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Variability + Entropy

Masafumi Terada, Megan Beard, Sara Carey, Kate Pfile, Brian Pietrosimone, Elizabeth Rullestad, Heather Whitaker, Phillip Gribble
This study aimed to compare time-to-boundary and sample entropy during a single-leg balance task between individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), lateral ankle sprain copers, and healthy controls. Twenty-two participants with CAI, 20 lateral ankle sprain copers, and 24 healthy controls performed a single-leg balance task during an eyes-closed condition. Participants with CAI exhibited lower time-to-boundary values compared with lateral ankle sprain copers and healthy controls. However, we did not find differences in sample entropy variables between cohorts...
October 13, 2018: Motor Control
Melanie Walter, Katharina Brugger, Franz Rubel
The Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the better known West Nile virus, and it can cause mass mortalities of song birds. In the present paper, a dataset of georeferenced locations of USUV-positive birds was compiled and then used to map the geographical distribution of suitable USUV habitats in Central Europe. Six habitat models, comprising BIOCLIM, DOMAIN, maximum entropy model (MAXENT), generalized linear model (GLM), boosted regression trees model (BRT), and random forests model (RF), were selected and tested for their performance ability to predict cases of disease in unsampled areas...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Michael A Rosen, Aaron S Dietz, Nam Lee, I-Jeng Wang, Jared Markowitz, Rhonda M Wyskiel, Ting Yang, Carey E Priebe, Adam Sapirstein, Ayse P Gurses, Peter J Pronovost
OBJECTIVE: To establish the validity of sensor-based measures of work processes for predicting perceived mental and physical exertion of critical care nurses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Repeated measures mixed-methods study in a surgical intensive care unit. Wearable and environmental sensors captured work process data. Nurses rated their mental (ME) and physical exertion (PE) for each four-hour block, and recorded patient and staffing-level workload factors. Shift was the grouping variable in multilevel modeling where sensor-based measures were used to predict nursing perceptions of exertion...
2018: PloS One
María José Jiménez-Santos, Miguel Arenas, Ugo Bastolla
The number of amino acids that occupy a given protein site during evolution reflects the selective constraints operating on the site. This evolutionary variability is strongly influenced by the structural properties of the site in the native structure, and it is quantified either through sequence entropy or through substitution rates. However, while the sequence entropy only depends on the equilibrium frequencies of the amino acids, the substitution rate also depends on the exchangeability matrix that describes mutations in the mathematical model of the substitution process...
2018: PeerJ
Tristan A Sharp, Spencer L Thomas, Ekin D Cubuk, Samuel S Schoenholz, David J Srolovitz, Andrea J Liu
In polycrystalline materials, grain boundaries are sites of enhanced atomic motion, but the complexity of the atomic structures within a grain boundary network makes it difficult to link the structure and atomic dynamics. Here, we use a machine learning technique to establish a connection between local structure and dynamics of these materials. Following previous work on bulk glassy materials, we define a purely structural quantity (softness) that captures the propensity of an atom to rearrange. This approach correctly identifies crystalline regions, stacking faults, and twin boundaries as having low likelihood of atomic rearrangements while finding a large variability within high-energy grain boundaries...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elie Fiogbé, Verena Vassimon-Barroso, Aparecida Maria Catai, Ruth Caldeira de Melo, Robison José Quitério, Alberto Porta, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi
Fiogbé, E, Vassimon-Barroso, V, Catai, AM, de Melo, RC, Quitério, RJ, Porta, A, and Takahashi, ACdM. Complexity of knee extensor torque: effect of aging and contraction intensity. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Assessing the knee extensors' torque complexity in old adults is relevant because these muscles are among the most involved in functional daily activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aging and isometric contraction intensity on knee extensor torque complexity. Eight young (24 ± 2...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Godwin E Akpan, Kayode A Adepoju, Olakunle R Oladosu, Samuel A Adelabu
Malaria is a major infectious disease that still affects nearly half of the world's population. Information on spatial distribution of malaria vector species is needed to improve malaria control efforts. In this study we used Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt) to estimate the potential distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and its siblings: Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and Anopheles arabiensis in Nigeria. Species occurrence data collected during the period 1900-2010 was used together with 19 bioclimatic, landuse and terrain variables...
