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Yuehong Chen, Jinlong Jian, Aubryanna Hettinghouse, Xueheng Zhao, Kenneth D R Setchell, Ying Sun, Chuan-Ju Liu
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a lethal lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by mutations in the HexA gene, which can lead to deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) activity and consequent accumulation of its substrate, GM2 ganglioside. Recent reports that progranulin (PGRN) functions as a chaperone of lysosomal enzymes and its deficiency is associated with LSDs, including Gaucher disease and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, prompted us to screen the effects of recombinant PGRN on lysosomal storage in fibroblasts from 11 patients affected by various LSDs, which led to the isolation of TSD in which PGRN demonstrated the best effects in reducing lysosomal storage...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Masashi Tanaka, Fangmiao Sun, Yulong Li, Richard Mooney
The cultural transmission of behaviour depends on the ability of the pupil to identify and emulate an appropriate tutor1-4 . How the brain of the pupil detects a suitable tutor and encodes the behaviour of the tutor is largely unknown. Juvenile zebra finches readily copy the songs of the adult tutors that they interact with, but not the songs that they listen to passively through a speaker5,6 , indicating that social cues generated by the tutor facilitate song imitation. Here we show that neurons in the midbrain periaqueductal grey of juvenile finches are selectively excited by a singing tutor and-by releasing dopamine in the cortical song nucleus HVC-help to encode the song representations of the tutor used for vocal copying...
October 17, 2018: Nature
Loren Merrill, Jennifer L Grindstaff
Stress exposure during development can impact both the expression of individual traits and associations between traits, but whether stress results in stronger or weaker associations between traits is unclear. In this study, we examined within- and among-trait associations for morphological and physiological traits in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) exposed to corticosterone (CORT) during the nestling and fledging stages as well as in control birds. Birds exposed to CORT exhibited stronger within-trait correlations over time and stronger associations among traits...
November 2018: American Naturalist
Andrew C Katsis, Mzuri H Davies, Katherine L Buchanan, Sonia Kleindorfer, Mark E Hauber, Mylene M Mariette
Songbirds are important models for understanding the mechanisms and fitness consequences of imitative vocal learning. Although the effects of early-life environmental and social conditions on song learning are well-established, the impact of early sound exposure has received surprisingly little attention. Yet recent evidence hints at auditory sensitivity in songbird embryos, including in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), a classic model species for song learning. Here, we tested whether prenatal exposure to incubation calls-highly rhythmic parental vocalisations produced on the nest-affected song learning in zebra finches...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marguerite E Matherne, Kasey Cockerill, Yiyang Zhou, Mihir Bellamkonda, David L Hu
The swinging of a mammal's tail has long been thought to deter biting insects, which, in cows, can drain up to 0.3 liters of blood per day. How effective is a mammal's tail at repelling insects? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we filmed horses, zebras, elephants, giraffes and dogs swinging their tails. The tail swings at triple the frequency of a gravity-driven pendulum, and requires 27 times more power input. Tails can also be used like a whip to directly strike at insects. This whip-like effect requires substantial torques from the base of the tail on the order of 101 -102  N m, comparable to the torque of a sedan, but still within the physical limits of the mammal...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Blanca Jimeno, Michaela Hau, Simon Verhulst
Glucocorticoid (GC) levels vary with environmental conditions, but the functional interpretation of GC variation remains contentious. A primary function is thought to be metabolic, mobilizing body reserves to match energetic demands. This view is supported by temperature-dependent GC levels, although reports of this effect show unexplained heterogeneity. We hypothesised that the temperature effect on GC concentrations will depend on food availability through its effect on the energy spent to gather the food needed for thermoregulation...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jana Hutter, Paddy J Slator, Daan Christiaens, Rui Pedro A G Teixeira, Thomas Roberts, Laurence Jackson, Anthony N Price, Shaihan Malik, Joseph V Hajnal
