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mRNA localisation

Nathan Denton, Katherine E Pinnick, Fredrik Karpe
OBJECTIVE: The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) impacts adipocyte function and might determine adipose tissue (AT) function and distribution. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a matricellular protein usually studied in bone and cartilage, is highly differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT. This study aimed to explore COMP's role in human subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT and preadipocyte biology. METHODS: COMP mRNA levels were measured in whole AT and immortalised preadipocytes via quantitative (q)-PCR...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Andrea Kovács-Valasek, Bálint Szalontai, György Sétáló, Robert Gábriel
Nowadays, increasing number of microRNAs are found to have crucial roles in various physiological processes through gene expression regulation via RNA silencing as a result of base pairing with complementary mRNA sequences. To reveal the spatial distribution of microRNA expression in tissues, in situ hybridisation is the only method developed to date. This work aims to provide a novel approach to obtain information on the possible involvement of microRNA-s in regulatory processes under experimental conditions by enhancing fluorescent detection of microRNA labelling...
August 7, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Yukiko Hanada, Yukiko Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Ozono, Yusuke Ishida, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Manabu Taniguchi, Kazuya Ohata, Yoshihisa Koyama, Takao Imai, Tetsuo Morihana, Makoto Kondo, Takashi Sato, Hidenori Inohara, Shoichi Shimada
We investigated fibroblast growth factor 12 (FGF12) as a transcript enriched in the inner ear by searching published cDNA library databases. FGF12 is a fibroblast growth factor homologous factor, a subset of the FGF superfamily. To date, its localisation and function in the inner ear have not been determined. Here, we show that FGF12 mRNA is localised in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and the vestibular ganglion. We also show that FGF12 protein is localised in SGNs, the vestibular ganglion, and nerve fibres extending beneath hair cells...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nimisha H Bhoola, Zukile Mbita, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
TSPO is a receptor involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial functions. Previous studies showed that the expression of TSPO protein correlated positively with tumour malignancy and negatively with patient survival. The aim of this study was to determine the transcription of Tspo mRNA in various types of normal and cancer tissues. In situ hybridization was performed to localise the Tspo mRNA in various human normal and cancer tissues. The relative level of Tspo mRNA was quantified using fluorescent intensity and visual estimation of colorimetric staining...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martin Zoltner, Nina Krienitz, Mark C Field, Susanne Kramer
Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) regulate mRNA fate by controlling stability and translation through interactions with both the poly(A) tail and eIF4F complex. Many organisms have several paralogs of PABPs and eIF4F complex components and it is likely that different eIF4F/PABP complex combinations regulate distinct sets of mRNAs. Trypanosomes have five eIF4G paralogs, six of eIF4E and two PABPs, PABP1 and PABP2. Under starvation, polysomes dissociate and the majority of mRNAs, most translation initiation factors and PABP2 reversibly localise to starvation stress granules...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
I C Kokay, A Wyatt, H R Phillipps, M Aoki, F Ectors, U Boehm, D R Grattan
Prolactin influences a wide range of physiological functions through actions within the central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues. A significant limitation in studies investigating these functions is the difficulty in identifying prolactin receptor (Prlr) expression, particularly in the brain. We have developed a novel mouse line using homologous recombination within mouse embryonic stem cells to produce a mouse in which an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) followed by Cre recombinase cDNA is inserted immediately after exon 10 in the Prlr gene, thereby targeting the long isoform of the Prlr...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Laura Bryant, Olga Lozynska, Anson Marsh, Tyler E Papp, Lucas van Gorder, Leona W Serrano, Xiaowu Gai, Albert M Maguire, Tomas S Aleman, Jean Bennett
BACKGROUND: Variants in PRPF31 , which encodes pre-mRNA processing factor 31 homolog, are known to cause autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) with incomplete penetrance. However, the majority of mutations cause null alleles, with only two proven pathogenic missense mutations. We identified a novel missense mutation in PRPF31 in a family with adRP. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing to identify possible pathogenic mutations in the proband of a family with adRP...
July 20, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Pengfei Chu, Libo He, Yangyang Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Yongming Li, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins regulate innate immunity. Although the positive regulatory impact of NLRs is clear, their inhibitory roles are not well defined. In the present study, the NLR family gene NLRX1 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was cloned and characterised. NLRX1 was widely expressed in all tissues examined, albeit at varying levels. After exposure to the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), NLRX1 mRNA expression levels were altered in immune organs, and dramatically altered in liver...
