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Cannabis psychosis

F Schürhoff, G Fond, F Berna, E Bulzacka, O Godin, L Boyer, D Misdrahi, M Andrianarisoa, L Brunel, N Coulon, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, J Mallet, R Rey, C Lancon, C Passerieux, A Schandrin, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, M Leboyer, P M Llorca
OBJECTIVES: The present article is a synthesis of the first 10 years of follow-up of the FondaMental Academic Center of Expertise for Schizophrenia (FACE-SZ) cohort. METHODS: More than 700 community-dwelling stabilized subjects have been recruited and evaluated to date. The mean age was 32 years with 75 % males, the mean illness duration was 11 years, the mean age at illness onset was 21 years, the mean duration of untreated psychosis was 1.5 years and 55 % were current daily tobacco smokers...
October 13, 2018: L'Encéphale
Jacqueline Mayoral-van Son, María Juncal-Ruiz, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, David Cantarero-Prieto, Carla Blázquez-Fenández, María Paz-Zulueta, Paula Paras, José L Ayuso-Mateos, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
AIM: Early intervention psychiatric services for patients with psychosis aim to limit the most damaging outcomes and reduce the patient's risk of social drift, decreasing illness severity and thus containing healthcare costs. There is a scarcity of studies that focus on first-episode psychosis (FEP), and those few that have been published only looked at direct health costs, but not at indirect costs, which make up the bulk of the budget. Our study aims to explore the short-term (1-year follow-up) economic cost of a FEP Program, including both direct and indirect costs...
October 12, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Rasmon Kalayasiri, Korakot Kraijak, Michael Maes, Apiwat Mutirangura
The use of psychoactive substances, including methamphetamine (MA) may cause changes in DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MA use on long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) methylation patterns in association with MA-induced paranoia. This study recruited 123 normal controls and 974 MA users, 302 with and 672 without MA-induced paranoia. The Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism was used to assess demographic and substance use variables. Patterns of LINE-1 methylation were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) was used to estimate overall LINE-1 methylation (mC) while COBRA classified LINE-alleles into four patterns based on the methylation status of two CpG dinucleotides on each strand from 5' to 3', namely two methylated (mCmC) and two unmethylated (uCuC) CpGs and two types of partially methylated loci (mCuC that is 5'm with 3'u and uCmC that is 5'u with 3'm CpGs)...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Avner Thaler, Shira Arad, Lihi Bar-Lev Schleider, Judith Knaani, Tali Taichman, Nir Giladi, Tanya Gurevich
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) experience reduced function and impaired quality of life. The current medical treatments for this syndrome can cause significant side effects and offer partial symptomatic relief. In a few small trials medical cannabis (MC) has been suggested to offer symptomatic relief with a relatively benign side effect profile. We conducted a real-life assessment of clinical benefit and adverse effects of chronic MC treatment among patients with GTS...
October 1, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Jasmina Mallet, Nicolas Mazer, Caroline Dubertret, Yann Le Strat
OBJECTIVE: Recent findings suggest an association between tobacco and psychosis, but whether this association is mediated by confounding factors is unknown. Psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) are a subclinical expression of psychosis. To disentangle the association of tobacco with PLEs, we examined data from a large US population-based, nationally representative sample. METHODS: Analysis was conducted on Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653 adults, conducted from 2004 to 2005)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Sinan Guloksuz, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Nicole Gunther, Christian Rauschenberg, Ulrich Reininghaus, Lotta-Katrin Pries, Maarten Bak, Jim van Os
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cannabis use, childhood adversity, and urbanicity, in interaction with proxy measures of genetic risk, may facilitate onset of psychosis in the sense of early affective dysregulation becoming 'complicated' by, first, attenuated psychosis and, eventually, full-blown psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Data were derived from three waves of the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). The impact of environmental risk factors (cannabis use, childhood adversity, and urbanicity) was analyzed across severity levels of psychopathology defined by the degree to which affective dysregulation was 'complicated' by low-grade psychotic experiences ('attenuated psychosis' - moderately severe) and, overt psychotic symptoms leading to help-seeking ('clinical psychosis' - most severe)...