The emergence of multiparametric diffusion models combining diffusion and relaxometry measurements provides powerful new ways to explore tissue microstructure, with the potential to provide new insights into tissue structure and function. However, their ability to provide rich analyses and the potential for clinical translation critically depends on the availability of efficient, integrated, multi-dimensional acquisitions. We propose a fully integrated sequence simultaneously sampling the acquisition parameter spaces required for T1 and T2* relaxometry and diffusion MRI...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hao Xiang, Jason Han, William E Ridley, Lloyd J Ridley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Lloyd J Ridley, Jason Han, William E Ridley, Hao Xiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
N C N Perera, G I Godahewa, Sumi Jung, Myoung-Jin Kim, Bo-Hye Nam, Jehee Lee
Complement system orchestrates the innate and adaptive immunity via the activation, recruitment, and regulation of immune molecules to destroy pathogens. However, regulation of the complement is essential to avoid injuries to the autologous tissues. The present study unveils the characteristic features of an important complement component, anaphylatoxin inactivator from red lip mullet at its molecular and functional level. Mullet carboxypeptidase N1 (MuCPN1) cDNA sequence possessed an open reading frame of 1347 bp, which encoded a protein of 449 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 51 kDa...
October 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Koh Onimaru, Kaori Tatsumi, Kazuhiro Shibagaki, Shigehiro Kuraku
Although cartilaginous fishes have played crucial roles in various fields, including evolutionary biology, marine ecology, bioresources, and aquarium exhibitions, molecular information for these species is poorly available. The present study reports a transcriptome assembly from an embryo of the zebra bullhead shark (Heterodontus zebra), produced by paired-end RNA sequencing. Transcriptome data is generated with a de novo transcriptome assembler, Trinity. Amino acid sequences are predicted from the assemblies, using TransDecoder...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Data
Maria Alexandra Bighiu, Anna Norman Haldén, Willem Goedkoop, Jakob Ottoson
Aquatic pollution with faecal bacteria and subsequent consumption of contaminated water or food is a worldwide issue that causes severe health effects (e.g. meningitis, salmonellosis, dysentery). In addition, the excessive use of antibiotics in animal husbandry and human medicine has enhanced the selective pressure on pathogenic bacteria, further increasing human health risks and detrimental effects on natural microbial communities. This urges the need to monitor faecal contamination using a time-integrated approach, as grab water samples can miss pathogen peaks...
September 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jenilee Gobin, Nigel P Lester, Michael G Fox, Erin S Dunlop
Harvesting can induce rapid evolution in animal populations, yet the role of ecological change in buffering or enhancing that response is poorly understood. Here, we developed an eco-genetic model to examine how ecological changes brought about by two notorious invasive species, zebra and quagga mussels, influence harvest-induced evolution and resilience in a freshwater fish. Our study focused on lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where the species supports valuable commercial and subsistence fisheries, and where the invasion of dreissenid (zebra and quagga) mussels caused drastic shifts in ecosystem productivity...
October 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Nora H Prior, Marie S A Fernandez, Hédi A Soula, Clémentine Vignal
Although steroids are widely known to affect behavior through activation of nuclear/cytosolic receptors ("genomic" effects), steroids can also rapidly affect behavior via modulation of signal transduction pathways ("nongenomic," fast actions, or rapid effects). In zebra finches, there is evidence that sex steroids have context-specific effects on pair-maintenance behavior, on both acute and chronic timescales. Here, we quantified the effects of orally administered testosterone and 17β-estradiol (E2) on pair-maintenance behavior...