July 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hui Li, Stephen J Kentish, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Gastric vagal afferents play an important role in the peripheral control of food intake. Apelin, a central appetite regulating hormone, is also abundantly released from the stomach. Whether apelin modulates gastric vagal afferent signalling is unknown. We aimed to determine whether apelin modulates gastric vagal afferent signalling under different states of nutrition. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. An in vitro gastric vagal afferent preparation was used to determine the effect of apelin on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in SLD mice, fed ad libitum or fasted overnight, and HFD mice...
June 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Nadia Binte Ismail, Joled Kong-Ze Koh, Saravanan Gunaseelan, Yi-Hua Low, Yee-Kong Ng, John Jia-En Chua, Wei-Yi Ong
Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) released by the action of phospholipases A2 (PLA2 ) on membrane phospholipids may be metabolized by lipoxygenases to the anti-inflammatory mediators lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and resolvin D1 (RvD1), and these can bind to a common receptor, formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). The contribution of this receptor to axonal or dendritic outgrowth is unknown. The present study was carried out to elucidate the distribution of FPR2 in the rat CNS and its role in outgrowth of neuronal processes...
August 2018: Neurochemical Research
Mark A McClintock, Carly I Dix, Christopher M Johnson, Stephen H McLaughlin, Rory J Maizels, Ha Thi Hoang, Simon L Bullock
Polarised mRNA transport is a prevalent mechanism for spatial control of protein synthesis. However, the composition of transported ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) and the regulation of their movement are poorly understood. We have reconstituted microtubule minus end-directed transport of mRNAs using purified components. A Bicaudal-D (BicD) adaptor protein and the RNA-binding protein Egalitarian (Egl) are sufficient for long-distance mRNA transport by the dynein motor and its accessory complex dynactin, thus defining a minimal transport-competent RNP...
June 26, 2018: ELife
Dongli Liu, Andrew Costanzo, Margaret D M Evans, Nicholas S Archer, Caryl Nowson, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Significant experimental evidence supports fat as a taste modality; however, the associated peripheral mechanisms are not well established. Several candidate taste receptors have been identified, but their expression pattern and potential functions in human fungiform papillae remain unknown. The aim of this study is to identify the fat taste candidate receptors and ion channels that were expressed in human fungiform taste buds and their association with oral sensory of fatty acids. For the expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) from RNA extracted from human fungiform papillae samples was used to determine the expression of candidate fatty acid receptors and ion channels...
July 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Jimena Ferreira da Costa, Mariana Galvão Ferrarini, Sheila Cristina Nardelli, Samuel Goldenberg, Andréa Rodrigues Ávila, Fabíola Barbieri Holetz
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are important for the regulation of RNA fate. RNP granules exist in trypanosomatids; however, their roles in controlling gene expression are still not understood. XRNA is a component of granules in Trypanosoma brucei but has not been investigated in Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate the TcXRNA dynamic assembly and its interaction with RNP components under conditions that affect the mRNA availability. METHODS We used in vitro metacyclogenesis of T...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Feridun Akkafa, İsmail Koyuncu, Ebru Temiz, Hasan Dagli, Fuat Dïlmec, Halit Akbas
Lung has critic function in gas exchange, supplying oxygen to all cells. Rapid metastasis and the high rate of mortality characterises lung cancer. There are two types of this disease, small cell and non-small cell, which differs from each other according to histopathologic features. To date, many therapeutic approaches have been developed to destroy this deadly type of cancer, which one of them is mRNA targeted therapies through miRNA. miRNAs are 19-25 base paired molecules be able to suppress and destruct mRNA and found to be involved in development and progression of lung cancer...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Birgit Hirschmugl, Sarah Crozier, Nina Matthews, Eva Kitzinger, Ingeborg Klymiuk, Hazel M Inskip, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Colin P Sibley, Jocelyn Glazier, Christian Wadsack, Keith M Godfrey, Gernot Desoye, Rohan M Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Alkaline phosphatase is implicated in intestinal lipid transport and in the development of obesity. Placental alkaline phosphatase is localised to the microvillous plasma membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface, but its role is unclear. We investigated the relations of placental alkaline phosphatase activity and mRNA expression with maternal body composition and offspring fat mass in humans. METHODS: Term human placentas from the UK Birthright cohort (n = 52) and the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS) (n = 95) were studied...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Beppe Aquilina, Ruben J Cauchi
OBJECTIVE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Drosophila is conducive to large-scale genetic-modifier screens which can reveal novel pathways underpinning the disease mechanism. We tested the ability of a large collection of genomic deletions to enhance SMN-dependent lethality. To test our design, we asked whether our study can identify loci containing genes identified in previous genetic screens. Our objective was to find a common link between genes flagged in independent screens, which would allow us to expose novel functions for SMN in vivo...
