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soils and rocks

Ruirui Li, Wenjuan Zhang, Siqian Yang, Mengke Zhu, Shasha Kan, Jiao Chen, Xiaoyan Ai, Yingwei Ai
External-soil spray seeding (ESSS), a technique of spraying artificial soil materials onto bare slopes for vegetation cover construction, has been widely used to restore rock-cut slopes. However, studies on the effect of the practical application of this technique on different topographic aspects have been rarely performed. In this study, two topographic aspects, namely, north-facing versus south-facing, were investigated under two railway lines, and two local natural slopes (north-facing versus south-facing) were selected as references...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fares M Howari, Gheorge Acbas, Yousef Nazzal, Fatima AlAydaroos
Environmental scientists are currently assessing the ability of hyper-spectral remote sensing to detect, identify, and analyze natural components, including minerals, rocks, vegetation and soil. This paper discusses the use of a nonlinear reflectance model to distinguish multicomponent particulate mixtures. Analysis of the data presented in this paper shows that, although the identity of the components can often be found from diagnostic wavelengths of absorption bands, the quantitative abundance determination requires knowledge of the complex refractive indices and average particle scattering albedo, phase function and size...
August 9, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Jin Liu, Barbara J Cade-Menun, Jianjun Yang, Yongfeng Hu, Corey W Liu, Julien Tremblay, Kerry LaForge, Michael Schellenberg, Chantal Hamel, Luke D Bainard
Agriculturally-driven land transformation is increasing globally. Improving phosphorus (P) use efficiency to sustain optimum productivity in diverse ecosystems, based on knowledge of soil P dynamics, is also globally important in light of potential shortages of rock phosphate to manufacture P fertilizer. We investigated P chemical speciation and P cycling with solution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance, P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, phosphatase activity assays, and shotgun metagenomics in soil samples from long-term agricultural fields containing four different land-use types (native and tame grasslands, annual croplands, and roadside ditches)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Harinder Singh
Cyanobacteria are among the oldest living organisms on this planet, existing since more than 3 billion years. They are ideal organisms for investigating biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, circadian rhythm, photoregulation of gene expression, developmental gene rearrangements, and specialized cell differentiation. They are nearly ubiquitous in distribution, have colonized a wide range of ecosystems including soil, air, dry rock, and aquatic systems, and even occupy extreme niches that are inaccessible to other organisms...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
S J Kaishwa, E M Marwa, J J Msaky, W N Mwakalasya
An analytical study was carried out to determine the level of uranium in the soil and rock and associate it with the levels in surface and underground water, which are the main sources of drinking water in Singida Urban District, Tanzania. Fifteen water samples, 12 soil samples and nine rock samples were collected in Singida Urban District in February 2016. Water samples were analysed by the Government Chemist Laboratory Agency using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (2007) and analyses for soil and rock samples were carried out through total X-ray fluorescence (XL3 ANALYSER) at Sokoine University of Agriculture in the Department of Soil and Geological Sciences...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Daljit Sandhu, Arvind Singh, Steven J Duranceau, Boo Hyun Nam, Talea Mayo, Dingbao Wang
Groundwater aquifers are an essential source of drinking water, and must be protected against contamination. Phosphogypsum stacks originating from the processing of phosphate rock contain small amounts of radionuclides, such as 226 Ra. In September 2016, a sinkhole located beneath a phosphogypsum stack collapsed under central Florida's carbonate karst terrain, where the aquifer is mostly confined, raising concern over water quality in the regions nearby. Monitoring and modeling the transport of the contaminated plume is vital to ensure drinking water criteria are met and to improve decision making regarding treatment...
July 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
T A Adagunodo, A I George, I A Ojoawo, K Ojesanmi, R Ravisankar
The concentrations of the radionuclides in the subsurface formation (soils and rocks) solely depend on their geological origin, which enables its variation from point to point on the Crust. Construction materials can possess elevated concentrations of radioactivity if their byproducts are mined from contaminated radionuclide sources. In this article, results of in situ measurements of radioactivity concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U as well as gamma doses and radiological hazards from kaolin mining field were presented and evaluated...