October 4, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Shubham K Jaiswal, Ankit Gupta, Rituja Saxena, Vishnu P K Prasoodanan, Ashok K Sharma, Parul Mittal, Ankita Roy, Aaron B A Shafer, Nagarjun Vijay, Vineet K Sharma
The unique ornamental features and extreme sexual traits of Peacock have always intrigued scientists and naturalists for centuries. However, the genomic basis of these phenotypes are yet unknown. Here, we report the first genome sequence and comparative analysis of peacock with the high quality genomes of chicken, turkey, duck, flycatcher and zebra finch. Genes involved in early developmental pathways including TGF-β, BMP, and Wnt signaling, which have been shown to be involved in feather patterning, bone morphogenesis, and skeletal muscle development, revealed signs of adaptive evolution and provided useful clues on the phenotypes of peacock...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Susan A Elmore, Vinicius Carreira, Caralyn S Labriola, Debabrata Mahapatra, Sean R McKeag, Matthias Rinke, Cynthia Shackelford, Bhanu Singh, Ashley Talley, Shannon M Wallace, Lyn M Wancket, Cynthia J Willson
The 2018 annual National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, at the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 37th annual meeting. The goal of this symposium was to present and discuss challenging diagnostic pathology and/or nomenclature issues. This article presents summaries of the speakers' talks along with select images that were used by the audience for voting and discussion. Various lesions and other topics covered during the symposium included seminiferous tubule dysgenesis in rats, ameloblast and odontoblast degeneration/necrosis in a Sprague Dawley rat, intestinal leiomyositis in a beagle dog, gallbladder mucinous hyperplasia, focus of hepatocellular alteration and bile duct alteration in otters, renal tubule cytoplasmic vacuolation with basophilic granules in mice treated swith antisense oligonucleotide therapy, a uterine choriocarcinoma in a rhesus macaque, and rete ovarii proliferative ovarian lesions in various aged rat strains...
October 3, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Nicolas Courbin, Andrew J Loveridge, Hervé Fritz, David W Macdonald, Rémi Patin, Marion Valeix, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
1.Diel migrations (DM; back and forth diel movements along an ecological gradient) undertaken by prey to avoid predators during the day have been demonstrated in many taxa in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial ecosystems, prey often shift between various vegetation types whose cover determine their vulnerability (i.e. likelihood of being killed when attacked). 2.We conceptualized that in terrestrial ecosystems DM could also occur, and that the contribution of DM and shifts in vegetation cover use in reducing predation risk should depend upon the predator behaviour and the correlation between encounter risk and vulnerability across vegetation types...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Julie E Elie, Frédéric E Theunissen
Individual recognition is critical in social animal communication, but it has not been demonstrated for a complete vocal repertoire. Deciphering the nature of individual signatures across call types is necessary to understand how animals solve the problem of combining, in the same signal, information about identity and behavioral state. We show that distinct signatures differentiate zebra finch individuals for each call type. The distinctiveness of these signatures varies: contact calls bear strong individual signatures while calls used during aggressive encounters are less individualized...
October 2, 2018: Nature Communications
En Shi, Zhenlan Xu, Xiaoxia Zhang, Xuezhi Yang, Qian Liu, Hangjun Zhang, Andreas Wimmer, Lingxiangyu Li
Stability of silver sulfide nanoparticle (Ag2 S-NP) in the environment has recently drawn considerable attention since it is associated with environmental risk. Although the overestimated stability of Ag2 S-NP in aqueous solution has already been recognized, studies on transformation of Ag2 S-NP in environmental water are still very scarce. Here we reported that Ag2 S-NP could undergo dissolution by manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2 ), an important naturally occurring oxidant in the environment, even in environmental water, although the dissolved silver would probably be adsorbed onto the particles (>0...
September 22, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wim Geeraerts, Luc De Vuyst, Frédéric Leroy
Although equine meats and their derived smoked or fermented products are popular in some regions of the world, they only form a minor fraction of the global meat consumption. The latter may explain why their associated bacterial communities have not received much attention. In the present study, 69 different samples of equine meats and meat products were investigated. The samples consisted of raw meat from horses (17 samples) and zebra (7), as well as non-fermented but smoked (24) and fermented (21) horse meat products...
September 22, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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