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soils and rocks

Trong Dieu Hien Le, Mira Kattwinkel, Klaus Schützenmeister, John R Olson, Charles P Hawkins, Ralf B Schäfer
Salinization of surface waters is a global environmental issue that can pose a regional risk to freshwater organisms, potentially leading to high environmental and economic costs. Global environmental change including climate and land use change can increase the transport of ions into surface waters. We fit both multiple linear regression (LR) and random forest (RF) models on a large spatial dataset to predict Ca2+ (266 sites), Mg2+ (266 sites), and [Formula: see text] (357 sites) ion concentrations as well as electrical conductivity (EC-a proxy for total dissolved solids with 410 sites) in German running water bodies...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Mykola Kharytonov, Valentina Pidlisnyuk, Tatyana Stefanovska, Mykhailo Babenko, Nadia Martynova, Iryna Rula
The possibility of Miscanthus×giganteus cultivation as an energy crop on the different types of mining rocks was studied. It was revealed that a loess-like loam and red-brown clay with the added black soil were the most suitable for plant growing. The yield of dry above-ground biomass ranged from 4.3 to 6.8 t DM ha-1 after the first year of cultivation and from 8.9 to 9.7 t DM ha-1 after the second year while using these substrates. The application of amendments stimulated the growth and development of plants and increased productivity from 50 to 140%...
November 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Salmabi K Assainar, Lynette K Abbott, Bede S Mickan, Andrew S Whiteley, Kadambot H M Siddique, Zakaria M Solaiman
Microbial inoculants, including those formed from multiple species, may have dual functions as biostimulants and/or biocontrol agents, and claimed agricultural benefits are instrumental for regulatory categorisation. Biostimulants include commercial products containing substances or microorganisms that stimulate plant growth. Biostimulant microbes can be involved in a range of processes that affect N and P transformations in soil and thus influence nutrient availability, and N and P fertilizers can influence soil microbial diversity and function...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
M S Al-Masri, A Nashawati, Y Amin, W Al-Masri, M A Al-Howary
Speciation of 238 U, 210 Po and 210 Pb in six different types of Syrian soil (Entisols, Inceptisol, Aridisol, Mollisols, Vertisols and Rock outcrops) was studied using a four-step sequential extraction procedure. The binding nature of 238 U, 210 Po and 210 Pb was correlated with soil properties including soil particles, pH, EC, OM, sand, silt and clay. The results showed that the exchangeable and carbonate fractions of 238 U did not exceed 10%. In addition, the 238 U, 210 Po and 210 Pb fractions bonded to organic matter increased as the soil clay content decreased...
November 24, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
F B V Silva, C W A Nascimento, A M Alvarez, P R M Araújo
The mineral exploration of rare earth elements (REEs) and their entry into the soil via fertilizers has generated concern about environmental impacts and human health risks. We evaluated 60 samples of limestone, gypsum and phosphate fertilizers marketed in Brazil in order to characterize their contents, signature and solubility of REEs. The fertilizers from igneous origin presented the largest accumulation of REEs. Accumulation of the light REEs Ce, La, Nd, Pr, Sm and Eu were larger than the heavy REEs (Y, Dy, Gd, Er, Yb, Ho, Tb and Lu)...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Alexandre Cunha Ribeiro, Claudio Riccomini, Jayme Alfredo Dexheimer Leite
Interbasin arches between hydrographic systems have a heterogeneous geological origin, forming under the influence of several different geomorphological processes. Independent of the underlying processes, these arches compartmentalize present-day river basins, encompassing different water chemistries, habitat types, soil domains, potential energy and, on a geological/evolutionary time scale, aquatic life varieties in the ecosystem. Through most of its length, the water divide between the Amazonian, Paraná-Paraguay, and São Francisco river basins in central South America coincides with an Upper Cretaceous intracontinental igneous alkaline province...
