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Yousheng Rao, Zhangfeng Wang, Wen Luo, Wentao Sheng, Rendian Zhang, Xuewen Chai
In the present study, we carried out an examination of the amino acid usage in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) proteome. We found that tRNA abundance, base composition, hydrophobicity and aromaticity, protein second structure, cysteine residue (Cys) content and protein molecular weight had significant impact on the amino acid usage of the zebra finch. The above factors explained the total variability of 22.85%, 25.37%, 10.91%, 5.06%, 4.21%, and 3.14%, respectively. Altogether, approximately 70% of the total variability in zebra finch could be explained by such factors...
2018: PloS One
Laken N Cooper, Ila Mishra, Noah T Ashley
Lack of sleep incurs physiological costs that include increased inflammation and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Specifically, sleep restriction or deprivation leads to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated glucocorticoids in rodent models, but whether birds exact similar costs is unknown. In this study, we examined whether zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), an avian model species, exhibits physiological costs of sleep loss by using a novel automated sleep fragmentation/deprivation method, wherein a horizontal wire sweeps across a test cage to disrupt sleep every 120 s...
January 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jiann-Hwa Lue, Yu-Sheng Su, Tai-Chih Kuo
The world-to-chip interface is an essential yet intriguing part of making and employing microfluidic devices. A user-friendly connector could be expensive or difficult to make. We fabricated two ports of microfluidic chips with easily available materials including Teflon blocks, double adhesive films, coverslips, and transparency films. By using a mini grinder, coverslips were drilled to form small holes for the fluid passages between port and chip. Except for the double adhesive films, the resultant ports are durable and re-useable...
December 1, 2018: Sensors
E Solima, I Pino, G Scagnelli, D Biasoni, M Vignali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Elena Coyago-Cruz, Mireia Corell, Alfonso Moriana, Paula Mapelli-Brahm, Dolores Hernanz, Carla M Stinco, Elena Beltrán-Sinchiguano, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez
The aim of this study was to assess commercial quality parameters, sugars, phenolics, carotenoids and plastid in diverse and little studied tomato varieties to gain insight into their commercial and functional quality and reveal possible noticeable differences. Five cherry tomato varieties and six common (i.e., non-cherry) tomatoes were evaluated. The highest levels of lycopene were detected in 'Tigerella' and 'Byelsa', and those of phytoene in 'Orange', those of phenolics in 'Green Zebra', all of them common tomatoes...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Roberto Carlos Frias-Soler, Lilian Villarín Pildaín, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Jonas Kolibius, Franz Bairlein, Michael Wink
We have sequenced a partial transcriptome of the Northern Wheatear ( Oenanthe oenanthe ), a species with one of the longest migrations on Earth. The transcriptome was constructed de novo using RNA-Seq sequence data from the pooled mRNA of six different tissues: brain, muscle, intestine, liver, adipose tissue and skin. The samples came from nine captive-bred wheatears collected at three different stages of the endogenous autumn migratory period: (1) lean birds prior the onset of migration, (2) during the fattening stage and (3) individuals at their migratory body mass plateau, when they have almost doubled their lean body mass...
2018: PeerJ
Dario Giambelluca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Javier Masis, David Mankus, Steffen B E Wolff, Grigori Guitchounts, Maximilian Joesch, David D Cox
Lesion and electrode location verification are traditionally done via histological examination of stained brain slices, a time-consuming procedure that requires manual estimation. Here, we describe a simple, straightforward method for quantifying lesions and locating electrodes in the brain that is less laborious and yields more detailed results. Whole brains are stained with osmium tetroxide, embedded in resin, and imaged with a micro-CT scanner. The scans result in 3D digital volumes of the brains with resolutions and virtual section thicknesses dependent on the sample size (12-15 and 5-6 µm per voxel for rat and zebra finch brains, respectively)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Erick Kandiwa, Borden Mushonga, Alaster Samkange, Ezequiel Fabiano
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and haemotoxicity of the Western barred (zebra) spitting cobra ( Naja nigricincta nigricincta ) venom to help explain atypical and inconsistent reports on syndromes by Namibian physicians treating victims of human ophidian accidents. Freeze-dried venom milked from adult zebra snakes was dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for use in this study. Haemorrhagic and necrotic activity of venom were studied in New Zealand albino rabbits. Oedema-forming activity was investigated in 10-day-old Cobb500 broiler chicks...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Sarah W Bottjer, Andrew A Ronald, Tiara Kaye
The caudo-medial nidopallium (NCM) is a higher-level region of auditory cortex in songbirds that has been implicated in encoding learned vocalizations and mediating perception of complex sounds. We made cell-attached recordings in awake adult male zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata) to characterize responses of single NCM neurons to playback of tones and songs. Neurons fell into two broad classes: narrow fast-spiking cells and broad sparsely-firing cells. Virtually all narrow-spiking cells responded to playback of pure tones, compared to approximately half of broad-spiking cells...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Fanny-Linn O H Kraft, Stephanie C Driscoll, Katherine L Buchanan, Ondi L Crino
Animals exposed to stressful developmental conditions can experience sustained physiological, behavioral, and fitness effects. While extensive research shows how developmental stress affects development, few studies have examined the effects on body composition. To test the effects of developmental stress on nestling and adult body composition, we dosed nestling zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with either a corticosterone (CORT) or control treatment. We calculated condition indices (scaled mass, residual mass, and ratio indices) from morphometric measurements and used quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) to assess body composition during early development and adulthood...