October 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Bonnie J Leadbeater, Megan E Ames, Ashley N Linden-Carmichael
AIMS: We tested the age-varying associations of cannabis use (CU) frequency and disorder (CUD) with psychotic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms in adolescent and adult samples. Moderating effects of early onset (≤15 years) and sex were tested. DESIGN: Time-varying effect models were used to assess the significance of concurrent associations between CU and CUD and symptoms of psychosis, depression, and anxiety at each age. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adolescent data(V-HYS; N=662) were collected from a randomly recruited sample of adolescents in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada over a 10-year period(2003-2013)...
October 1, 2018: Addiction
Lauren E Reeves, Brandon A Gaudiano, Jane Metrik, Carolina Guzman Holst, Alexandra Morena, Valerie J Sydnor, Lauren M Weinstock, Gary Epstein-Lubow
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders use tobacco and cannabis at higher rates than the general population and individuals with other psychiatric disorders, which may contribute to increased rates of medical problems and mortality. The present study examined whether individuals with psychosis and comorbid tobacco and/or cannabis use disorders exhibit differing clinical characteristics in terms of their sociodemographic, mental health, substance use, physical health, and medication use patterns...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Rohit J Lodhi, Yabing Wang, David Rossolatos, Georgina MacIntyre, Alexandra Bowker, Candice Crocker, Hongyan Ren, Aleksandra Dimitrijevic, Darren A Bugbee, Alexandra Loverock, Brett Majeau, Sudhakar Sivapalan, Virginia M Newton, Philip Tibbo, Scot E Purdon, Katherine J Aitchison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Brain and Behavior
Sellwane M Mere, Saeeda Paruk
Background: Comorbid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among patients with psychotic disorders is associated with a poorer outcome. Understanding the association of HIV infection with demographic and clinical variables may provide clues to modify risk factors and outcomes. Aim: To describe and compare the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted with psychotic disorders with and without HIV infection. Method: A retrospective chart review of 100 adult patients consecutively admitted with psychosis and HIV infection and compared to 101 patients with psychosis without HIV infection...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Kazunori Matsumoto, Masahiro Katsura, Naohisa Tsujino, Shimako Nishiyama, Takahiro Nemoto, Naoyuki Katagiri, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yuko Higuchi, Noriyuki Ohmuro, Hiroo Matsuoka, Michio Suzuki, Masafumi Mizuno
There has been recent accumulation of evidence and clinical guidance regarding the at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis. However, most studies have been observational cohort and intervention studies of Western populations. To assess the validity of the ARMS concept and the transition rate to psychosis in a non-Western nation, we retrospectively combined and analyzed clinical data of individuals diagnosed with ARMS who were prospectively followed-up at three specialized clinical services for ARMS in Japan...
September 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Lauren Hood
Cannabis, or the dried leaves, stems, and seeds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in America. Typically smoked, vaporized or ingested orally, cannabis is used primarily for recreational purposes, though a few synthetic cannabinoids have been approved for medicinal treatments. Psychoactive cannabinoids, or the pharmacologically active compounds within cannabis, are responsible for producing the infamous "high" sensation, characterized by feelings of euphoria and relaxation, though can also provoke hallucinations, paranoia and anxiety...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Matthew E Sloan, Caroline W Grant, Joshua L Gowin, Vijay A Ramchandani, Bernard Le Foll
Endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in an array of psychopathologies ranging from anxiety to psychosis and addiction. In recent years, radiotracers targeting the endocannabinoid system have been used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies to determine whether individuals with psychiatric disorders display altered endocannabinoid signaling. We comprehensively reviewed PET studies examining differences in endocannabinoid signaling between individuals with psychiatric illness and healthy controls. Published studies evaluated individuals with five psychiatric disorders: cannabis use disorder, alcohol use disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders...