June 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Nila Roy Choudhury, Gracjan Michlewski
RNA-binding proteins mediate and control gene expression. As some examples, they regulate pre-mRNA synthesis and processing; mRNA localisation, translation and decay; and microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and function. Here, we present a detailed protocol for RNA pull-down coupled to stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) mass spectrometry (RP-SMS) that enables quantitative, fast and specific detection of RNA-binding proteins that regulate miRNA biogenesis. In general, this method allows for the identification of RNA-protein complexes formed using in vitro or chemically synthesized RNAs and protein extracts derived from cultured cells...
June 8, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Marina Kazantseva, Ramona A Eiholzer, Sunali Mehta, Ahmad Taha, Sara Bowie, Imogen Roth, Jean Zhou, Sebastien M Joruiz, Janice A Royds, Noelyn A Hung, Tania L Slatter, Antony W Braithwaite
As tumour protein 53 (p53) isoforms have tumour promoting, migration and inflammatory properties, this study investigated whether p53 isoforms contributed to glioblastoma progression. The expression levels of full-length TP53α (TAp53α) and six TP53 isoforms were quantitated by RT-qPCR in 89 glioblastomas and correlated with TP53 mutation status, tumour-associated macrophage content and various immune cell markers. Elevated levels of Δ133p53β mRNA characterised glioblastomas with increased CD163-positive macrophages and wild-type TP53...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Marialuisa Quadri, Wim Mandemakers, Martyna M Grochowska, Roy Masius, Hanneke Geut, Edito Fabrizio, Guido J Breedveld, Demy Kuipers, Michelle Minneboo, Leonie J M Vergouw, Ana Carreras Mascaro, Ekaterina Yonova-Doing, Erik Simons, Tianna Zhao, Alessio B Di Fonzo, Hsiu-Chen Chang, Piero Parchi, Marta Melis, Leonor Correia Guedes, Chiara Criscuolo, Astrid Thomas, Rutger W W Brouwer, Daphne Heijsman, Angela M T Ingrassia, Giovanna Calandra Buonaura, Janneke P Rood, Sabina Capellari, Annemieke J Rozemuller, Marianna Sarchioto, Hsin Fen Chien, Nicola Vanacore, Simone Olgiati, Yah-Huei Wu-Chou, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Agnita J W Boon, Susanne E Hoogers, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Arne S IJpma, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Marco Onofrj, Paolo Barone, David J Nicholl, Andreas Puschmann, Michele De Mari, Anneke J Kievit, Egberto Barbosa, Giuseppe De Michele, Danielle Majoor-Krakauer, John C van Swieten, Frank J de Jong, Joaquim J Ferreira, Giovanni Cossu, Chin-Song Lu, Giuseppe Meco, Pietro Cortelli, Wilma D J van de Berg, Vincenzo Bonifati
BACKGROUND: Most patients with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies do not carry mutations in known disease-causing genes. The aim of this study was to identify a novel gene implicated in the development of these disorders. METHODS: Our study was done in three stages. First, we did genome-wide linkage analysis of an Italian family with dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease to identify the disease locus. Second, we sequenced the candidate gene in an international multicentre series of unrelated probands who were diagnosed either clinically or pathologically with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies...
July 2018: Lancet Neurology
John D Lee, Samantha C Levin, Emily F Willis, Rui Li, Trent M Woodruff, Peter G Noakes
BACKGROUND: Components of the innate immune complement system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) specifically using hSOD1 transgenic animals; however, a comprehensive examination of complement expression in other transgenic ALS models has not been performed. This study therefore aimed to determine the expression of several key complement components and regulators in the lumbar spinal cord and tibialis anterior muscle of TDP-43Q331K mice during different disease ages...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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