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Tjasse D Bruintjes, Hester J van der Zaag-Loonen, Frank Eggelmeijer, Roeland B van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common causes of dizziness. There is some evidence that osteoporosis is a risk factor for BPPV. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of BPPV in patients with proven osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 187 new consecutive patients who attended our osteoporosis clinic. All patients had proven osteoporosis (DEXA scan resulting in a T score ≤ - 2.5)...
October 12, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Xizhong Zhu, Liu Yang, Xiaojun Duan
Symptomatic cystic lesions of the talus are rare. The traditional operations usually do not provide visualization to reveal the deep structure of the lesion and could cause cartilage damage or other severe traumatic injury. We report an operative technique to reach the cystic lesion without talar cartilage damage, remove the lesion, and fill defect with a bone graft assisted by anterior arthroscopy and evaluate its safety and reliability for future study. Seven cases of talar bone cyst were included. The patients were placed in the supine position after anesthesia induction and noninvasive ankle traction was applied...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Eun-Su Choi, Young-Tae Jeon, Hye-Min Sohn, Dong-Woo Kim, Seok-Jun Choi, Chi-Bum In
BACKGROUND: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a well-known surrogate marker for intracranial pressure during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (RALP). ONSD during RALP is known to increase due to elevated intracranial pressure as a result of the steep Trendelenburg position and carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. We aimed to compare the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and desflurane anesthesia (DES) on ONSD during RALP. METHODS: Patients scheduled for RALP were enrolled and randomly assigned to the TIVA (propofol and remifentanil) or DES (desflurane and remifentanil) group in this randomized trial...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marie-Ève Leblanc, Audrey Auclair, Jacinthe Leclerc, Jean Bussières, Mohsen Agharazii, Frédéric-Simon Hould, Simon Marceau, Patrice Brassard, Christian Godbout, Audrey Grenier, Lyne Cloutier, Paul Poirier
Background: Blood pressure measurement in severe obesity may be technically challenging as the cuff of the device may not fit adequately around the upper arm. The aim of the study was to assess the agreement between intra-arterial blood pressure values (gold standard) compared with forearm blood pressure measurements in severely obese patients in different arm positions. Methods: Thirty-three severely obese patients and 21 controls participated in the study. Pairs of intra-arterial blood pressures were compared with simultaneous forearm blood pressure measurement using an oscillometric device in 4 positions: (i) supine, (ii) semi-fowler with the forearm resting at heart level, (iii) semi-fowler with the arm downward, and (iv) semi-fowler with the arm raised overhead...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Jae Hyuck Lee, Jae Yeun Lee, Jeong Hun Bae, Joon Mo Kim
PURPOSE: To compare posture-induced intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in vitrectomized eyes and normal eyes of patients who had vitrectomy in one eye. METHODS: A total of 31 patients older than 20 years of age who underwent vitrectomy were enrolled in the study. At least six months after vitrectomy, we measured IOP in both eyes using a rebound tonometer 10 minutes after the patient assumed sitting, supine, right lateral decubitus, and left lateral decubitus positions...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Michael Barnett-Cowan, Marc O Ernst, Heinrich H Bülthoff
In environments where orientation is ambiguous, the visual system uses prior knowledge about lighting coming from above to recognize objects, determine which way is up, and reorient the body. Here we investigated the extent with which assumed light from above preferences are affected by body orientation and the orientation of the retina relative to gravity. We tested the ability to extract shape-from-shading with seven human male observers positioned in multiple orientations relative to gravity using a modified KUKA anthropomorphic robot arm...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vincent Koppelmans, Jessica M Scott, Meghan E Downs, Kaitlin E Cassady, Peng Yuan, Ofer Pasternak, Scott J Wood, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Gadd, Igor Kofman, Roy Riascos, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Lori L Ploutz-Snyder, Rachael D Seidler
PURPOSE: Spaceflight negatively affects sensorimotor behavior; exercise mitigates some of these effects. Head down tilt bed rest (HDBR) induces body unloading and fluid shifts, and is often used to investigate spaceflight effects. Here, we examined whether exercise mitigates effects of 70 days HDBR on the brain and if fitness and brain changes with HDBR are related. METHODS: HDBR subjects were randomized to no-exercise (n = 5) or traditional aerobic and resistance exercise (n = 5)...
