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Gene lung cancer

Kavita Nair, Ahmad Iskandarani, Roda Al-Thani, Ramzi Mohammad, Samir Jaoua
Cyt1A protein is a cytolytic protein encoded by the cyt gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) as part of the parasporal crystal proteins produced during the sporulation. Cyt1A protein is unique compared to the other endotoxins present in these parasporal crystals. Unlike δ-endotoxins, Cyt1A protein does not require receptors to bind to the target cell and activate the toxicity. It has the ability to affect a broad range of cell types and organisms, due to this characteristic. Cyt1A has been recognized to not only target the insect cells directly, but also recruit other endotoxins by acting as receptors...
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Deepali Jain, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri
CONTEXT: - There has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer. A number of oncogenic drivers have been identified in non-small cell lung carcinoma, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) gene rearrangement. Because of the clinical presentation at an advanced stage of disease in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients, the use of minimally invasive techniques is preferred to obtain a tumor sample for diagnosis...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Hidejiro Torigoe, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Chen Youyi, Kei Namba, Hiroki Sato, Kazuhiko Shien, Junichi Soh, Ken Suzawa, Shuta Tomida, Kazunori Tsukuda, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Shinichi Toyooka
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB (HER) family that is known to play important roles in the pathogenesis of various human cancers. Mutations of the EGFR gene are commonly found as oncogenic driver mutations, and have been targeted for treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain protein-1 (LRIG1) is a cell-surface protein that is known as a negative regulator of the ErbB (HER) family. In this study, we first confirmed that the expression levels of LRIG1 were much lower in NSCLC than in non-malignant cells or tissues...
March 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Muhammad Khairi Ahmad, Nur Ainina Abdollah, Nurul Husna Shafie, Narazah Mohd Yusof, Siti Razila Abdul Razak
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the main regulators of cellular proliferation, growth, and survival in physiological or pathological conditions. Aberrant MAPK signaling plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis, which leads to development and progression of human cancer. Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a member of the MAPK phosphatase family, interacts with specifically targeted extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 via negative feedback regulation in the MAPK pathway of mammalian cells...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Yuan Chen, Kai Leonie Schnitzler, Yunxia Ma, Miljana Nenkov, Bernhard Theis, Iver Petersen
Exploitation of autophagy might potentially improve therapeutic strategy. Here, we analyzed the protein expression of autophagy-associated genes including LC3A, LC3B, Beclin-1, p62, and Atg5 in 88-131 primary lung tumors by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue-microarrays (TMAs). Additionally, the DNA methylation pattern of LC3A was investigated by bisulfite sequencing (BS) and methylation-specific-PCR (MSP). It turned out that the higher expression of LC3A protein was associated with adenocarcinoma compared to squamous cell carcinoma of lung ( p = 0...