2018: PloS One
M Vasfi Marandi, M Malekan, M M Ranjbar, N Dadashpour Davachi, S Alamian
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically important viral disease of chickens. The S1 subunit from Spike (S) protein plays the major role in protective immunity and is involved in the host-virus interactions, as well as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) serotyping. Aim of the present study was multi-aspect analysis of the molecular and immunological features of 5' part belonging to the S1 glycoprotein sequence of Iranian 793/B IBV strain isolates. This might ideally help in characterization, prevention, and vaccine development...
September 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Ozan Artun, Hakan Kavur
OBJECTIVE: In our study, we aimed to develop an ecological niche model showing current distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) by using location information on 630 cases of CL reported in the Mersin province between 2005 and 2015 and bioclimatic and environmental variables. METHODS: The ecological niche model was based on interpretation of patient locations and climatic data entered in geographical information systems and maximum entropy databases. RESULTS: In the model produced for the Mersin province, the area under the curve was calculated as 0...
September 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Zain Khurshid, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Florian C Gaertner, László Papp, Norbert Zsóter, Markus Essler, Ralph A Bundschuh
Purpose: Prostate cancer is most common tumor in men causing significant patient mortality and morbidity. In newer diagnostic/therapeutic agents PSMA linked ones are specifically important. Analysis of textural heterogeneity parameters is associated with determination of innately aggressive and therapy resistant cell lines thus emphasizing their importance in therapy planning. The objective of current study was to assess predictive ability of tumor textural heterogeneity parameters from baseline 68 Ga-PSMA PET prior to 177 Lu-PSMA therapy...
September 7, 2018: Oncotarget
Neethu Robinson, Kavitha P Thomas, Vinod A Prasad
Neural engineering research is actively engaged in optimizing the robustness of Sensorimotor Rhythms (SMR) -Brain Computer Interface (BCI) to boost its potential real-world use. This paper investigates two vital factors in efficient and robust SMR-BCI design - algorithms that address subject-variability of optimal features and neurophysiological factors that correlate with BCI performance. Existing SMR-BCI research using Electroencephalogram (EEG) to classify bilateral motor imagery (MI) focus on identifying subject-specific frequency bands with most discriminative motor patterns localized to sensorimotor region...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Sahar Gelfman, Quanli Wang, Yi-Fan Lu, Diana Hall, Christopher D Bostick, Ryan Dhindsa, Matt Halvorsen, K Melodi McSweeney, Ellese Cotterill, Tom Edinburgh, Michael A Beaumont, Wayne N Frankel, Slavé Petrovski, Andrew S Allen, Michael J Boland, David B Goldstein, Stephen J Eglen
Here we present an open-source R package 'meaRtools' that provides a platform for analyzing neuronal networks recorded on Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). Cultured neuronal networks monitored with MEAs are now being widely used to characterize in vitro models of neurological disorders and to evaluate pharmaceutical compounds. meaRtools provides core algorithms for MEA spike train analysis, feature extraction, statistical analysis and plotting of multiple MEA recordings with multiple genotypes and treatments. meaRtools functionality covers novel solutions for spike train analysis, including algorithms to assess electrode cross-correlation using the spike train tiling coefficient (STTC), mutual information, synchronized bursts and entropy within cultured wells...
October 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
S Reulecke, S Charleston-Villalobos, J González-Hermosillo, R González-Camarena, A Voss, M Gaitán-González, G Hernández-Pacheco, R Schroeder, T Aljama-Corrales
The present study investigates the instantaneous coupling among the cardiac, vascular, and respiratory systems, using the heart rate, respiration, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability in 12 healthy and 16 vasovagal syncope female subjects during a head-up tilt (HUT) testing protocol at 70° This study contributes to the coupling analysis by using a nonlinear joint symbolic dynamics (JSD) in a high-temporal resolution scheme, based on 5 min segments of the time series that are shifted every minute...