November 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neha Mehta, Tatiana Cocerva, Sabrina Cipullo, Elio Padoan, Giovanna Antonella Dino, Franco Ajmone-Marsan, Siobhan Fiona Cox, Frederic Coulon, Domenico Antonio De Luca
Oral bioaccessibility and solid phase distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTE) from extractive waste streams were investigated to assess the potential human health risk posed by abandoned mines. The solid phase distribution along with micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were also performed. The results showed that the total concentrations of PTE were higher in <250 μm size fractions of waste rock and soil samples in comparison to the <2 mm size fractions...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Erich T Hester, Kathryn L Little, Joseph D Buckwalter, Carl E Zipper, Thomas J Burbey
Surface coal mining alters landscapes including creating waste-rock fills or dumps. In Appalachia USA, mines fill valleys with waste rock, constructing valley fills that affect water quality and aquatic ecology downstream. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in mine effluent are elevated from exposure of mineral surfaces to weathering. Understanding TDS variability requires understanding valley fill internal structure and its effect on hydrology, yet prior studies focused on point measurements or did not address patterns among fills...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kaitlyn O'Mara, Jon M Olley, Brian Fry, Michele Burford
Erosion of soil from catchments during floods can deliver large quantities of sediment to the coastal zone. The transformations and processes of nutrient release from catchment soils during flooding are not well understood. To test the hypothesis that catchment soils supply nutrients to the coastal zone, we examined nutrient release and transformation following wetting of soils formed from three distinct rock types (basalt, granite and sandstone) with fresh and marine water. The soil samples were collected from eroding areas of a subtropical river catchment...
November 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhi Chen, Ying Li, Zhaofei Liu, Jiang Wang, Xiaocheng Zhou, Jianguo Du
The release of radon in active fault zones is a sustained radioactive pollution source of the atmospheric environment. The species, concentration and flux of radon emitted in soil gas in active fault zones in the Capital of China were investigated by in-situ field measurements. Two main species of radon discharging from soil gas in active fault zones were identified, including radon diffused and dispersed from permeable soil, and upwelling from faults. Higher concentrations and flux of radon from faults were observed in the Bohai Bay Basin due to the accumulated uranium in the sandstone reservoirs and higher permeability of the strata and bed rocks...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pyeong-Koo Lee, Soonyoung Yu, Youn-Joong Jeong, Jieun Seo, Seon-Gyu Choi, Byung-Yong Yoon
Arsenic sources were identified in As-contaminated soils 4 km-7 km from a closed Cu smelter. Host rocks, heavy minerals in contaminated soils, ore minerals in quartz veins (geogenic sources) and bottom ash from the Cu smelter (an anthropogenic source) were investigated as potential sources. As a result, heavy minerals and bottom ash were found to contain higher As concentrations than the contaminated soils. Some of the host rock samples also showed higher As levels than the contaminated soils. Arsenopyrite was one of the frequently detected ore minerals in quartz veins...
November 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Shamsollah Ayoubi, Vali Adman, Maryam Yousefifard
This research was conducted to evaluate the utilization of magnetic susceptibility measurements in the assessment of metal concentrations in soils developed on a range of parent materials in northwestern Iran. Eighty surface soil samples were collected from eight parent rocks including ultrabasic rocks, basalt, andesite, granite, marl, limestone, Qom formation, and shale. The collected samples were assessed to determine magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf) and concentrations of some metals comprising chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), and manganese (Mn)...
October 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alicia M Bolt, Sebastian Medina, Fredine T Lauer, Huan Xu, Abdul-Mehdi Ali, Ke Jian Liu, Scott W Burchiel
High levels of uranium (U) exist in soil, water, and air in the Southwestern United States due, in part, to waste generated from more than 160,000 abandoned hard rock mines located in this region. As a result, many people living in this region are chronically exposed to U at levels that have been linked to detrimental health outcomes. In an effort to establish a relevant in vivo mouse model for future U immunotoxicity studies, we evaluated the tissue distribution of U in immune organs; blood, bone marrow, spleen, and thymus, as well as femur bones, kidneys, and liver, following a 60-d drinking water exposure to uranyl acetate (UA) in male and female C57BL/6J mice...
