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Adult protective services

José Antonio López Trigo, Rosa López Mongil, Alberto Mariano Lázaro, Gloria Mato Chaín, Norberto Moreno Villajos, Primitivo Ramos Cordero
Influenza is a significant health problem, particularly in those persons susceptible to having associated complications, older people, children less than 2 years, patients with chronic diseases, immunocompromised patients, and pregnant women. But influenza also has a large impact on the health system, with an increase in the healthcare demand and a spectacular increase in outpatient visits, overloading the emergency and hospital services. During epidemic outbreaks, the hospital admission rates of people over 65 years are at a maximum, and the mortality notified for the 2017/2018 influenza season was 960 deaths...
August 11, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Kimberly Stanford, Alyssa Cappetta, Roy Ahn, Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Trafficking of adults and children for both sex and labor is a human rights violation occurring with alarming frequency throughout the world, and resulting in profound harm to close-knit communities and severe health consequences for victims. Certain areas, such as the country of Paraguay, are at a higher risk for trafficking due to unique economic, cultural, and geographic factors. Thousands of people, especially children, are trafficked within Paraguay's borders, and many eventually are transported to neighboring countries and sometimes to Europe and elsewhere...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Matthieu Heidet, Roland Amathieu, Etienne Audureau, Oriane Augusto, Violaine Nicolazo de Barmon, Amandine Rialland, David Schmitz, François Pierrang, Jean Marty, Charlotte Chollet-Xémard, Olivier Thirion, Line Jacob
INTRODUCTION: The management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is challenging in patients with cirrhosis, as it is responsible for severe complications and high mortality rates. Tranexamic acid (TXA) may help control the bleeding by counterbalancing cirrhosis-related hyperfibrinolysis. Still, there is a lack of unbiased data to conclude on its efficacy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in the early treatment of acute UGIB in patients with cirrhosis...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Irene Ma, Maggie Guo, Daniel Muruve, Hallgrimur Benediktsson, Christopher Naugler
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often asymptomatic in its early stages but is indicated and is diagnosed with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 . Certain sociodemographic groups are known to be at risk for CKD, but it is unclear if there are strong associations between these at risk groups with abnormal eGFR test results in Canada. Using only secondary laboratory and Census data, geospatial variation and sociodemographic associations with abnormal eGFR result rate were investigated in Calgary, Alberta...
August 9, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Penelope Casey, Wendy Cross, Melinda Webb-St Mart, Cathryn Baldwin, Kath Riddell, Peteris Darzins
BACKGROUND: Delirium in hospitalised patients is common, and a risk factor for adverse outcomes. Health services require accurate delirium data to monitor the impact of initiatives designed to improve detection and prevention of delirium. AIM: To determine the extent to which ICD codes represent delirium occurrence. METHODS: A cross-sectional point prevalence survey was used to audit delirium occurrence in 25 inpatient wards of an Australian health service...
August 8, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Chris Hopkins, Murray Reid, Judy Gilmour, Suzanne Werder, Simon Briggs
BACKGROUND: Earlier diagnosis of HIV infection improves health outcomes and reduces transmission. In New Zealand half of new HIV diagnoses between 2005 and 2010 had a CD4 count below 350 cells/mm3 . HIV screening is already offered in antenatal settings in New Zealand, but not universally in hospital settings. AIMS: To assess the impact of missed opportunities to diagnose HIV infection in adults presenting to hospital services at Auckland District Health Board (ADHB)...
August 8, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Kendon J Conrad, Karen M Conrad
Background and Objectives: Within the elder abuse field, research on the characteristics of the abusers is scant, and no validated measure of abuser risk exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the Abuser Risk Measure (ARM). Research Design and Methods: The Rasch measurement model and traditional psychometrics were used on a sample of 425 elder abuse cases that completed an elder abuse investigation and had a substantiation decision (yes/no). All had usable ARM responses that were obtained primarily from the alleged victim...
August 4, 2018: Gerontologist
Maya Gobin, G James Rubin, Idit Albert, Alison Beck, Andrea Danese, Neil Greenberg, Nick Grey, Patrick Smith, Isabel Oliver
Following several terrorist attacks in 2015 and 2016, a national program was set up to identify and support residents of England whose mental health had been affected. We report the outcomes of the program's screening and assessment components. Questionnaires and information about the program were mailed to 483 people and 49 families known to the police. Individuals who screened positive on an assessment for posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, increased smoking, or problematic alcohol consumption were offered clinical assessment and referred to an appropriate National Health Service (NHS) service, if required...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Charlene E Goh, Stephen J Mooney, David S Siscovick, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Philip Hurvitz, Nona Sotoodehnia, Tanya K Kaufman, Garazi Zulaika, Gina S Lovasi
BACKGROUND: Medical establishments in the neighborhood, such as pharmacies and primary care clinics, may play a role in improving access to preventive care and treatment and could explain previously reported neighborhood variations in sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) incidence and survival. METHODS: The Cardiac Arrest Blood Study Repository is a population-based repository of data from adult cardiac arrest patients and population-based controls residing in King County, Washington...
