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Trauma induced coagulopathy

Henna Wong, Nicola Curry, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from uncontrolled haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of trauma-related mortality and is potentially preventable. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have focused attention on the role of blood products and procoagulants in mitigating the sequelae of TIC and how these therapies can be improved. RECENT FINDINGS: A host of preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated blood product availability and efficacy in trauma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Nasim Shahidi Hamedani, Heiko Rühl, Julia Janina Zimmermann, Tim Heiseler, Johannes Oldenburg, Günter Mayer, Bernd Pötzsch, Jens Müller
Activated protein C (APC) is a critical regulator of thrombin formation and thereby protects against thrombosis. On the other hand, overwhelming formation of APC increases the risk of bleeding such as in trauma-induced coagulopathy. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of APC activity may improve blood clottability in certain clinical situations. In this study, we demonstrate that the DNA aptamer HS02-52G binds with fast onset (1.118 ± 0.013 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) to APC and possesses a long residence time of 13...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Nils Kunze-Szikszay, Lennart A Krack, Pauline Wildenauer, Saskia Wand, Tim Heyne, Karoline Walliser, Christopher Spering, Martin Bauer, Michael Quintel, Markus Roessler
BACKGROUND: Hyperfibrinolysis (HF) is a major contributor to coagulopathy and mortality in trauma patients. This study investigated (i) the rate of HF during the pre-hospital management of patients with multiple injuries and (ii) the effects of pre-hospital tranexamic acid (TxA) administration on the coagulation system. METHODS: From 27 trauma patients with pre-hospital an estimated injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 points blood was obtained at the scene and on admission to the emergency department (ED)...
October 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Sharon Edwards, Jason Smith
Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, in civilian environments and on the battlefield. Trauma-induced haemorrhage is the principal cause of potentially preventable death, which is generally attributable to a combination of vascular injury and coagulopathy. Survival rates following severe traumatic injury have increased due to advanced trauma management initiatives and treatment protocols, influenced by lessons learned from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The use of tourniquets and intraosseous needles, early blood and blood product transfusion, administration of tranexamic acid in pre-hospital settings, and consultant-led damage control resuscitation incorporating damage control surgery have all played their part...
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Kai Oliver Jensen, Leonhard Held, Andrea Kraus, Frank Hildebrand, Philipp Mommsen, Ladislav Mica, Guido A Wanner, Peter Steiger, Rudolf M Moos, Hans-Peter Simmen, Kai Sprengel
BACKGROUND: Although under discussion, induced hypothermia (IH) is an established therapy for patients with cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injuries. The influences on coagulopathy and bleeding tendency in severely injured patients (SIP) with concomitant traumatic brain injury are most widely unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of mild IH in SIP with concomitant severe traumatic brain injuries on transfusion rate and mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective multi-centre study, SIP from three European level-1 trauma centres with an ISS ≥16 between 2009 and 2011 were included...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
James Winearls, Michael Reade, Helen Miles, Andrew Bulmer, Don Campbell, Klaus Görlinger, John F Fraser
Hemorrhage in the setting of severe trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. The pathophysiology of hemorrhage and coagulopathy in severe trauma is complex and remains poorly understood. Most clinicians currently treating trauma patients acknowledge the presence of a coagulopathy unique to trauma patients-trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC)-independently associated with increased mortality. The complexity and incomplete understanding of TIC has resulted in significant controversy regarding optimum management...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
E J Voiglio, V Dubuisson, D Massalou, Y Baudoin, J L Caillot, C Létoublon, C Arvieux
The goal of abbreviated laparotomy is to treat severely injured patients whose condition requires an immediate surgical operation but for whom a prolonged procedure would worsen physiological impairment and metabolic failure. Indeed, in severely injured patients, blood loss and tissue injuries enhance the onset of the "bloody vicious circle", triggered by the triad of acidosis-hypothermia-coagulopathy. Abbreviated laparotomy is a surgical strategy that forgoes the completeness of operation in favor of a physiological approach, the overriding preference going to rapidity and limiting the procedure to control the injuries...
August 2016: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Alexander Y Mitrophanov, Fania Szlam, Roman M Sniecinski, Jerrold H Levy, Jaques Reifman
BACKGROUND: The use of prothrombin complex concentrates in trauma- and surgery-induced coagulopathy is complicated by the possibility of thromboembolic events. To explore the effects of these agents on thrombin generation (TG), we investigated combinations of coagulation factors equivalent to 3- and 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates with and without added antithrombin (AT), as well as recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), in a dilutional model. These data were then used to develop a computational model to test whether such a model could predict the TG profiles of these agents used to treat dilutional coagulopathy...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Yann Daniel, S Habas, L Malan, J Escarment, J-S David, S Peyrefitte
BACKGROUND: Despite the early uses of tourniquets and haemostatic dressings, blood loss still accounts for the vast majority of preventable deaths on the battlefield. Over the last few years, progress has been made in the management of such injuries, especially with the use of damage control resuscitation concepts. The early application of these procedures, on the field, may constitute the best opportunity to improve survival from combat injury during remote operations. DATA SOURCES: Currently available literature relating to trauma-induced coagulopathy treatment and far-forward transfusion was identified by searches of electronic databases...
August 16, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
N Schäfer, A Driessen, U Bauerfeind, M Fröhlich, J Ofir, E K Stürmer, M Maegele
OBJECTIVES: To analyse which fibrinogen source may improve coagulation using an in vitro 33% dilutional coagulopathy model. BACKGROUND: Uncritical volume resuscitation in the context of trauma haemorrhage contributes to the iatrogenic arm of the acute trauma-induced coagulopathy through dilution and depletion of coagulation factors, with fibrinogen reaching critical levels first. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using an experimental model of 33% dilutional coagulopathy, we have analysed which fibrinogen source may exert superior effects on improving haemocoagulative capacities and correcting depleted fibrinogen levels...