2018: Disease Markers
Xiaohui Chen, Yujie Deng, Yi Shi, Weifeng Zhu, Yibin Cai, Chunwei Xu, Kunshou Zhu, Xiongwei Zheng, Gang Chen, Qi Xie, Guoxing Weng
Functional inactivation of human runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) through mutation or epigenetic silencing has been well-documented in many cancerous entities. In addition to gene mutation and promoter hypermethylation, cytoplasmic mislocalization has emerged as another major manifestation of RUNX3 dysfunction in malignancies including breast, colorectal and gastric cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and different RUNX3 expression patterns would have different overall survival (OS), and the associations between different patterns of clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Zhong Ni, Xiting Wang, Tianchen Zhang, Linlin Li, Jianxue Li
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the subtype of lung cancer with the highest degree of malignancy and the lowest degree of differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of SCLC using bioinformatics analysis, and to provide new ideas for the early diagnosis and targeted therapy of SCLC. Microarray data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SCLC were compared with the normal lung samples and identified. Gene Ontology (GO) function and pathway analysis of DEGs was performed through the DAVID database...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Qianqian Wang, Jiahui Xu, Ying Li, Jumin Huang, Zebo Jiang, Yuwei Wang, Liang Liu, Elaine Lai Han Leung, Xiaojun Yao
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is able to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residue of histone, which plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Many efforts have been taken in discovering small-molecular inhibitors against PRMT5, but very few were reported and most of them were SAM-competitive. EPZ015666 is a recently reported PRMT5 inhibitor with a new binding site, which is different from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-binding pocket. This new binding site provides a new clue for the design and discovery of potent and specific PRMT5 inhibitors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Stephen Safe, James L Abbruzzese, Maen Abdelrahim, Erik Hedrick
Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors (TFs) such as Sp1 are critical for early development but their expression decreases with age and there is evidence that transformation of normal cells to cancer cells is associated with upregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 which are highly expressed in cancer cells and tumors. Sp1 is a negative prognostic factor for pancreatic, colon, glioma, gastric, breast, prostate, and lung cancer patients. Functional studies also demonstrate that Sp TFs regulate genes responsible for cancer cell growth, survival, migration/invasion, inflammation and drug resistance, and Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are also non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and important drug targets...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
G Vázquez-Gómez, L Rocha-Zavaleta, M Rodríguez-Sosa, P Petrosyan, J Rubio-Lightbourn
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), the most extensively studied carcinogen in cigarette smoke, has been regarded as a critical mediator of lung cancer. It is known that B[a]P-mediated Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activation stimulates the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling cascade in different cell models. MAPK pathway disturbances drive alterations in cellular processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and the disturbances may also modify the AhR pathway itself. However, MAPK involvement in B[a]P metabolic activation and toxicity in lung tissues is not well understood...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Vincent Plagnol, Samuel Woodhouse, Karen Howarth, Stefanie Lensing, Matt Smith, Michael Epstein, Mikidache Madi, Sarah Smalley, Catherine Leroy, Jonathan Hinton, Frank de Kievit, Esther Musgrave-Brown, Colin Herd, Katherine Baker-Neblett, Will Brennan, Peter Dimitrov, Nathan Campbell, Clive Morris, Nitzan Rosenfeld, James Clark, Davina Gale, Jamie Platt, John Calaway, Greg Jones, Tim Forshew
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis is being incorporated into cancer care; notably in profiling patients to guide treatment decisions. Responses to targeted therapies have been observed in patients with actionable mutations detected in plasma DNA at variant allele fractions (VAFs) below 0.5%. Highly sensitive methods are therefore required for optimal clinical use. To enable objective assessment of assay performance, detailed analytical validation is required. We developed the InVisionFirst™ assay, an assay based on enhanced tagged amplicon sequencing (eTAm-Seq™) technology to profile 36 genes commonly mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancer types for actionable genomic alterations in cell-free DNA...