2018: PloS One
Ionica Oncioiu, Eugenia Grecu, Smaranda Mâşu, Florica Morariu, Maria Popa
One of the challenges brought by the circular economy requires a reconsideration of waste, which may under certain circumstances turn into genuine resources. By extension, soil pollution with heavy metal is a major concern since it directly affects the health of the population. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the impact of the use of waste from other technological processes in agriculture: fly ash (resulting ash from thermal power plants), zeolite bush (resulting from the processing of rock from zeolite quarries), and manure (garbage from zoo technical farms)...
October 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jiu Huang, Peng Wang, Chaorong Xu, Zhuangzhuang Zhu
In China, coalmine wastes, such as gangues, are used for reclamation of mining subsided land. However, as waste rocks, gangues contain several trace metal elements, which could be released under natural weathering and hydrodynamic leaching effects and then migrate into the reclamed soil layer. However, it is very difficult to find adequate other backfill materials for substitution of gangues. In this paper, we present a novel method and case study to restrict the migration ability of trace metal elements in gangues by using another kind of coalmine solid waste-fly ashes from coal combustion...
October 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Thomas M Missimer, Christopher M Teaf, William T Beeson, Robert G Maliva, John Woolschlager, Douglas J Covert
Florida geologic units and soils contain a wide range in concentrations of naturally-occurring arsenic. The average range of bulk rock concentrations is 1 to 13.1 mg/kg with concentrations in accessary minerals being over 1000 mg/kg. Florida soils contain natural arsenic concentrations which can exceed 10 mg/kg in some circumstances, with organic-rich soils often having the highest concentrations. Anthropogenic sources of arsenic have added about 610,000 metric tons of arsenic into the Florida environment since 1970, thereby increasing background concentrations in soils...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Philipp Resl, Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Helmut Mayrhofer, Toby Spribille
Lichens exhibit varying degrees of specialization with regard to the surfaces they colonize, ranging from substrate generalists to strict substrate specialists. Though long recognized, the causes and consequences of substrate specialization are poorly known. Using a phylogeny of a 150-200 Mya clade of lichen fungi, we asked whether substrate niche is phylogenetically conserved, which substrates are ancestral, whether specialists arise from generalists or vice versa and how specialization affects speciation/extinction processes...
October 17, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
I Mania, R Gorra, N Colombo, M Freppaz, M Martin, A M Anesio
Rock glaciers (RG) are assumed to influence the biogeochemistry of downstream ecosystems because of the high ratio of rock:water in those systems, but no studies have considered the effects of a RG inflow on the microbial ecology of sediments in a downstream pond. An alpine RG-pond system, located in the NW Italian Alps has been chosen as a model, and Bacteria and Archaea 16S rRNA genes abundance, distribution and diversity have been assessed by qPCR and Illumina sequencing, coupled with geochemical analyses on sediments collected along a distance gradient from the RG inflow...
October 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Qiao Niu
Aluminum is a type of ubiquitously existing naturally and widely used metal in our world. It is combined with other elements and forms different compounds. In different pH and due to other conditions, it can be released into ions of different valence states. Our century is an "aluminum age"; aluminum is used in many fields of our daily life, such as vaccine adjuvant, antacids, food additives, skin care products, cosmetics, and cooking wares, and may be as elements or contaminants appeared in a lot of foods, including infant formulae, milk products, juice, wine, sea foods, and tea...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ignacio Cid Del Prado-Vera, Howard Ferris, Sergei A Subbotin
Six new species of Geomonhystera (Nematoda, Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) Andrássy, 1981, are described and illustrated, five from México and one from Ecuador. The new species have many features in common and in common with at least several other species of the genus. Consequently, those features individually are not very useful for species-level diagnosis. They include the cuticular striation which, under light microscopy, ranges from fine to apparently smooth; however, scanning electron micrographs reveal very fine cuticular striation on all the new species...
September 4, 2018: Zootaxa
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