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Danila Cianciosi, Alfonso Varela-Lopez, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, JiaoJiao Zhang, José L Quiles, Seyed F Nabav, Maurizio Battino, Francesca Giampieri
Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) or Tumor-Initiating Cells (TICs) are a small sub-population of cells within the tumor, able to give chemio- and radio-resistance and cause the onset of metastasis and the presence of relapses; for these reasons, they are recently becoming a potential target for anticancer therapy. One of the main characteristics of these cells is the self-renewal through the capability of modulating different molecular signalling pathways, including Wnt/β-Catenin, Sonic Hedgehog and Notch pathways...
August 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Xinghua Huang, Weijing Wu, Peng Hu, Qin Wang
To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying taurine-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs) and potential involvement of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway. The NSCs were characterized with immunofluorescence stained with nestin antibody. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The relative proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation assay. The morphologic index was measured under light microscope. The relative protein level was determined by immunoblotting...
August 13, 2018: Organogenesis
Salsabiel El Nagar, Almahdi Chakroun, Coralie Le Greneur, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Thomas Di Meglio, Thomas Lamonerie, Nathalie Billon
The developmental gene OTX2 is expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs), a cell population which undergoes massive expansion during the early postnatal period in response to sonic hedgehog (Shh). GCPs are thought to be at the origin of most medulloblastomas, a devastating paediatric cancer that arises in the developing cerebellum. OTX2 is overexpressed in all types of medulloblastomas, except in Shh-dependent type 2 medulloblastomas, although it has GCPs as cell-of-origin. This has led to the current view that OTX2 is not involved in tumorigenesis of this subgroup...
August 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
Antonios Stylianakis, Georgios Schinas, Pavlos C Thomaidis, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Dimitrios C Ziogas, Maria N Gamaletsou, George L Daikos, Spyros Pneumaticos, Nikolaos V Sipsas
We assessed the value of conventional culture, vial culture, and broad-range PCR of the sonication fluid (SF), individually or in combinations, for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We studied 114 consecutive patients (median age:72.5 years, males: 28.07%) undergoing removal of a total knee or hip prosthesis. By non-microbiologic criteria, 87 patients had aseptic failure, and 27 PJI. All patients had periprosthetic tissue culture, sonication of prosthesis, and study of SF by conventional and vial culture, and PCR...
September 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yumei Diao, Mohammed Ferdous-Ur Rahman, Yuri Vyatkin, Ani Azatyan, Georges St Laurent, Philipp Kapranov, Peter G Zaphiropoulos
Hedgehog (HH) signaling is involved in many physiological processes, and pathway deregulation can result in a wide range of malignancies. Glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) is a transcription factor and a terminal effector of the HH cascade. Despite its crucial role in tumorigenesis, our understanding of the GLI1 cellular targets is quite limited. In this study, we identified multiple new GLI1 target genes using a combination of different genomic surveys and then subjected them to in-depth validation in human cancer cell lines...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Yuexi Huang, Nir Lipsman, Michael L Schwartz, Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Andres M Lozano, Kullervo Hynynen
PURPOSE: To correlate the accumulated thermal dose (ATD) with lesion size in magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy to help guide future clinical treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with medication-refractory essential tremor were treated using a commercial MRgFUS brain system (ExAblate 4000, InSightec) in a 3T MR scanner (MR750, GE Healthcare). Intraoperative MR-thermometry was performed to measure the induced temperature and thermal dose distributions (thermal coefficient = -0...
August 11, 2018: Medical Physics
Krishna P Solanki, Meghal A Desai, Jigisha K Parikh
Environmental benign approach for extraction of essential oil was made. An essential oil rich in citronellol, linalool and citronellal was extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus using a clean hybrid extraction technique, sono hydrodistillation. Sono hydrodistillation combines ultrasonic waves along with conventional hydrodistillation process to have symbiotic outcomes in terms of process improvement. Significant process parameters such as size of the plant material, extraction time, power, ultrasound amplitude, pulse interval and solid loading were investigated independently to study the effect on yield of oil and composition of oil...
