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soils and rocks

I Mania, R Gorra, N Colombo, M Freppaz, M Martin, A M Anesio
Rock glaciers (RG) are assumed to influence the biogeochemistry of downstream ecosystems because of the high ratio of rock:water in those systems, but no studies have considered the effects of a RG inflow on the microbial ecology of sediments in a downstream pond. An alpine RG-pond system, located in the NW Italian Alps has been chosen as a model, and Bacteria and Archaea 16S rRNA genes abundance, distribution and diversity have been assessed by qPCR and Illumina sequencing, coupled with geochemical analyses on sediments collected along a distance gradient from the RG inflow...
October 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Qiao Niu
Aluminum is a type of ubiquitously existing naturally and widely used metal in our world. It is combined with other elements and forms different compounds. In different pH and due to other conditions, it can be released into ions of different valence states. Our century is an "aluminum age"; aluminum is used in many fields of our daily life, such as vaccine adjuvant, antacids, food additives, skin care products, cosmetics, and cooking wares, and may be as elements or contaminants appeared in a lot of foods, including infant formulae, milk products, juice, wine, sea foods, and tea...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ignacio Cid Del Prado-Vera, Howard Ferris, Sergei A Subbotin
Six new species of Geomonhystera (Nematoda, Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) Andrássy, 1981, are described and illustrated, five from México and one from Ecuador. The new species have many features in common and in common with at least several other species of the genus. Consequently, those features individually are not very useful for species-level diagnosis. They include the cuticular striation which, under light microscopy, ranges from fine to apparently smooth; however, scanning electron micrographs reveal very fine cuticular striation on all the new species...
September 4, 2018: Zootaxa
F M Wærsted, K A Jensen, E Reinoso-Maset, L Skipperud
A method was developed for direct measurements of 226 Ra in water samples with triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QQQ). The limit of detection was 0.42 pg L-1 226 Ra (15 mBq L-1 , 0.42 pCi L-1 ), which is compliant with the specifications for methods used for routine analysis of drinking water quality according to European and U.S. regulations. The use of N2 O as reaction gas ensured that no separation before analysis was necessary. Water samples with high total dissolved solids (conductivity >100 mS cm-1 ) were also successfully analyzed after a simple dilution, yet the associated detection limit was higher (17 pg L-1 , 0...
October 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Daniel Marcos Bonotto, Buddhi Wijesiri, Marcelo Vergotti, Ene Glória da Silveira, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Mercury pollution of water bodies exerts significant human and ecosystem health impacts due to high toxicity. Relatively high levels of mercury have been detected in the Amazon River and its tributaries and associated lakes. The study employed a Bayesian Network approach to investigate the contribution from geogenic sources to mercury pollution of lakes in the Madeira River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Amazon River. It was found that the source indicators of naturally occurring mercury have both, positive and negative relationships with mercury in lake sediments...
September 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Susan C Fitzer, Sergio Torres Gabarda, Luke Daly, Brian Hughes, Michael Dove, Wayne O'Connor, Jaimie Potts, Peter Scanes, Maria Byrne
Ocean acidification is occurring globally through increasing CO 2 absorption into the oceans creating particular concern for calcifying species. In addition to ocean acidification, near shore marine habitats are exposed to the deleterious effects of runoff from acid sulfate soils which also decreases environmental pH. This coastal acidification is being exacerbated by climate change-driven sea-level rise and catchment-driven flooding. In response to reduction in habitat pH by ocean and coastal acidification, mollusks are predicted to produce thinner shells of lower structural integrity and reduced mechanical properties threatening mollusk aquaculture...
September 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Rui Zhao, Hongmei Wang, Xiaoyu Cheng, Yuan Yun, Xuan Qiu
Microorganisms are thought to play a critical role in methane consumption in karst caves, however, the presence and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are still mysterious. In Heshang Cave, CH4 concentration decreases from 1.9 ppm at the entrance to 0.65 ppm into the cave. To explore the presence and diversity of MOB in this cave, weathered rocks and sediment samples were collected across the cave and subject to molecular analysis. The abundances of MOB were 107-108 copies g-1 dry sample via quantification of the pmoA gene, which are comparable to or even higher than those reported in other terrestrial environments and account for up to 20% of the total microbial communities...