August 9, 2016: Transfusion Medicine
Natasha van Zyl, Elissa M Milford, Sara Diab, Kimble Dunster, Peter McGiffin, Stephen G Rayner, Andrew Staib, Michael C Reade, John F Fraser
INTRODUCTION: Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is an endogenous coagulopathy that develops following tissue injury and shock. The pathogenesis of ATC remains poorly understood, with platelet dysfunction, activation of the protein C pathway, and endothelial glycocalyx shedding all hypothesized to contribute to onset. The primary aim of this study was to develop an ovine model of traumatic coagulopathy, with a secondary aim of assessing proposed pathophysiological mechanisms within this model...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Waqas Saleem, Carlos Salinas, Brian Watkins, Gavin Garvey, Anjal C Sharma, Ritwik Ghosh
An antibody, specific to fibrinogen, has been covalently attached to graphene and deposited onto screen printed electrodes using a chitosan hydrogel binder to prepare an inexpensive electrochemical fibrinogen biosensor. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been utilized to confirm the presence of the antibody on the graphene scaffold. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been utilized to demonstrate that the biosensor responds in a selective manner to fibrinogen in aqueous media even in the presence of plasminogen, a potentially interfering molecule in the coagulopathy cascade...
December 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Lin Xu, Kun Zhao, Xiao Shen, Xin-Xin Fan, Kai Ding, Ren-Min Liu, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND As an extracellularly released mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initiates sterile inflammation following severe trauma. Serum HMGB1 levels correlate well with acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in trauma patients, which is independently associated with higher mortality. We investigated the involvement of HMGB1 in ATC through blocking extracellular HMGB1. MATERIAL AND METHODS The ATC model was induced by polytrauma and hemorrhage in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned to sham, ATC, and ATCH (ATC with HMGB1 blockade) groups...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kenny M Hansson, Karin J Johansson, Cecilia Wingren, Dietmar Fries, Karin Nelander, Ann Lövgren
Uncontrolled bleeding remains one of the leading causes of trauma-induced death. Treatment recommendations focus on fresh frozen plasma and blood cell transfusions, whereas plasma concentrates or single coagulation factors have been studied in recent years. The effect of recombinant human prothrombin factor II (rhFII, 8 mg/kg), activated recombinant human factor VII (rhFVIIa, 300 μg/kg), plasma-derived human fibrinogen (pdhFib) (200 mg/kg), activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC, 40 IU/kg), a three-factor combination intended as a minimal PCC (8 mg/kg rhFII, 640 μg/kg recombinant human factor X (rhFX), and 12 μg/kg rhFVIIa), and vehicle were investigated in a porcine model of dilutional coagulopathy with uncontrolled bleeding...
July 15, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Kelsey Stack, Lindsey Pryor
Bees and wasps of the Hymenoptera order are encountered on a daily basis throughout the world. Some encounters prove harmless, while others can have significant morbidity and mortality. Hymenoptera venom is thought to contain an enzyme that can cleave phospholipids and cause significant coagulation abnormalities. This toxin and others can lead to reactions ranging from local inflammation to anaphylaxis. We report a single case of a previously healthy man who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and anaphylaxis after a massive honeybee envenomation that caused a fall from standing resulting in significant head injury...
September 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Ronald Chang, Jessica C Cardenas, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
Ten percent of deaths worldwide are due to trauma, and it is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Despite a profound upregulation in procoagulant mechanisms, one-quarter of trauma patients present with laboratory-based evidence of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), which is associated with poorer outcomes including increased mortality. The most common causes of death after trauma are hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The management of TIC has significant implications in both because many hemorrhagic deaths could be preventable, and TIC is associated with progression of intracranial injury after TBI...
August 25, 2016: Blood
Gelareh Atefi, Omozuanvbo Aisiku, Nathan Shapiro, Carl Hauser, Jurandir Dalle Lucca, Robert Flaumenhaft, George C Tsokos
Trauma remains the main cause of death for both civilians and those in uniform. Trauma-associated coagulopathy is a complex process involving inflammation, coagulation, and platelet dysfunction. It is unknown whether activation of complement, which occurs invariably in trauma patients, is involved in the expression of trauma-associated coagulopathy. We designed a prospective study in which we enrolled 40 trauma patients and 30 healthy donors upon arrival to the emergency department of BIDMC. Platelets from healthy individuals were incubated with sera from trauma patients and their responsiveness to a thrombin receptor-activating peptide was measured using aggregometry...
September 2016: Shock
Jia Liu, Heng-Li Tian
Progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) can be divided into coagulopathy-related PHI and normal coagu- lation PHI. Coagulation disorders after traumatic brain injuries can be included in trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). Some studies showed that TIC is associated with PHI and increases the rates of disability and mortality. In this review, we discussed some mechanisms in TIC, which is of great importance in the development of PHI, including tissue factor (TF) hypothesis, protein C pathway and thrombocytopenia...
June 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
O Tarabrin, O Chystikov, S Shcherbakov, D Gavrychenko, G Mazurenko, P Tarabrin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Christiaan N Mamczak, Megan Maloney, Braxton Fritz, Bryan Boyer, Scott Thomas, Ed Evans, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino, Jonathon McCollester, Mark Walsh
OBJECTIVES: To describe the adjunctive use of thromboelastography (TEG) in directing initial blood component therapy resuscitation of patients with polytrauma with acute pelvic/acetabular fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort review. SETTING: Level-2 trauma center. PATIENTS: Forty adult trauma activations with acute pelvic and/or acetabular fractures were treated with standard fracture care and TEG with adjuvant platelet mapping (TEG/PM) analysis to guide their initial 24-hour resuscitation...
June 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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