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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301775/rna-polymerase-ii-read-through-promotes-expression-of-neighboring-genes-in-sal1-pap-xrn-retrograde-signaling
#1
Peter Alexander Crisp, Aaron B Smith, Diep R Ganguly, Kevin D Murray, Steven R Eichten, Anthony A Millar, Barry J Pogson
In plants, the molecular function(s) of the nuclear localised 5'-3' EXORIBONUCLEASES (XRNs) are unclear; however, their activity is reported to have a significant effect on gene expression and SAL1-mediated retrograde signaling. Using Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends (PARE) we documented a dramatic increase in uncapped RNA substrates of the XRNs in both sal1 and xrn2xrn3 mutants. We found that a major consequence of reducing SAL1 or XRN activity was RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) 3' read-through. This occurred at 72% of expressed genes, demonstrating a major genome-wide role for the XRN-torpedo model of transcription termination in Arabidopsis...
October 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271587/androgen-dependent-alternative-mrna-isoform-expression-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#2
Jennifer Munkley, Teresa M Maia, Nekane Ibarluzea, Karen E Livermore, Daniel Vodak, Ingrid Ehrmann, Katherine James, Prabhakar Rajan, Nuno L Barbosa-Morais, David J Elliott
Background: Androgen steroid hormones are key drivers of prostate cancer. Previous work has shown that androgens can drive the expression of alternative mRNA isoforms as well as transcriptional changes in prostate cancer cells. Yet to what extent androgens control alternative mRNA isoforms and how these are expressed and differentially regulated in prostate tumours is unknown. Methods: Here we have used RNA-Seq data to globally identify alternative mRNA isoform expression under androgen control in prostate cancer cells, and profiled the expression of these mRNA isoforms in clinical tissue...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247637/janus-kinase-jak1-maintains-the-ovarian-reserve-of-primordial-follicles-in-the-mouse-ovary
#3
Jessie M Sutherland, Emily R Frost, Emmalee A Ford, Alexandra E Peters, Natalie L Reed, Alexandra N Seldon, Bettina P Mihalas, Darryl L Russel, Kylie R Dunning, Eileen A McLaughlin
STUDY QUESTION: Is the Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway involved in ovarian follicle development and primordial follicle activation? SUMMARY ANSWER: JAK1 is a key factor involved in the regulation of primordial follicle activation and maintenance of the ovarian reserve. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A series of integrated, intrinsic signalling pathways (including PI3K/AKT, mTOR and KITL) are responsible for regulating the ovarian reserve of non-growing primordial follicles and ultimately female fertility...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247264/exploring-the-transcriptome-of-resident-spinal-microglia-after-collagen-antibody-induced-arthritis
#4
Teresa Fernandez-Zafra, Tianle Gao, Alexandra Jurczak, Katalin Sandor, Zoe Hore, Nilesh M Agalave, Jie Su, Johanna Estelius, Jon Lampa, Tomas Hokfelt, Zsuzsanna Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Xiaojun Xu, Franziska Denk, Camilla I Svensson
Recent studies have suggested a sexually dimorphic role of spinal glial cells in the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodent models of chronic pain. We have used the collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) mouse model to examine differences between males and females in the context of spinal regulation of arthritis-induced pain. We have focused on the late phase of this model when joint inflammation has resolved but mechanical hypersensitivity persists. While the intensity of substance P, CGRP and galanin immunoreactivity in the spinal cord was not different from controls, the intensity of microglia (Iba-1) and astrocyte (GFAP) markers was elevated in both males and females...
September 20, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242795/changes-of-cd90-expression-and-immunoreactive-cell-localisation-in-rat-dental-pulp-after-cavity-preparation
#5
Yousuke Sano, Akina Sugiuchi, Keisuke Mitomo, Akihide Yanagisawa, Ryo Kambe, Masahiro Furusawa, Takashi Muramatsu
CD90 expression and immunoreactive cell localisation in rat dental pulp cells after cavity preparation was investigated. Cavity preparation was performed on the maxillary first molar of 8-week-old Wistar rats (n = 36), and immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR were performed. CD90-immunoreactivity was observed among subodontoblastic cells in the control group. One day after cavity preparation, the CD90-immunoreactivity disappeared under the cavity area. While CD90-immunoreactivity was faint after 3 days, the re-arrangement of odontoblasts was detected in contact with dentine...