September 27, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Hasbullah Nur Aainaa, Osumanu Haruna Ahmed, Nik Muhamad Ab Majid
Efficient management of P fertilizers ensures good yield of crops and adequate food supply. In the acid soil of the tropics, soluble P is fixed by Al and Fe. Exploitation of the high CEC and pH of Clinoptilolite zeolite (CZ) could mitigate low soil pH and P fixation in acid soils. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of amending a weathered acid soil with CZ on: (i) soil P availability and other related soil chemical properties, and (ii) nutrient concentration, nutrient uptake, above-ground biomass, agronomic efficiency, and yield of Zea mays L...
2018: PloS One
Massimiliano Cardinale, Christian Suarez, Diedrich Steffens, Stefan Ratering, Sylvia Schnell
Phosphate is a macronutrient and often the limiting growing factor of many ecosystems. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of various phosphate sources on the active bacterial microbiota of barley rhizosphere and endorhiza. Barley was grown on poor soil supplemented with either Ca(H2 PO4 )2 (CaP), Gafsa rock phosphate (Gafsa), sodium hexaphytate (NaHex), or not amended (P0). RNA was extracted and cDNA synthesized via reverse transcription from both rhizosphere and endorhiza of barley roots; the obtained 16S rRNA cDNA was sequenced by Ion Torrent and analyzed with QIIME and co-occurrence network analysis...
September 26, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Carlito Baltazar Tabelin, Toshifumi Igarashi, Mylah Villacorte-Tabelin, Ilhwan Park, Einstine M Opiso, Mayumi Ito, Naoki Hiroyoshi
Massive and ambitious underground space development projects are being undertaken by many countries around the world to decongest megacities, improve the urban landscapes, upgrade outdated transportation networks, and expand modern railway and road systems. A number of these projects, however, reported that substantial portions of the excavated debris are oftentimes naturally contaminated with hazardous elements, which are readily released in substantial amounts once exposed to the environment. These contaminated excavation debris/spoils/mucks, loosely referred to as "naturally contaminated rocks", contain various hazardous and toxic inorganic elements like arsenic (As), selenium (Se), boron (B), and heavy metals like lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R V H Dagnelie, S Rasamimanana, V Blin, J Radwan, E Thory, J-C Robinet, G Lefèvre
The transport of emerging organic contaminants through the geosphere is often an environmental issue. The sorption of organic compounds slows their transport in soils and porous rocks and retardation is often assessed by extrapolation of batch experiments. However, transport experiments are preferable to strengthen migration data and modelling. In this context, we evaluated the adsorption of various organic acids by means of through-diffusion experiments in a sedimentary clay-rich rock (Callovo-Oxfordian, East of Paris Basin, France)...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Martin B Nadeau, Joan Laur, Damase P Khasa
In the context of a phytorestoration project, the purpose of this study was to assess the respective contribution to the nutritional status of Picea glauca seedlings of ectomycorrhizae and rhizobacteria native or not to the Sigma-Lamaque gold mine wastes in northern Quebec, Canada. In a glasshouse experiment, inoculated plants were grown for 32 weeks on coarse waste rocks or fine tailings obtained from the mining site. The survival, health, growth, and nutritional status of plants were better on coarse waste rocks than on fine tailings...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
P M Outridge, R P Mason, F Wang, S Guerrero, L E Heimbürger-Boavida
In support of international efforts to reduce mercury (Hg) exposure in humans and wildlife, this paper reviews the literature concerning global Hg emissions, cycling and fate, and presents revised global and oceanic Hg budgets for the 2018 United Nations Global Mercury Assessment. We assessed two competing scenarios about the impacts of 16th - late 19th century New World silver (Ag) mining, which may be the largest human source of atmospheric Hg in history. Consideration of Ag ore geochemistry, historical documents on Hg use, and comparison of the scenarios against atmospheric Hg patterns in environmental archives, strongly support a "low mining emission" scenario...