2018: MethodsX
Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Yessica Rico, Kristin H Berry, Taylor Edwards, Alice E Karl, Brian T Henen, Robert W Murphy
Distance, environmental heterogeneity and local adaptation can strongly influence population structure and connectivity. Understanding how these factors shape the genomic landscape of threatened species is a major goal in conservation genomics and wildlife management. Herein, we use thousands (6,859) of single nucleotide polymorphism markers and spatial data from hundreds of individuals (n = 646) to re-evaluate the population structure of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Analyses resolve from 4 to 8 spatially well-defined clusters across the range...
July 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eleonora Braschi, Sara Marchionni, Simone Priori, Martina Casalini, Simone Tommasini, Laura Natarelli, Antonella Buccianti, Pierluigi Bucelli, Edoardo A C Costantini, Sandro Conticelli
In this paper we report an experimental study to assess the process of Sr-isotope uptake from the soil and its transfer to the grapevine and then to the wine made through micro-vinification. The experimental work has been carried out with a deep control of the boundary conditions (i.e., type of soil, geologic substratum, ground water supply, etc.) on 11 selected vine-plant sites over a period of four harvest years. Sr-isotopes have been determined on grape-bunches, grapevine sap, on the bioavailable fraction of the soil, on bulk soil, and on the rocks of the substratum...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Oliva, J Ruiz-Fernández
The Pamir Mountains include peaks exceeding 7000 m, such as Lenin Peak (7134 m) in the northern Zaalai Range. Here, we examine the distribution of soils and geomorphological processes and landforms in its northern slope, from the highest glaciated environments until Alai valley floor. We present the first geomorphological map of the study area as well as an accurate description the main geomorphological units in order to reconstruct landscape dynamics in the area from Quaternary cold stages until present-day...
July 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Swambabu Varanasi, Uthpala Garusinghe, George P Simon, Gil Garnier, Warren Batchelor
Inspired by the natural precipitation of minerals in soil and rocks, a novel, simple and industrially scalable in-situ precipitation process to produce low permeability porous composites is presented. This process relies on capillary flow in wettable porous composites to absorb and store liquid. In this process, a porous composite first absorbs a salt solution, after which the composite is dipped in a second salt solution. Salts are selected such as they react to form an insoluble precipitate. As big pores absorb more liquid than small pores, the precipitated particles are formed specifically for each pore...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Silvana Beltrán Torres, Attila Petrik, Katalin Zsuzsanna Szabó, Gyozo Jordan, Jun Yao, Csaba Szabó
In order to estimate the annual dose that the public receive from natural radioactivity, the identification of the potential risk areas is required which, in turn, necessitates understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and the geogenic risk factors (e.g., rock types, presence of dikes, faults, physical conditions of soil, etc.). A detailed spatial analysis of outdoor ambient gamma dose equivalent rate was performed in the western side of Velence Hills, the largest outcropped granitic area in Hungary...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Helena Gawrońska, Arkadiusz Przybysz, Elżbieta Szalacha, Katarzyna Pawlak, Katarzyna Brama, Agata Miszczak, Marta Stankiewicz-Kosyl, Stanisław W Gawroński
Platinum (Pt) occurs at very low levels in parent rock and soils in unpolluted areas, however concentrations of this element in urban areas is steadily increasing. At the levels recorded in urban environments, Pt is not yet phytotoxic, but it already poses a threat to human health, particularly when present in airborne particulate matter. In this study an attempt was made to evaluate Pt(II) uptake, distribution and toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were hydroponically grown with increasing Pt(II) concentrations in the range of 0...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yu Li, Wen Fang, Guang-Xia Qi, Yong-Hong Wei, Jian-Guo Liu, Run-Dong Li
Sewage sludge is rich in organic matter, N, and P and could be used as a soil amendment to improve the status of soil organic matter, soil structural characteristics, and soil water retention capacity after aerobic composting. However, heavy metals in sewage sludge have become the main bottleneck limiting its land application. In addition, with the large-scale exploitation of phosphate rock resources in our region of interest, a large amount of phosphate tailings needs to be disposed and a large area of abandoned mining lands needs to be reclaimed...