2018: PloS One
Chia-Yen Dai, Yi-Shan Tsai, Wen-Wen Chou, Tawei Liu, Chung-Feng Huang, Shu-Chi Wang, Pei-Chien Tsai, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
Background/Aims: MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) has been found to regulate inflammation and acts as an oncogene in many cancers. The mechanisms of miR-125b expression during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be clarified. The present study aims to identify the factors that might regulate miR-125b expression in HCV infection. Results: High expression of miR-125b was found to correlate with HCV infection in replicon cells and in sera from HCV-infected patients, whereas the miR-125b inhibitor reduced HCV gene expression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Yufeng Du, Xiaoyan Hao, Xuejun Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor-2B-antisense RNA 1 CDKN2B-AS1 in patients with peripheral blood of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A total of 24 patients with IPF and 24 healthy controls were included in the study, four patients with IPF and four healthy controls were selected randomly to extract RNA. There were no other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes in the two groups. RNA from peripheral blood was extracted by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis was performed...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Hironori Yoshino, Miyu Iwabuchi, Yuka Kazama, Maho Furukawa, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and induce antiviral immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that RLR activation induces antitumor immunity and cytotoxicity against different types of cancer, including lung cancer. However a previous report has demonstrated that ionizing radiation exerts a limited effect on RLR in human monocytic cell-derived macrophages, suggesting that RLR agonists may be used as effective immunostimulants during radiation therapy...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Cheng-Hung Chuang, Li-Yu Wang, Yuen Man Wong, En-Shyh Lin
Metastatic lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality and has a mortality rate of ≥90%. Isolinderalactone (ILL) is a sesquiterpene lactone compound that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Research has demonstrated that ILL has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties; however, to the best of our knowledge, studies investigating whether ILL can inhibit lung cancer cell metastasis have not been conducted. In the present study, 1-10 µM ILL was applied in the culturing of the A549 lung cancer cell line to investigate the effects of ILL on the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells, including whether the possible mechanisms of ILL are associated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 (NM23-H1) genes...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Ning Zhan, Bin Li, Xiangying Xu, Jianyu Xu, Songliu Hu
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the key enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. FASN has been observed to be overexpressed in the majority of cancer tissues, and its expression is associated with a poor prognosis, potentially mediated by resistance to drug or radiation. The present study investigated whether the downregulation of FASN in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may increase radiosensitivity. A lentiviral vector containing short hairpin RNA targeted to FASN (pSIH-H1-Puro-shFASN) was successfully constructed and transfected into A549 cells to knockdown the gene by RNA interference...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yanchun Ma, Kun Chen, Zhenhua Yang, Ming Guan
Lung cancer is the most common type of malignancy to metastasize to the brain, with the median survival time of patients being 6-11 months. In the present study, the aim was to compare the actionable gene mutation profiles of primary lung adenocarcinoma (LC) samples and LC brain metastasis (LCBM) samples through targeted sequencing. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of 13 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded LC samples and 15 LCBM samples was performed using a customized OncoAim™ cancer panel and OncoAim™ RNA fusion panel on the MiSeq platform...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiao Sun, Tanxiao Huang, Fangsheng Cheng, Kaibing Huang, Ming Liu, Wan He, Mingwei Li, Xiaoni Zhang, Mingyan Xu, Shifu Chen, Ligang Xia
Postoperative monitoring for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) requires sensitive biomarkers that are associated with medical response and adjuvant therapy following surgery. Conventional tumor biomarkers [including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA19-9 and CA125] are widely used, but none of the markers provide high sensitivity or specificity. Previous studies indicated that circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is useful for postoperative monitoring of patients with cancer. However, the majority of previous studies involved patients with lung cancer, and therefore further studies are required which investigate patients with CRC...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Lars Kullmann, Michael P Krahn
The tumor suppressor LKB1 is an essential serine/threonine kinase, which regulates various cellular processes such as cell metabolism, cell proliferation, cell polarity, and cell migration. Germline mutations in the STK11 gene (encoding LKB1) are the cause of the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, which is characterized by benign polyps in the intestine and a higher risk for the patients to develop intestinal and extraintestinal tumors. Moreover, mutations and misregulation of LKB1 have been reported to occur in most types of tumors and are among the most common aberrations in lung cancer...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
Justin Stebbing, Kalpit Shah, Lei Cheng Lit, Teresa Gagliano, Angeliki Ditsiou, Tingting Wang, Franz Wendler, Thomas Simon, Krisztina Sára Szabó, Timothy O'Hanlon, Michael Dean, April Camilla Roslani, Swee Hung Cheah, Soo-Chin Lee, Georgios Giamas
Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is an oncogenic kinase that is involved in different types of cancer (breast, lung, gastric, colorectal) and biological processes including proliferation, invasion, migration, chromatin remodeling as well as innate and acquired endocrine resistance. However, the role of LMTK3 in response to cytotoxic chemotherapy has not been investigated thus far. Using both 2D and 3D tissue culture models, we found that overexpression of LMTK3 decreased the sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines to cytotoxic (doxorubicin) treatment...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
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