October 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yu-Shan Wang, Shuang-Bao Han, Qi-Jun Deng, Xiao-Fan Qi
In order to discern temporal variations, sources, and controlling factors of river water chemistry in the Malian River Basin, time series samples were collected from the Yuluoping hydrological station in 2016. The compositions of major cations and anions were analyzed and a forward model was used to calculate the weathering rates of evaporite, silicate, and carbonate. Results showed that river water was brackish with average total dissolved solids of 1154.0 mg·L-1 , indicating significant differences from other main rivers in China...
September 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Morgan F Schaller, Megan K Fung
We have identified clear evidence of an extraterrestrial impact within the onset of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that defines the Palaeocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary hyperthermal event (approx. 56 Ma) from several sites on the eastern Atlantic Coastal Plain and offshore. We review and update the state of the evidence for an impact at the P-E boundary, including a K-Ar cooling age of the ejecta that is indistinguishable from the depositional age at the P-E, which establishes the ejecta horizon as an isochronous stratigraphic indicator at the P-E...
October 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Marcin Wiktor Woch
The species trait-environment relationships in understory vegetation were carried out on metalliferous sites created by historical Zn-Pb mining (S Poland), on which natural revegetation took place. The study sites were 31 small heaps of waste rock covered by an 80-120 year old beech forest. The sites were described in terms of plant coverage, species richness and composition, and the composition of plant traits. Three types of understory communities that were identified were compared for environmental variables and plant parameters...
August 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Vitória Palhares Ribeiro, Ivanildo Evódio Marriel, Sylvia Morais de Sousa, Ubiraci Gomes de Paula Lana, Bianca Braz Mattos, Christiane Abreu de Oliveira, Eliane Aparecida Gomes
Bacterial endophytes are considered to have a beneficial effect on host plants, improving their growth by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of four endophytic Bacillus strains to solubilize iron phosphate (Fe-P), produce siderophores and indole-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro, and to evaluate their plant growth promotion ability in greenhouse conditions by inoculation into pearl millet cultivated in a P-deficient soils without P fertilization, with Araxá rock phosphate or soluble triple superphosphate...
August 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Lushian Tapiwa Mupondi, Pearson Nyari Stephano Mnkeni, Pardon Muchaonyerwa, Hupenyu Allan Mupambwa
In organic soil fertility management, rock phosphate (RP) is gaining momentum as an acceptable phosphorus source, though much of this P is not bioavailable for plant uptake, particularly in igneous RP. This study evaluated the nutrient solubilization, biodegradation and heavy metal concentration when cow dung - waste paper mixture amended with increasing rates of igneous RP was vermicomposted with E. fetida . The cow dung was optimized to a C/N ratio of 30 using waste paper and amended with RP to provide 0%; 2%; 4% and 8% of elemental phosphorus on a dry w/w basis...
August 2018: Heliyon
H B Shrivastava, N Rupa Rita, V Koteswara Rao, B Raghavender, Pravin Kumar Sharma
Various techniques are available for the estimation of uranium concentration in geological rock samples. In the uranium exploration program in India, the beta-gamma technique is widely used by the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (Department of Atomic Energy) to estimate uranium concentration in natural rock or soil samples. Uranium concentration cannot be estimated accurately by the beta-gamma technique if the sample has high concentrations of thorium. Because the ratio of thorium to uranium concentration varies between 15 and 30 in monazite samples, uranium concentration in monazite samples cannot be estimated accurately by the conventional beta-gamma technique...
November 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Grainne El Mountassir, James M Minto, Leon A van Paassen, Emmanuel Salifu, Rebecca J Lunn
Over the last 10-15 years, a new field of "biogeotechnics" has emerged as geotechnical engineers seek to find ground improvement technologies which have the potential to be lower carbon, more ecologically friendly, and more cost-effective than existing practices. This review summarizes the developments which have occurred in this new field, outlining in particular the microbial processes which have been shown to be most promising for altering the hydraulic and mechanical responses of soils and rocks...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
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