September 21, 2018: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214039/increased-macrophages-and-changed-brain-endothelial-cell-gene-expression-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-people-with-schizophrenia-displaying-inflammation
#6
Helen Q Cai, Vibeke S Catts, Maree J Webster, Cherrie Galletly, Dennis Liu, Maryanne O'Donnell, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines exist in both blood and brain of people with schizophrenia but how this affects molecular indices of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is unclear. Eight mRNAs relating to BBB function, a microglia and three immune cell markers were measured by qPCR in the prefrontal cortex from 37 people with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 37 matched controls. This cohort was previously grouped into "high inflammation" and "low inflammation" subgroups based on cortical inflammatory-related transcripts...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176851/expression-localisation-and-potential-significance-of-aquaporins-in-benign-and-malignant-human-prostate-tissue
#7
Johannes Bründl, Sabine Wallinger, Johannes Breyer, Florian Weber, Matthias Evert, Nikolaos Theodoros Georgopoulos, Bernd Rosenhammer, Maximilian Burger, Wolfgang Otto, Peter Rubenwolf
BACKGROUND: To study the expression pattern, localisation and potential clinical significance of aquaporin water channels (AQP) both in prostate cancer (PC) cell lines and in benign and malignant human prostate tissue. METHODS: The AQP transcript and protein expression of HPrEC, LNCaP, DU-145 and PC3 cell lines was investigated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy labelling. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to assess AQP protein expression in surgical specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as in PC...
September 3, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145997/cytoplasmic-polyadenylation-element-binding-protein-2-cpeb2-is-required-for-tight-junction-assembly-for-establishment-of-porcine-trophectoderm-epithelium
#8
Jeongwoo Kwon, Shuha Park, Min-Jung Seong, Inchul Choi, Nam-Hyung Kim
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) is an RNA-binding protein that promotes elongation of poly(A) tails and regulates mRNA translation. CPEB depletion in mammary epithelium is known to disrupt tight-junction (TJ) assembly via mislocalisation of tight junction protein 1 (TJP1), but the role of CPEB in the biological functions associated with TJs has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of CPEB2 during porcine parthenote development. CPEB2 was detected in both the nuclei and apical cytoplasm at the 4- and 8-cell stages and was localised to cell-cell contact after the initiation of the morula stage...
August 27, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131676/the-intracellular-cleavage-product-of-the-ng2-proteoglycan-modulates-translation-and-cell-cycle-kinetics-via-effects-on-mtorc1-fmrp-signaling
#9
Tanmoyita Nayak, Jacqueline Trotter, Dominik Sakry
The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and is abundantly expressed by tumors such as melanoma and glioblastoma. Functions of NG2 include an influence on proliferation, migration and neuromodulation. Similar to other type-1 membrane proteins, NG2 undergoes proteolysis, generating a large ectodomain, a C-terminal fragment (CTF) and an intracellular domain (ICD) via sequential action of α- and γ-secretases which is enhanced by neuronal activity. Functional roles of NG2 have so far been shown for the full-length protein, the released ectodomain and CTF, but not for the ICD...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120214/homozygous-variants-in-kiaa1549-encoding-a-ciliary-protein-are-associated-with-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#10
Suzanne E de Bruijn, Sanne K Verbakel, Erik de Vrieze, Hannie Kremer, Frans P M Cremers, Carel B Hoyng, L Ingeborgh van den Born, Susanne Roosing
BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows substantial genetic heterogeneity. It has been estimated that in approximately 60%-80% of RP cases, the genetic diagnosis can be found using whole exome sequencing (WES). In this study, the purpose was to identify causative variants in individuals with genetically unexplained retinal disease, which included one consanguineous family with two affected siblings and one case with RP. METHODS: To identify the genetic defect, WES was performed in both probands, and clinical analysis was performed...
October 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100245/cartilage-oligomeric-matrix-protein-is-differentially-expressed-in-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-regulates-adipogenesis
#11
Nathan Denton, Katherine E Pinnick, Fredrik Karpe
OBJECTIVE: The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) impacts adipocyte function and might determine adipose tissue (AT) function and distribution. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a matricellular protein usually studied in bone and cartilage, is highly differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT. This study aimed to explore COMP's role in human subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT and preadipocyte biology. METHODS: COMP mRNA levels were measured in whole AT and immortalised preadipocytes via quantitative (q)-PCR...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088096/sensitive-fluorescent-hybridisation-protocol-development-for-simultaneous-detection-of-microrna-and-cellular-marker-proteins-in-the-retina
#12
Andrea Kovács-Valasek, Bálint Szalontai, György Sétáló, Robert Gábriel
Nowadays, increasing number of microRNAs are found to have crucial roles in various physiological processes through gene expression regulation via RNA silencing as a result of base pairing with complementary mRNA sequences. To reveal the spatial distribution of microRNA expression in tissues, in situ hybridisation is the only method developed to date. This work aims to provide a novel approach to obtain information on the possible involvement of microRNA-s in regulatory processes under experimental conditions by enhancing fluorescent detection of microRNA labelling...