September 27, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Francesco Riganello, Stephen Karl Larroque, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Lizette Heine, Charlotte Martial, Manon Carrière, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Charlène Aubinet, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Camille Chatelle, Steven Laureys, Carol Di Perri
Background: Disorders of consciousness are challenging to diagnose, with inconsistent behavioral responses, motor and cognitive disabilities, leading to approximately 40% misdiagnoses. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the complexity of the heart-brain two-way dynamic interactions. HRV entropy analysis quantifies the unpredictability and complexity of the heart rate beats intervals. We here investigate the complexity index (CI), a score of HRV complexity by aggregating the non-linear multi-scale entropies over a range of time scales, and its discriminative power in chronic patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state (MCS), and its relation to brain functional connectivity...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya
A two-dimensional shadow may encompass more information than its corresponding three-dimensional object. Indeed, if we rotate the object, we achieve a pool of observed shadows from different angulations, gradients, shapes and variable length contours that make it possible for us to increase our available information. Starting from this simple observation, we show how informational entropies might turn out to be useful in the evaluation of scale-free dynamics in the brain. Indeed, brain activity exhibits a scale-free distribution that leads to the variations in the power law exponent typical of different functional neurophysiological states...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ortiz A, Bradler K, Garnham J, Slaney C, McLean S, Alda M
BACKGROUND: Mood regulation is a complex and poorly understood process. In this study, we aimed to analyze the underlying dynamics of mood regulation in unaffected first degree relatives of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder using time-series analysis. METHODS: We recruited 30 unaffected first-degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients. Participants rated their mood, anxiety and energy levels using a paper-based visual analog scale; they recorded their sleep and life events as well...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Csaba Forró, Greta Thompson-Steckel, Sean Weaver, Serge Weydert, Stephan Ihle, Harald Dermutz, Mathias J Aebersold, Raphael Pilz, László Demkó, János Vörös
Theoretical and in vivo neuroscience research suggests that functional information transfer within neuronal networks is influenced by circuit architecture. Due to the dynamic complexities of the brain, it remains a challenge to test the correlation between structure and function of a defined network. Engineering controlled neuronal networks in vitro offers a way to test structural motifs; however, no method has achieved small, multi-node networks with stable, unidirectional connections. Here, we screened ten different microchannel architectures within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices to test their potential for axonal guidance...
December 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Maxime Loizeau, Stéphane Buteau, Basile Chaix, Sara McElroy, Emilie Counil, Tarik Benmarhnia
Studies assessing socio-economic disparities in air pollution exposure and susceptibility are usually based on a single air pollution model. A time stratified case-crossover study was designed to assess the impact of the type of model on differential exposure and on the differential susceptibility in the relationship between ozone exposure and daily mortality by socio-economic strata (SES) in Montreal. Non-accidental deaths along with deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory causes on the island of Montreal for the period 1991-2002 were included as cases...
November 2018: Environmental Research
Klaus-Dieter Kohnert, Peter Heinke, Lutz Vogt, Petra Augstein, Eckhard Salzsieder
Methods from non-linear dynamics have enhanced understanding of functional dysregulation in various diseases but received less attention in diabetes. This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluates and compares relationships between indices of non-linear dynamics and traditional glycemic variability, and their potential application in diabetes control. Continuous glucose monitoring provided data for 177 subjects with type 1 ( n = 22), type 2 diabetes ( n = 143), and 12 non-diabetic subjects. Each time series comprised 576 glucose values...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pablo M Piaggi, Michele Parrinello
We introduce a computational method to discover polymorphs in molecular crystals at finite temperature. The method is based on reproducing the crystallization process starting from the liquid and letting the system discover the relevant polymorphs. This idea, however, conflicts with the fact that crystallization has a timescale much longer than that of molecular simulations. To bring the process within affordable simulation time, we enhance the fluctuations of a collective variable by constructing a bias potential with well-tempered metadynamics...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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