2018: PloS One
Timothée Fontolliet, Vincent Pichot, Aurélien Bringard, Nazzareno Fagoni, Alessandra Adami, Enrico Tam, Raffaello Furlan, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Guido Ferretti
INTRODUCTION: We performed the first analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and exercise under full autonomic blockade on the same subjects, to test the conjecture that vagal tone withdrawal occurs at exercise onset. We hypothesized that, between rest and exercise: i) no differences in total power (PTOT) under parasympathetic blockade; ii) a PTOT fall under β1-sympathetic blockade; iii) no differences in Ptot under blockade of both ANS branches. METHODS: 7 males (24±3 years) performed 5-min cycling (80W) supine, preceded by 5-min rest during control and with administration of atropine, metoprolol and atropine+metoprolol (double blockade)...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Pauliina Kangas, Antti Tikkakoski, Marko Uitto, Jari Viik, Heidi Bouquin, Onni Niemelä, Jukka Mustonen, Ilkka Pörsti
Impaired heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence regarding alterations of HRV in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains elusive. In order to examine HRV in MetS, we subjected 501 volunteers without atherosclerosis, diabetes or antihypertensive medication, mean age 48 years, to passive head-up tilt. The subjects were divided to control men (n = 131), men with MetS (n = 121), control women (n = 191) and women with MetS (n = 58) according to the criteria by Alberti et al...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
L Tarallo, M Lombardi, F Zambianchi, A Giorgini, F Catani
BACKGROUND: Distal biceps tendon rupture occurs more often in middle-aged male population, involving the dominant arm. In this retrospective study, it's been described the occurrence of the most frequent adverse events and the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture with the modified Morrey's double-incision approach, to determine better indications for patients with acute tendon injury. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with acute distal biceps tendon rupture treated with a modified double-incision technique between 2003 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated at a mean 24 months of follow-up...
October 10, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Shikma Katz, Nissim Arish, Ariel Rokach, Yacov Zaltzman, Esther-Lee Marcus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are routinely performed in the upright position due to measurement devices and patient comfort. This systematic review investigated the influence of body position on lung function in healthy persons and specific patient groups. METHODS: A search to identify English-language papers published from 1/1998-12/2017 was conducted using MEDLINE and Google Scholar with key words: body position, lung function, lung mechanics, lung volume, position change, positioning, posture, pulmonary function testing, sitting, standing, supine, ventilation, and ventilatory change...
October 11, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Juliana Valente Francica Grilletti, Katia Bilhar Scapini, Nathalia Bernardes, Jaqueline Spadari, Aline Bigongiari, Flavia de Andrade E Souza Mazuchi, Erico Chagas Caperuto, Iris Callado Sanches, Bruno Rodrigues, Kátia De Angelis
OBJECTIVES: Acute post-stroke patients present cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, which manifests as lower heart rate variability and impaired baroreflex sensitivity. However, few studies performed to date have evaluated cardiovascular autonomic function in chronic post-stroke patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic modulation in chronic post-ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: The seventeen enrolled subjects were divided into a stroke group (SG, n=10, 5±1 years after stroke) and a control group (CG, n=7)...
October 8, 2018: Clinics
O Fox, P Lorentzos, M Farhat, A Kanawati
The axillary nerve is the most commonly injured nerve around the arm. In the deltopectoral approach, classical teaching states that lateral rotation of the humerus increases the distance between the subscapularis and the axillary nerve. This is the first anatomical study to quantify the distance change between the axillary nerve and subscapularis produced by arm rotation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight arms were placed in the supine position and a classical deltopectoral approach was performed...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Hernán Cortés, Néstor Mendoza-Muñoz, Francisco A Galván-Gil, Jonathan J Magaña, Enrique Lima, Maykel González-Torres, Gerardo Leyva-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Previous studies analyzed a series of representative anatomical regions in the human body; however, there is a wide structural and cellular variability in the constitution of the skin. Our objective was to perform a comprehensive assessment of human skin hydration throughout the largest possible area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hydration was registered by Corneometer® CM825 probe in 23 anatomical regions of five healthy men. Each zone was analyzed by 2-cm segments in the supine, prone, and lateral positions...