June 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Ran Duan, Hong-Qing Hu, Qing-Ling Fu, Chang-Lin Kou
Taking soil contaminated with a combination of Cd and Ni as the research objective, biochar, and oxalic acid activated phosphate rock (APR) were applied both together and separately for the remediation of this contaminated soil. The effects of different ratios of amendments on the remediation of Cd and Ni heavy metals in the soil and on inorganic nitrogen and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) in the soil were compared. The results show that an increasing amount of biochar and APR, increases the soil pH gradually and acid-extractable Cd and Ni are gradually transformed into reducible, oxidable and residual Cd and Ni, resulting in a reduction in Cd and Ni bioavailability...
November 8, 2017: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Xiao-de Zhou, Zhi-Fang Xu, Wen-Jing Liu, Yao Wu, Tong Zhao, Hao Jiang
The precipitation data for nine sites in the acid rain area of southwest China were analyzed. The data included pH and the concentrations of major ions (Cl- , SO4 2- , NO3 - , Ca2+ , NH4 + , Mg2+ , K+ , and Na+ ). SO4 2- and NO3 - were the main anions, whereas Ca2+ and NH4 + were the main cations in the precipitation. The concentrations of acidic ions, alkaline ions, and total ions in this area were significantly higher than those reported in southeast China, but much lower than those in northern China. About 58% of the total precipitation has a pH value ranging from 4...
October 8, 2017: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Qing-Song Xian, Xiang-Yu Tang, Bo Zhu
In a sloping farmland plot(1500 m2 ) of purple soil with underlying fractured mudrock in Southwest China, field monitoring and sampling campaigns were undertaken to explore the mechanisms of surface and subsurface transport of nitrogen and phosphorus upon two representative rain events in the summer of 2015. The results indicated that:1depths of surface runoff and subsurface fracture flow as well as average colloid export flux were dependent on antecedent soil wetness and rainfall amount, while discharge dynamics and colloid peak concentration were determined by rainfall intensity; 2nitrogen export was mainly in dissolved forms through subsurface fracture flow, however, phosphorus was mainly transported in particle-associated forms through surface runoff; 3the transport of nitrogen and phosphorus was strongly influenced by hydrological processes, with nitrogen and phosphorus transport being controlled by fracture flow and surface runoff, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Xiaoteng Zhou, Mark Patrick Taylor, Peter J Davies
This study investigates trace element concentrations (arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) and Pb isotopic compositions in an Australian native bee species, Tetragonula carbonaria, and its products of honey and wax. Co-located soil and dust samples were simultaneously analysed with the objective of determining if the bees or their products had potential application as a proxy for monitoring environmental contamination. The most significant relationships were found between Pb concentrations in honey (r = 0...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Rahib Hussain, Kunli Luo
This study probe the human health risk of fluoride (F), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) and their daily intake available quantity to human through different sources in different regions of Shaanxi, China. For this purpose, a number of samples, including coal and coal wastes, rocks, soil, and vegetables were collected from south Qinling Mountain stone-like coal (Geo type-I), Binxian-Jurassic (Geo type-II), Hancheng Permo-Carboniferous (Geo type-III), and countryside (Huanglong County) of Shaanxi province. All these samples were analyzed through atomic fluorescence spectroscopy and combustion hydrolysis methods...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Dana Zimmer, Jens Kruse, Nina Siebers, Kerstin Panten, Claudia Oelschläger, Mareike Warkentin, Yongfeng Hu, Lucia Zuin, Peter Leinweber
To decrease environmental impacts from usage of mineral P fertilizers based on rock phosphate, alternative P fertilizers are urgently necessary but have to be critically evaluated for their characteristics and behaviour or effects in soil. For this reason, bone char (BC) and S-enriched BC (BCplus ), original and after one vegetation period in soil, were analysed by wet chemical analyses and XANES spectroscopy. According to X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, both chars were dominated by P bound in hydroxyapatite, which was well reflected by wet chemical P fractionation, where Ca-P was the dominant fraction...
June 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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