August 30, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Glenn E Hunt, Matthew M Large, Michelle Cleary, Harry Man Xiong Lai, John B Saunders
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity is highly prevalent between substance use disorders (SUDs) and schizophrenia. This systematic review and meta-analysis estimated prevalence rates of SUDs in epidemiological and treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or first episode psychosis. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases was conducted from 1990 to 2017 inclusive. Prevalence of co-morbid SUDs and schizophrenia were extracted and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using random effects meta-analysis...
October 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Linda E Klumpers, David L Thacker
Cannabis has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years. As a result of centuries of breeding and selection, there are now over 700 varieties of cannabis that contain hundreds of compounds, including cannabinoids and terpenes. Cannabinoids are fatty compounds that are the main biological active constituents of cannabis. Terpenes are volatile compounds that occur in many plants and have distinct odors. Cannabinoids exert their effect on the body by binding to receptors, specifically cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2...
August 23, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Lene H Hastrup, Merete Nordentoft, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen
AIM: Coupling data on future resource consumption with baseline characteristics can provide vital information of future consumption patterns for newly diagnosed patients. This study tested whether higher need (as measured by severity of illness) and other baseline characteristics of newly diagnosed patients were associated with higher future service costs. METHOD: Five hundred forty-seven patients between 18 and 45 years randomized to the OPUS trial was analysed in the study...
August 22, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Huiqiong Deng, Christopher D Verrico, Thomas R Kosten, David A Nielsen
Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) products have gained popularity as abused drugs over the past decade in many countries. The SCs broadly impact psychological state (e.g., mood, suicidal thoughts and psychosis) and physiological functions (e.g., cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urinary). This review is about the effects of SCs on psychotic symptoms in clinical settings and the potentially relevant chemistry and mechanisms of action for SCs. Induction of psychotic symptoms after consuming SC products were reported, including new-onset psychosis and psychotic relapses...
October 2018: Psychiatry Research
Brianna M Mills, Paula S Nurius, Ross L Matsueda, Frederick P Rivara, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
INTRODUCTION: Substance use, mental disorders, and arrest are markers of increased firearm injury risk. It is unclear how these markers vary by intent. Examining these interrelated factors together can clarify their associations with assault-related, self-inflicted, unintentional, and legal intervention firearm injuries, informing intent-specific interventions. METHODS: In 2017-2018, 2-year diagnosis and arrest histories of intent-specific firearm injury cases were compared with those of unintentionally injured motor vehicle collision passenger controls...
September 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Marco Colizzi, Natoy Burnett, Rosalia Costa, Mattia De Agostini, James Griffin, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in psychosis patients and has been identified as a risk factor for relapse and subsequent hospital readmission, having substantial economic implications. To clarify the contribution of cannabis consumption to hospital readmission, a consecutive inpatient cohort of 161 early psychosis patients was included into the study. Data on cannabis use at admission and number of hospital readmissions and length of stay (LOS, number of inpatient days) in a 6-year follow-up was extracted from clinical notes...
October 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jordi Soler, Bárbara Arias, Jorge Moya, Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez, Generós Ortet, Lourdes Fañanás, Mar Fatjó-Vilas
The ZNF804A gene and cannabis use are risk factors for psychosis and both have also been associated with schizotypal traits. This study aimed to investigate: i) the association of lifetime cannabis use (and its dose effect) with schizotypal personality traits, and ii) whether the genetic variability at ZNF804A gene modulates that association. Our sample consisted of 385 Spanish non-clinical subjects (43.1% males, mean age = 21.11(2.19)). Schizotypy was evaluated using the three factors of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B): Cognitive-Perceptual (SPQ-CP), Interpersonal (SPQ-I) and Disorganized (SPQ-D)...
August 14, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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