July 29, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Arup Jyoti Borah, Mayank Agarwal, Arun Goyal, Vijayanand S Moholkar
Invasive weeds ubiquitously found in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems form potential feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production. The present study has reported a bioprocess for production of ethanol using mixed feedstock of 8 invasive weeds found in India. The feedstock was subjected to pretreatment comprising dilute acid hydrolysis (for hydrolysis of hemicellulosic fraction), alkaline delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic fraction. Pentose-rich and hexose-rich hydrolyzates obtained from pretreatment were fermented separately using microbial cultures of S...
August 1, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tibor Teplický, Andrej Vincze, Anton Mateašík, Zuzana Garaiová, Miroslav Michalka, Beata Čunderlíková
Polysiloxanes have shown exquisite properties for fabrication of microstructures for various biomedical and biotechnological applications. Nevertheless, their biocompatibility in terms of cell adhesion and survival ability is controversial. A simple polysiloxane modifying procedure that reproducibly enhances cell adhesion was proposed. Sonication of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer of polysiloxane type, Ormocomp, in potassium hydroxide (KOH)/ethanol solution enhanced adhesion and subsequent survival of a panel of four cell lines...
August 10, 2018: Biointerphases
Magdalena Jedrzejczak-Silicka, Martyna Trukawka, Mateusz Dudziak, Katarzyna Piotrowska, Ewa Mijowska
Hexagonal boron nitride is often referred to as white graphene. This is a 2D layered material, with a structure similar to graphene. It has gained many applications in cosmetics, dental cements, ceramics etc. Hexagonal boron nitride is also used in medicine, as a drug carrier similar as graphene or graphene oxide. Here we report that this material can be exfoliated in two steps: chemical treatment (via modified Hummers method) followed by the sonication treatment. Afterwards, the surface of the obtained material can be efficiently functionalized with gold nanoparticles...
August 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
Agnese Po, Luana Abballe, Claudia Sabato, Francesca Gianno, Martina Chiacchiarini, Giuseppina Catanzaro, Enrico De Smaele, Felice Giangaspero, Elisabetta Ferretti, Evelina Miele, Zein Mersini Besharat
Molecular classification has improved the knowledge of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumour in children, however current treatments cause severe side effects in patients. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been described in MB and represent a sub population characterised by self-renewal and the ability to generate tumour cells, thus representing the reservoir of the tumour. To investigate molecular pathways that characterise this sub population, we isolated CSCs from Sonic Hedgehog Medulloblastoma (SHH MB) arisen in Patched 1 ( Ptch1 ) heterozygous mice, and performed miRNA- and mRNA-sequencing...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Orane Lorton, Jean-Noël Hyacinthe, Stéphane Desgranges, Laura Gui, Antoine Klauser, Zarko Celicanin, Lindsey A Crowe, François Lazeyras, Eric Allémann, Nicolas Taulier, Christiane Contino-Pépin, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVE: Perfluorocarbon nano- and micron-sized emulsions are a new field of investigation in cancer treatment due to their ability to be used as imaging contrast agents, or as delivery vectors for pharmaceuticals. They also demonstrated capability to enhance the efficiency of high intensity focused ultrasound thermo-therapy. In the context of new biomedical applications we investigated perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) theranostic droplets using 19 F NMR. Each droplet contains biocompatible fluorinated surfactants composed of a polar Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane head unit and hydrophobic perfluorinated tail (abbreviated as F-TAC)...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Hicran Dönmez Özkan, Kubilay Metin, Zehra Burcu Bakir, Senem Yiğit Özer
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the debris removal efficacies of irrigation activation techniques using ex vivo biomolecular film. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root canals of 50 human mandibular premolars were prepared, and freshly prepared collagen solutions were applied into the root canals using a peristaltic pump. Specimens were randomly divided into the five groups and irrigated with 3 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): G1 (needle irrigation and control group): a 27-gauge notched-tip irrigation needle (Endo-Eze; Ultradent, South Jordan, UT); G2, Vibringe sonic irrigation system (VSS) (Vibringe B...