September 2018: Resuscitation
Jane Noyes, Shan Pritchard, Aaron Pritchard, Virginia Bennett, Sally Rees
AIMS: To report a secondary qualitative analysis exploring the cultural and practical differences that young people and parents experience when transitioning from children's to adult services. BACKGROUND: Despite two decades of research and quality improvement initiatives, young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions still find transition unsatisfactory. DESIGN: Secondary analysis: 77 qualitative interviews with children and young people (20), parents (35), siblings (1), professionals (21)...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Celia B Fisher, Adam L Fried, Leah Ibrahim Puri, Kathryn Macapagal, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Adolescent men who have sex with men (AMSM) account for disproportionately high numbers of new HIV diagnoses. Non-adherence to daily use limiting the effectiveness of oral PrEP (Truvada) has led to current trials with adult MSM testing Cabotegravir, a long-term injectable medication. Once comparative studies with young adult MSM have established relative safety and efficacy of these medications, there will be a need for such comparative trials involving adolescents. Trends in state laws and IRB protocol review indicate that many of these studies will permit youth to provide independent consent for participation...
2018: PloS One
Ryan M McKenna, Brent A Langellier, Héctor E Alcalá, Dylan H Roby, David T Grande, Alexander N Ortega
We use data from the 2011-2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has influenced disparities in health care-related financial strain, access to care, and utilization of services by categories of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). We use multivariable regression analyses to determine the ACA's effects on these outcome measures, as well as to determine how changes in these measures varied across different FPL levels. We find that the national implementation of the ACA's insurance expansion provisions in 2014 was associated with improvements in health care-related financial strain, access, and utilization...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
R Shulman, B R Shah, L Fu, R Chafe, A Guttmann
AIMS: To describe patterns of primary and diabetes care during transition age (17 to < 19 years) into early adulthood (age 19 to 26 years), and to evaluate the association of primary and diabetes care patterns during transition age with the risk of adverse events in early adulthood. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of individuals in Ontario, Canada who were diagnosed with diabetes aged < 15 years and who turned 17 between November 2006 and March 2011, followed until March 2015 (n = 2525)...
July 19, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Angela Jury, Jennifer Lai, Charito Tuason, Ashley Koning, Mark Smith, Lois Boyd, Caro Swanson, David Fergusson, Angela Gruar
The Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales (HoNOS) provides an overview of a person's behaviour, impairment, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. This study investigated the profile of people who had been secluded in New Zealand's adult mental health inpatient services using 12 individual HoNOS ratings. Routinely collected clinical data were extracted from the Programme for the Integration of Mental Health Data (PRIMHD). This is the national data set for mental health and addiction services. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data which adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, bed nights, compulsory treatment, and district health board...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Esther L German, Bahij Al-Hakim, Elena Mitsi, Shaun H Pennington, Jenna F Gritzfeld, Angie D Hyder-Wright, Antonia Banyard, Stephen B Gordon, Andrea M Collins, Daniela M Ferreira
Background: The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection rises considerably in later life. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody levels to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide are known to decrease with age; however, whether levels of IgM antibody to pneumococcal proteins are subject to the same decline has not yet been investigated. Methods: This study measured serum levels and binding capacity of IgM antibody specific to the pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and an unencapsulated pneumococcal strain in serum isolated from hospital patients aged < 60 and ≥ 60, with and without lower respiratory tract infection...
2018: Pneumonia
Justine A Hutchinson, Jason Vargo, Meredith Milet, Nancy H F French, Michael Billmire, Jeffrey Johnson, Sumi Hoshiko
BACKGROUND: The frequency and intensity of wildfires is anticipated to increase as climate change creates longer, warmer, and drier seasons. Particulate matter (PM) from wildfire smoke has been linked to adverse respiratory and possibly cardiovascular outcomes. Children, older adults, and persons with underlying respiratory and cardiovascular conditions are thought to be particularly vulnerable. This study examines the healthcare utilization of Medi-Cal recipients during the fall 2007 San Diego wildfires, which exposed millions of persons to wildfire smoke...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Carol E Jordan, Adam J Pritchard
For decades, states have passed legislation to mandate reporting of criminal conduct and the abuse of vulnerable persons. Four types of mandatory reporting laws have been enacted, including laws that require reports of injuries associated with crime or due to use of certain weapons, abuse of children, abuse of vulnerable adults, and reporting of domestic violence. While studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mandatory reporting laws in domestic violence cases, methodological weaknesses in this body of literature make it difficult to make broad statements about whether mandatory reporting laws advance women's protection or actually place them at additional risk...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Razak M Gyasi, David R Phillips, Daniel Buor
Objectives: This study examines the relationships between National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) enrollment and the frequency and 'timing' of health services utilisation among community-dwelling older Ghanaians. It also investigates whether the NHIS policy has improved equity in access to healthcare in later life. Methods: Cross-sectional data were derived from an Ageing, Health, Psychological Wellbeing and Health-seeking Behaviour Study collected between August 2016 and January 2017 (N = 1200)...
July 2, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
V Clemens, O Berthold, J M Fegert, M Kölch
BACKGROUND: Severe mental illness in parents increases the risk of neglect, physical and sexual abuse (adverse childhood experiences, ACE) of children. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the current situation of child protection issues in psychiatric care in Germany and the derivation of needs and potential solution strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on a selective literature search, the needs and the current situation in Germany are presented and potential solution strategies are pointed out...
July 3, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Bushra F Nasir, Maree R Toombs, Srinivas Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Steve Kisely, Neeraj S Gill, Emma Black, Noel Hayman, Geetha Ranmuthugala, Gavin Beccaria, Remo Ostini, Geoffrey C Nicholson
OBJECTIVE: To determine, using face-to-face diagnostic interviews, the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in a cohort of adult Indigenous Australians, the cultural acceptability of the interviews, the rates of comorbid CMD and concordance with psychiatrists' diagnoses. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study July 2014-November 2016. Psychologists conducted Structured Clinical Interviews for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) (n=544)...
June 30, 2018: BMJ Open
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