November 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065296/fibroblast-growth-factor-12-is-expressed-in-spiral-and-vestibular-ganglia-and-necessary-for-auditory-and-equilibrium-function
#13
Yukiko Hanada, Yukiko Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Ozono, Yusuke Ishida, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Manabu Taniguchi, Kazuya Ohata, Yoshihisa Koyama, Takao Imai, Tetsuo Morihana, Makoto Kondo, Takashi Sato, Hidenori Inohara, Shoichi Shimada
We investigated fibroblast growth factor 12 (FGF12) as a transcript enriched in the inner ear by searching published cDNA library databases. FGF12 is a fibroblast growth factor homologous factor, a subset of the FGF superfamily. To date, its localisation and function in the inner ear have not been determined. Here, we show that FGF12 mRNA is localised in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and the vestibular ganglion. We also show that FGF12 protein is localised in SGNs, the vestibular ganglion, and nerve fibres extending beneath hair cells...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044440/translocator-protein-tspo-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-human-cancers
#14
Nimisha H Bhoola, Zukile Mbita, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
TSPO is a receptor involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial functions. Previous studies showed that the expression of TSPO protein correlated positively with tumour malignancy and negatively with patient survival. The aim of this study was to determine the transcription of Tspo mRNA in various types of normal and cancer tissues. In situ hybridization was performed to localise the Tspo mRNA in various human normal and cancer tissues. The relative level of Tspo mRNA was quantified using fluorescent intensity and visual estimation of colorimetric staining...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040867/comparative-proteomics-of-the-two-t-brucei-pabps-suggests-that-pabp2-controls-bulk-mrna
#15
Martin Zoltner, Nina Krienitz, Mark C Field, Susanne Kramer
Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) regulate mRNA fate by controlling stability and translation through interactions with both the poly(A) tail and eIF4F complex. Many organisms have several paralogs of PABPs and eIF4F complex components and it is likely that different eIF4F/PABP complex combinations regulate distinct sets of mRNAs. Trypanosomes have five eIF4G paralogs, six of eIF4E and two PABPs, PABP1 and PABP2. Under starvation, polysomes dissociate and the majority of mRNAs, most translation initiation factors and PABP2 reversibly localise to starvation stress granules...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040149/analysis-of-prolactin-receptor-expression-in-the-murine-brain-using-a-novel-prolactin-receptor-reporter-mouse
#16
Ilona C Kokay, Amanda Wyatt, Hollian R Phillipps, Mari Aoki, Fabien Ectors, Ulrich Boehm, David R Grattan
Prolactin influences a wide range of physiological functions via actions within the central nervous system, as well as in peripheral tissues. A significant limitation in studies investigating these functions is the difficulty in identifying prolactin receptor (Prlr) expression, particularly in the brain. We have developed a novel mouse line using homologous recombination within mouse embryonic stem cells to produce a mouse in which an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) followed by Cre recombinase cDNA is inserted immediately after exon 10 in the Prlr gene, thereby targeting the long isoform of the Prlr...
September 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030392/identification-of-a-novel-pathogenic-missense-mutation-in-prpf31-using-whole-exome-sequencing-a-case-report
#17
Laura Bryant, Olga Lozynska, Anson Marsh, Tyler E Papp, Lucas van Gorder, Leona W Serrano, Xiaowu Gai, Albert M Maguire, Tomas S Aleman, Jean Bennett
BACKGROUND: Variants in PRPF31 , which encodes pre-mRNA processing factor 31 homolog, are known to cause autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) with incomplete penetrance. However, the majority of mutations cause null alleles, with only two proven pathogenic missense mutations. We identified a novel missense mutation in PRPF31 in a family with adRP. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing to identify possible pathogenic mutations in the proband of a family with adRP...
July 20, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010019/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterisation-of-nlrx1-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#18
Pengfei Chu, Libo He, Yangyang Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Yongming Li, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins regulate innate immunity. Although the positive regulatory impact of NLRs is clear, their inhibitory roles are not well defined. In the present study, the NLR family gene NLRX1 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was cloned and characterised. NLRX1 was widely expressed in all tissues examined, albeit at varying levels. After exposure to the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), NLRX1 mRNA expression levels were altered in immune organs, and dramatically altered in liver...
October 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29964068/apelin-modulates-murine-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity
#19
Hui Li, Stephen J Kentish, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Gastric vagal afferents play an important role in the peripheral control of food intake. Apelin, a central appetite regulating hormone, is also abundantly released from the stomach. Whether apelin modulates gastric vagal afferent signalling is unknown. We aimed to determine whether apelin modulates gastric vagal afferent signalling under different states of nutrition. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. An in vitro gastric vagal afferent preparation was used to determine the effect of apelin on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in SLD mice, fed ad libitum or fasted overnight, and HFD mice...
June 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948727/localisation-of-formyl-peptide-receptor-2-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system-and-its-role-in-axonal-and-dendritic-outgrowth
#20
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Nadia Binte Ismail, Joled Kong-Ze Koh, Saravanan Gunaseelan, Yi-Hua Low, Yee-Kong Ng, John Jia-En Chua, Wei-Yi Ong
Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) released by the action of phospholipases A2 (PLA2 ) on membrane phospholipids may be metabolized by lipoxygenases to the anti-inflammatory mediators lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and resolvin D1 (RvD1), and these can bind to a common receptor, formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). The contribution of this receptor to axonal or dendritic outgrowth is unknown. The present study was carried out to elucidate the distribution of FPR2 in the rat CNS and its role in outgrowth of neuronal processes...
August 2018: Neurochemical Research
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