used technique to get an insight inside human bodies. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used technologies providing complementary results. Nowadays, it seems clear that bimodal CAs could be an emerging approach to increase the patient compliance, accessing the different imaging modalities with a single CA injection. Owing to versatile designs, targeting properties and high payload capacity, nanocarriers are considered as a viable solution to reach this goal...
December 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Margherita Trinci, Claudia Lucia Piccolo, Riccardo Ferrari, Michele Galluzzo, Stefania Ianniello, Vittorio Miele
Baseline ultrasound is the first-choice technique in traumatic hemodynamically stable children, and is essential in the early assessment of unstable patients to detect hemoperitoneum or other potentially fatal conditions. Despite the technological advancements in new ultrasound equipment and the experience of the operators, it is not always possible to rule out the presence of parenchymal traumatic lesions by means of baseline ultrasound nor to suspect them, especially in the absence of hemoperitoneum. For this reason, in the last decades, basic ultrasound has been associated with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to evaluate the stable little patient in cases such as low-energy blunt abdominal trauma...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
Hao Liu, Liquan Gao, Xinhe Yu, Lijun Zhong, Jiyun Shi, Bing Jia, Nan Li, Zhaofei Liu, Fan Wang
Integrin αvβ6 is expressed at an undetectable level in normal tissues, but is remarkably upregulated during many pathological processes, especially in cancer and fibrosis. Noninvasive imaging of integrin αvβ6 expression using a radiotracer with favorable in vivo pharmacokinetics would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Through disulfide-cyclized method, we synthesized in this study, a new integrin αvβ6-targeted cyclic peptide (denoted as cHK), and radiolabeled it with 99m Tc. The ability of the resulting radiotracer 99m Tc-HYNIC-cHK to detect integrin αvβ6 expression in pancreatic cancer xenografts and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated using small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT)...
2018: Biophysics Reports
Maximilian Klingler, Dominik Summer, Christine Rangger, Roland Haubner, Julie Foster, Jane Sosabowski, Irene Virgolini, Clemens Decristoforo, Elisabeth von Guggenberg
Molecular imaging and targeted radiotherapy (TRT) with radiolabeled cholecystokinin-2-receptor (CCK2R) targeting peptide probes holds high promise to improve the clinical management of patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and other CCK2R-expressing malignancies. Low stability and suboptimal targeting of currently available radiolabeled peptide analogs has prompted us to seek for new stabilization strategies. In this study we present a new minigastrin analog with site-specific C-terminal modifications showing a highly optimized targeting profile...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Yuanjun Wang, Shiwei Liu, Ge Wang, Yu Liu
In orthodontic diagnosis and oral treatment planning, 3D tooth model constructed by dental computed tomography (CT) images is an essential and useful assisted tool. In virtue of the higher spatial resolution and lower radiation of X-ray, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in dental application. However, due to lower signal to noise ratio, vague and weak edge between tooth root and sockets as well as intensity inhomogeneity, the tooth root is easy to be under- segmented and appears false boundary...
November 27, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mike R Bueno, Carlos Estrela, Brunno C Azevedo, Anibal Diogenes
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has promoted changes in approaches in Endodontics, and enhanced decision-making in complex clinical cases. Despite the technological advancements in CBCT hardware, the interpretation of the acquired images is still compromised by viewing software packages that often have limited navigational tools and lack adequate filters to overcome some challenges of the CBCT technology such as artefacts. This study reviews the current limitations of CBCT and the potential of a new CBCT software package (e-Vol DX, CDT- Brazil) to overcome these aspects and support diagnosing, planning and managing of endodontic cases...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Gabriella Guarnieri, Rosana Bizzotto, Ottorino Gottardo, Emanuela Velo, Mauro Cassaro, Stefania Vio, Maria Grazia Putzu, Federica Rossi, Paolo Zuliani, Filippo Liviero, Paola Mason, Piero Maestrelli
INTRODUCTION: Clusters of silicosis cases have been reported in the fabrication of quartz conglomerate, a new high-silica-content artificial stone for kitchen and bathroom benchtops (countertops). AIM: We describe two cases of accelerated-type silicosis with hepatic granulomas arising in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates. METHODS: A confident diagnosis of multiorgan silicosis was based on high level of respirable silica in the workplace, typical radiological alterations in chest high-resolution CT, histological findings in the lung and liver, and detection of silica crystals in both tissues by phase-contrast polarising light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy...
December 4, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yoshiharu Ohno, Masao Yui, Kota Aoyagi, Yuji Kishida, Shinichiro Seki, Hisanobu Koyama, Takeshi Yoshikawa
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI, coregistered FDG PET/MRI, integrated FDG PET/CT, and conventional imaging examination including bone scintigraphy, contrast-enhanced brain MRI, and CT for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) staging according to the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) system. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study subjects were 23 consecutively registered patients with MPM (15 men, eight women; mean age, 68 years for both sexes) who had prospectively undergone whole-body FDG PET/CT, whole-body MRI, conventional radiologic examination, surgical or conventional treatments, pathologic examination, and follow-up conventional imaging examinations between January 2011 and December 2017...