October 10, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Takuya Kurazumi, Yojiro Ogawa, Hiroshi Morisaki, Ken-Ichi Iwasaki
Short-duration spaceflight induces an approximately 10% reduction in plasma volume, which leads to mild volume depletion. In a previous study, we found that mild volume depletion improved dynamic cerebral autoregulation. However, the effect of mild volume depletion on intracranial pressure (ICP) remains unknown. Therefore, we estimated ICP noninvasively (nICP), and calculated two indices relating to ICP, the cerebral artery compliance and the cerebral blood flow pulsatility index (PI), to examine whether ICP would decrease due to a mild decrement in plasma volume...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Benjamin M Strong, Ilya Voloshin
PURPOSE: Fixation with a cortical button is the biomechanically strongest surgical approach for distal biceps repair, and utilization of the 2-incision approach may provide a more anatomical repair and improved terminal supination strength. The risk of injury to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) associated with this approach requires further investigation. METHODS: A distal biceps repair with a cortical button was performed on 10 cadavers, 5 utilizing the single-incision approach and 5 utilizing the 2-incision approach...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Chenglun Yao, Weidong Weng, Xijie Zhou, Keshav Poonit, Jingquan Yang, Damu Lin, Chao Sun, Hede Yan
INTRODUCTION: Complicated elbow injuries (elbow injuries with bone and soft tissue injury) with distal biceps tendon ruptures (DBTRs) are not uncommon. There are several treatment modalities in different situations of injuries. In this article, we reported 3 successful individual treatments of delayed DBTR with complicated elbow injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three cases of complicated elbow injuries treated between 2010 and 2016 were reviewed. The delayed DBTR cases were summarized and treated...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
George Grammatopoulos, Wade Gofton, Zaid Jibri, Matthew Coyle, Johanna Dobransky, Cheryl Kreviazuk, Paul R Kim, Paul E Beaulé
BACKGROUND: Many patients undergo both THA and spinal arthrodesis, and those patients may not fare as well as those who undergo one procedure but not the other. The mechanisms of how spinal arthrodesis affects patient function after THA remain unclear. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The aims of our study were to (1) determine how patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), including the Oxford hip score as well as dislocations and complications compare after THA between patients with and without spinal arthrodesis; (2) characterize sagittal pelvic changes in these patients that occur when moving between different functional positions and test for differences between patients with and without spinal arthrodesis; and (3) assess whether differences in sagittal pelvic dynamics are associated with PROMs, complications, and dislocations after THA...
May 30, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Hannah Horris, Barton E Anderson, R Curtis Bay, Kellie C Huxel Bliven
CONTEXT: Altered diaphragm function is linked to decreased core stabilization, postural changes, and decreased function. Two clinical tests used to assess breathing are the hi-lo and lateral rib expansion (LRE) tests. It is currently unknown how breathing classification based on these tests differ, and how their results are affected by varying test positions. OBJECTIVE: To compare results of breathing tests when conducted in varying test positions. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Darren J Edwards, Hayley Young, Ross Johnston
Background: There is paucity in the literature regarding the role of the interoceptive pathway through the insular cortex (IC), as well as heart rate variability (HRV) in relation to Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy (OMT) and deep-touch. Aims: The present study investigated whether both OMT treatment and deep-touch (a newly hypothesized treatment option) was effective at altering the interoceptive pathway and HRV, whilst OMT was only expected to be effective for increasing Range of Motion (ROM). Methods: Thirty-five healthy volunteers were randomly allocated into three conditions in a repeated measures crossover design; a control (laying supine on a plinth); deep-touch (head cradling); and an osteopathic mobilization therapeutic technique on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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