November 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Antoine LE Guernic, Alain Geffard, Damien Rioult, Isabelle Bonnard, Frank LE Foll, Mélissa Palos-Ladeiro
The interaction between human protozoan parasites and the immune cells of bivalves, that can accumulate them, is poorly described. The purpose of this study is to consider the mechanisms of action of some of these protozoa on zebra mussel hemocytes, by evaluating their cytotoxic potential. Hemocytes were exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis or Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts. The results showed a cytotoxic potency of the two largest protozoa on hemocytes, and suggested the formation of hemocyte aggregates...
November 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Peter A Seeber, Anisha Dayaram, Florian Sicks, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Mathias Franz, Alex D Greenwood
Equid Herpesviruses (EHV) are pathogens of equid and non-equid hosts that can cause disease and fatalities in captivity and in the wild. EHVs establish latent infections but can reactivate, and most EHVs are shed via the nasal passage. Therefore, nasal swabs are generally used for EHV monitoring. However, invasive sampling of wild equids is difficult. While feces is a commonly used substrate for detecting other pathogens, to our knowledge EHVs have never been detected in feces of naturally infected equids. We systematically tested zebra feces for EHV presence by A) establishing nested PCR conditions for fecal DNA extracts, B) controlling for environmental EHV contamination, and C) large-scale testing on a free-ranging zebra population...
November 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
A A Maldonado-Chaparro, G Alarcón-Nieto, J A Klarevas-Irby, D R Farine
In group-living species, social stability is an important trait associated with the evolution of complex behaviours such as cooperation. While the drivers of stability in small groups are relatively well studied, little is known about the potential impacts of unstable states on animal societies. Temporary changes in group composition, such as a social group splitting and recombining (i.e. a disturbance event), can result in individuals having to re-establish their social relationships, thus taking time away from other tasks such as foraging or vigilance...
November 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Megan Reilly, Natalya Machado, Sheila E Blumstein
The role of semantic features, which are distinctive (e.g., a zebra's stripes) or shared (e.g. has four legs) for accessing a concept, has been studied in detail in early neurodegenerative disease such as semantic dementia (SD). However, potential neural underpinnings of such processing have not been studied in healthy adults. The current study examines neural activation patterns using fMRI while participants completed a feature verification task, in which they identified shared or distinctive semantic features for a set of natural kinds and man-made artifacts...
November 13, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Samarah Cook, Vanessa Hung, Kelli A Duncan
OBJECTIVES: Characterized by neuroinflammation, traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces neuropathological changes and cognitive deficits. Estrogens are neuroprotective by increasing cell survival and this increase is mediated by a decrease in neuroinflammation. To further explore the relationship between estrogens, brain injury, and neuroinflammation, we examined the expression of the IKK/NFκB complex. The IKK/NFκB complex is a pleiotropic regulator of many cellular signaling pathways linked to inflammation, as well as three major cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α)...
November 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Ranran Zhou, Guanghua Lu, Zhenhua Yan, Runren Jiang, Jie Shen, Xuhui Bao
Ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) is one of the major organic ultraviolet (UV) filter pollutants in the environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the parental transfer of EHMC and induced biochemical responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to EHMC solution (1, 10, and 100 μg/L) for 4 months until sexual maturation. Then male and female parents were paired to lay eggs. F1 generations were divided into 2 categories: with and without continued EHMC exposure...
November 3, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Derrick W Shaughnessy, Richard L Hyson, Richard Bertram, Wei Wu, Frank Johnson
Adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), which do not produce learned songs, have long been thought to possess only vestiges of the forebrain network that supports learned song in males. This view ostensibly explains why females do not sing - many of the neural populations and pathways that make up the male song control network appear rudimentary or even missing in females. For example, classic studies of vocal-premotor cortex (HVC, acronym is name) in male zebra finches identified prominent efferent pathways from HVC to vocal-motor cortex (RA, robust nucleus of the arcopallium) and from HVC to the avian basal ganglia (Area X)...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
J Barske, M Eghbali, S Kosarussavadi, E Choi, B A Schlinger
The courtship behavior of some species of birds can be energetically demanding, but it is unknown if cardiovascular specializations enable such behaviors. While performing a highly acrobatic courtship dance, heart rate in male golden-collared manakins increases briefly to 1300 beats per minute, among the highest heart rates recorded in any bird or mammal. We hypothesize that male manakins have enhanced cardiovascular capabilities to meet these demands on the heart. Using histological and molecular techniques, we examined manakin heart structure as well as expression of genes involved in Ca2+ handling, action potential duration, steroidal signaling and cardiac growth...
October 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Melissah Rowe, Sheri Skerget, Matthew A Rosenow, Timothy L Karr
Spermatozoa exhibit remarkable variability in size, shape, and performance. Our understanding of the molecular basis of this variation, however, is limited, especially in avian taxa. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a model organism in the study of avian sperm biology and sperm competition. Using LC-MS based proteomics, we identify and describe 494 proteins of the zebra finch sperm proteome (ZfSP). Gene ontology and associated bioinformatics analyses revealed a rich repertoire of proteins essential to sperm structure and function, including proteins linked to metabolism and energetics, as well as tubulin binding and microtubule related functions...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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