December 4, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Stefano Fanti, Silvia Minozzi, Gerald Antoch, Ian Banks, Alberto Briganti, Ignasi Carrio, Arturo Chiti, Noel Clarke, Matthias Eiber, Johann De Bono, Karim Fizazi, Silke Gillessen, Sam Gledhill, Uwe Haberkorn, Ken Herrmann, Rodney J Hicks, Frederic Lecouvet, Rodolfo Montironi, Piet Ost, Joe M O'Sullivan, Anwar R Padhani, Jack A Schalken, Howard I Scher, Bertrand Tombal, R Jeroen A van Moorselaar, Heindrik Van Poppel, Hebert Alberto Vargas, Jochen Walz, Wolfgang A Weber, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Wim J G Oyen
Rapid developments in imaging and treatment with radiopharmaceuticals targeting prostate cancer pose issues for the development of guidelines for their appropriate use. To tackle this problem, international experts representing medical oncologists, urologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine specialists convened at the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Focus 1 meeting to deliver a balanced perspective on available data and clinical experience of imaging in prostate cancer, which had been supported by a systematic review of the literature and a modified Delphi process...
December 2018: Lancet Oncology
Li Huo, Nan Li, Heyu Wu, Wenjia Zhu, Haiqun Xing, Jiantao Ba, Tong Wang, Fang Li, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND: PoleStar m660 is a newly developed clinical PET/CT system with time-of-flight (TOF) capability. The aim of this study is to characterize the performance of the new system. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) were measured on the scanner according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 protocol. The timing resolution was measured using a rotating line source that orbited around the center of field of view (CFOV) at a radius of 20 cm. The image quality phantom was also imaged to quantify the percent contrast, percent background variability, and residual error...
December 1, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
J Webster Stayman, Steven Tilley
Spectral CT with multiple contrast agents has been enabled by energy-discriminating detectors with multiple spectral channels. We propose a new approach that uses spatial-spectral filters to provide multiple beamlets with different incident spectra for spectral channels based on "source-side" control. Since these spatial-spectral filters yield spectral channels that are sparse, we adopt model-based material decomposition to directly reconstruct material densities from projection data. Simulation studies in three-and four-material decomposition experiments show the underlying feasibility of the spatial-spectral filtering technique...
May 2018: Conference Proceedings of International Conference on Image Formation in X-Ray Computed Tomography
James Baker, François Guillard, Benjy Marks, Itai Einav
Extremely useful techniques exist to observe the interior of deforming opaque materials, but these methods either require that the sample is replaced with a model material or that the motion is stopped intermittently. For example, X-ray computed tomography cannot measure the continuous flow of materials due to the significant scanning time required for density reconstruction. Here we resolve this technological gap with an alternative X-ray method that does not require such tomographs. Instead our approach uses correlation analysis of successive high-speed radiographs from just three directions to directly reconstruct three-dimensional velocities...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Heather N Hayenga, Andrew J Bishop, Zabi Wardak, Chandra Sen, Bruce Mickey
BACKGROUND: Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare vascular tumors that resemble meningiomas on imaging and have a high rate of local recurrence and metastases. There remains a paucity of data to guide management decisions of intraspinal dissemination of HPC in the literature, and none specifically related to anaplastic HPCs. CASE DESCRIPTION: Case report of a 34-year-old female with locally and distantly recurrent anaplastic hemangiopericytoma (HPC) (WHO grade III)...
November 29, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Min Jiang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xiuhong Shan, Donggang Pan, Yingjun Jia, Enzhen Ni, Yuan Hu, Hao Huang
OBJECTIVE: To establish new diagnostic criteria for improvement of the accuracy of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in diagnosing the N-stage and lymph node (LN) metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: MSCT was performed with plain and triphasic dynamic contrast enhancement. Different regions of LN metastasis and N-staging were determined according to the herein-proposed combined diagnostic criteria and were then correlated with the pathological analysis...
December 2, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Francis J Gilchrist, Richard Buka, Mary Jones, Sheng Ang Ho, Warren Lenney, William D Carroll
Objectives: Chest CT is increasingly used to monitor disease progression in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) but there is no national guideline regarding its use. Our objective was to assess the indications for undertaking chest CT and the protocols used to obtain scans. Design Setting and participants: An electronic questionnaire was developed to assess clinicians views on chest CT in children with CF. It included general questions on perceived benefits and specific questions about its role in five clinical scenarios...
2018: BMJ paediatrics open
Amit Goyal
The 'standard of care' method for sentinel node mapping is the combination technique using radioisotope and blue dye although some centres use radioisotope or blue dye alone. Radioisotope usage requires licensing, has regulatory issues around handling and disposal of waste, and logistically may be unavailable or difficult to implement in some centres or less developed country. This has led to the development of alternative methods such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), fluorescence techniques using indocyanine green (ICG) or fluorescein, computed tomography lymphography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound scan (CEUS) using microbubbles...
October 2018: Breast Care
Babak Alikhani, Martin Werner, Leila Jamali, Frank Wacker, Thomas Werncke
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the image quality provided by a dual-source (DS) data set and a single-source (SS) data set at the same radiation exposure, in order to evaluate a dose splitting method for dual-source scanning protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 192-slice dual-source third generation CT (Somatom Force; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) was used to image a Catphan phantom (Catphan503; The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, New York) utilizing different X-ray tube voltages from 70 to 120 kVp with an organ-based tube-current modulation technique (X-CARE; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany)...
October 25, 2018: Academic Radiology
Nicolò Schicchi, Marco Fogante, Matteo Oliva, Paolo Esposto Pirani, Giacomo Agliata, Gian Marco Giuseppetti, Andrea Giovagnoni
PURPOSE: To compare radiation dose and image quality of lower extremity computed tomography angiography (CTA) between cranio-caudal acquisition with single-source CT (SSCT) and flash caudo-cranial acquisition with dual-source CT (DSCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 60 patients were randomly assigned to Group A (control) or Group B (experimental) to undergo lower extremity CTA for peripheral obliterative arterial disease. Group A received protocol 1 (P1) with SSCT cranio-caudal acquisition...
November 27, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
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