August 10, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Lagle Kasak, Mihkel Näks, Priit Eek, Alla Piirsoo, Rohit Bhadoria, Pavel Starkov, Merilin Saarma, Sergo Kasvandik, Marko Piirsoo
Serine/threonine protein kinase ULK3 is implicated in a variety of cellular processes including autophagy, cell division and execution of Sonic hedgehog pathway. However, very little is known how its biological activity could be controlled. The present study is focused on unraveling biochemical insights into mechanism of inhibition and activation of ULK3. We identify novel phosphorylation sites in ULK3 and show that autophosphorylation has no impact on the kinase activity of the protein. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of two residues in the kinase domain of ULK3 by an as yet unidentified kinase may completely abolishes its catalytic activity...
August 10, 2018: Biochemistry
Zakia A Abdelhamed, Thomas A Ryan, Martin Fuller, Camilla Coulson-Gilmer, Dina I Abdelmottaleb, Tian-Li Wang, Jen-Chun Kaun, Peiyi Wang, Richard Hutson, Nafisa Wilkinson, Sandra M Bell, Colin A Johnson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of primary cilia on secretory cells in normal fallopian tube (FT) and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC). METHODS: Fallopian tube tissue samples were obtained from 4 females undergoing prophylactic hysterectomies and 6 patients diagnosed with STIC. A mogp-TAg transgenic mouse STIC sample was also compared with a wild-type mouse FT sample. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma was identified by hematoxylin and eosin staining and confirmed by positive Ki-67 and p53 immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Na Young Jung, Chang Kyu Park, Minsoo Kim, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, Jin Woo Chang
OBJECTIVE Recently, MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has emerged as an innovative treatment for numerous neurological disorders, including essential tremor, Parkinson's disease (PD), and some psychiatric disorders. Thus, clinical applications with this modality have been tried using various targets. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, initial effectiveness, and potential side effects of unilateral MRgFUS pallidotomy for the treatment of parkinsonian dyskinesia. METHODS A prospective, nonrandomized, single-arm clinical trial was conducted between December 2013 and May 2016 at a single tertiary medical center...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
B D Fulop, B Sandor, E Szentleleky, E Karanyicz, D Reglodi, B Gaszner, R Zakany, H Hashimoto, T Juhasz, A Tamas
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. This suggests its influence on the development of teeth, which are, similarly to the nervous system, ectoderm and neural crest derivatives. Our earlier studies have shown morphological differences between wild-type (WT) and PACAP-deficient mice, with upregulated sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the lack of PACAP. Notch signaling is a key element of proper tooth development by regulating apoptosis and cell proliferation...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
George Bepete, Nicolas Izard, Fernando Torres-Canas, Alain Derré, Arthur Sbardelotto, Eric Anglaret, Alain Pénicaud, Carlos Drummond
The main hurdle to the widespread use of single-walled carbon nanotubes remains the lack of methods to produce formulations of pristine, un-shortened, un-functionalized, individualized SWCNTs, thus preserving their extraordinary properties. In particular, sonication leads to shortening, detrimental to percolation properties (electrical, thermal, mechanical…). Using reductive dissolution and transfer into degassed water, open-ended, water filled nanotubes can be dispersed as individualized nanotubes in water/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures, avoiding the use of sonication and surfactant...
August 8, 2018: ACS Nano
Saeed Mueed Al-Qahtani, Marie-Luise Wille, Christian M Langton
Propagation of ultrasound through a complex composite sample may exhibit phase interference between two or more sonic-rays if differences in transit time are less than the pulse length. The transit time spectrum of a test sample, equivalent to its impulse response, was derived through active-set deconvolution of ultrasound signals with, and without, the test sample. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in cases where only the transmit ultrasound transducer's digitally-coded excitation signal is available, hence not the input ultrasound signal without the test sample, incorporation of the Transducer Impulse Response (TIR) may increase both accuracy and precision of ultrasound transit time spectroscopy...
August 8, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Wajiha, Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi, Rabia Afridi
Avian coccidiosis is an intestinal protozoan parasitic disease of genus Eimeria. Wide use of anticoccidial drugs has resulted in development of drug resistant strains. Current study is based upon the development of egg adapted vaccines; gametocytes, formalin inactivated and formalin inactivated sonicated gametocytes against coccidiosis. Day old chicks (n = 90) were divided into six groups (A-F) with triplicate. On 5th day of age, three groups were orally given developed vaccines (0.2 ml) while on 21st day groups (A-E) were challenged orally with mixed Eimeria spp (60-70,000 oocysts/chick)...
August 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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