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mRNA localisation

Yichi Zhang, Ruini Li, Weiwei Rong, Mingzi Han, Chenghu Cui, Zhenning Feng, Xiaoli Sun, Shizhu Jin
Hepatocirrhosis is one of the most severe complications of chronic hepatic disease in terms of medical intervention, and the available therapies are limited and not very successful. In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from host rats were transduced with an adenoviral vector labelled with green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to overexpress hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The therapeutic effect of these modified stem cells (HGF-BM-MSC group) transplanted intravenously into hepatocirrhosis model rats treated with CCl4 was evaluated using serological, biochemical and histological approaches...
December 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Stuart T Hamilton, Corina Hutterer, Ece Egilmezer, Mirjam Steingruber, Jens Milbradt, Manfred Marschall, William D Rawlinson
INTRODUCTION: Congenital cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may cause significant fetal malformation and in severe cases fetal and neonatal death. Fetal injury may be caused indirectly by the placental response to infection. Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) have recently been identified as critical kinases for HCMV replication. In this study we provide first evidence that DYRK1A and DYRK1B are utilised during HCMV placental replication. METHODS: DYRK expression was investigated in AD169- and Merlin-infected TEV-1 trophoblast cells, ex vivo placental explants and naturally infected clinical placentae by immunofluorescence, western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and RT-qPCR...
December 2018: Placenta
Ka Ka Ting, Yang Zhao, Weiyong Shen, Paul Coleman, Michelle Yam, Tailoi Chan-Ling, Jia Li, Thorleif Moller, Mark Gillies, Mathew A Vadas, Jennifer R Gamble
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A major feature of diabetic retinopathy is breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, resulting in macular oedema. We have developed a novel oligonucleotide-based drug, CD5-2, that specifically increases expression of the key junctional protein involved in barrier integrity in endothelial cells, vascular-endothelial-specific cadherin (VE-cadherin). CD5-2 prevents the mRNA silencing by the pro-angiogenic microRNA, miR-27a. CD5-2 was evaluated in animal models of ocular neovascularisation and vascular leak to determine its potential efficacy for diabetic retinopathy...
November 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Vinay Saunders, Jennifer M Dewing, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, David I Wilson
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and localisation of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) in the developing human heart. Tβ4 is a cardioprotective protein which may have therapeutic potential. While Tβ4 is an endogenously produced protein with known importance during development, its role within the developing human heart is not fully understood. Elucidating the localisation of Tβ4 within the developing heart will help in understanding its role during cardiac development and is crucial for understanding its potential for cardioprotection and repair in the adult heart...
2018: PloS One
Masako Mizuno, Rika Miki, Yoshinori Moriyama, Takafumi Ushida, Kenji Imai, Kaoru Niimi, Tomoko Nakano, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Seiji Sumigama, Eiko Yamamoto, Takeshi Senga, Akira Iwase, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Tomomi Kotani
Recent studies have reported that E2F transcription factor (E2F) 8, an atypical E2F transcription factor, serves a critical role in promoting the growth and development of the murine placenta. However, the function of E2F8 in the human placenta remains unknown. Invasion of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) into the maternal decidua is known to be important for the development of the human placenta. To investigate the role of E2F8 in human placental development, E2F8 localisation was examined in the human placenta and E2F8 mRNA expression was detected in primary cultured EVTs...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Peter Alexander Crisp, Aaron B Smith, Diep R Ganguly, Kevin D Murray, Steven R Eichten, Anthony A Millar, Barry J Pogson
In plants, the molecular function(s) of the nuclear localised 5'-3' EXORIBONUCLEASES (XRNs) are unclear; however, their activity is reported to have a significant effect on gene expression and SAL1-mediated retrograde signaling. Using Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends (PARE) we documented a dramatic increase in uncapped RNA substrates of the XRNs in both sal1 and xrn2xrn3 mutants. We found that a major consequence of reducing SAL1 or XRN activity was RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) 3' read-through. This occurred at 72% of expressed genes, demonstrating a major genome-wide role for the XRN-torpedo model of transcription termination in Arabidopsis...
October 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jennifer Munkley, Teresa M Maia, Nekane Ibarluzea, Karen E Livermore, Daniel Vodak, Ingrid Ehrmann, Katherine James, Prabhakar Rajan, Nuno L Barbosa-Morais, David J Elliott
Background: Androgen steroid hormones are key drivers of prostate cancer. Previous work has shown that androgens can drive the expression of alternative mRNA isoforms as well as transcriptional changes in prostate cancer cells. Yet to what extent androgens control alternative mRNA isoforms and how these are expressed and differentially regulated in prostate tumours is unknown. Methods: Here we have used RNA-Seq data to globally identify alternative mRNA isoform expression under androgen control in prostate cancer cells, and profiled the expression of these mRNA isoforms in clinical tissue...
2018: F1000Research
Jessie M Sutherland, Emily R Frost, Emmalee A Ford, Alexandra E Peters, Natalie L Reed, Alexandra N Seldon, Bettina P Mihalas, Darryl L Russel, Kylie R Dunning, Eileen A McLaughlin
STUDY QUESTION: Is the Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway involved in ovarian follicle development and primordial follicle activation? SUMMARY ANSWER: JAK1 is a key factor involved in the regulation of primordial follicle activation and maintenance of the ovarian reserve. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A series of integrated, intrinsic signalling pathways (including PI3K/AKT, mTOR and KITL) are responsible for regulating the ovarian reserve of non-growing primordial follicles and ultimately female fertility...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Teresa Fernandez-Zafra, Tianle Gao, Alexandra Jurczak, Katalin Sandor, Zoe Hore, Nilesh M Agalave, Jie Su, Johanna Estelius, Jon Lampa, Tomas Hokfelt, Zsuzsanna Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Xiaojun Xu, Franziska Denk, Camilla I Svensson
Recent studies have suggested a sexually dimorphic role of spinal glial cells in the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodent models of chronic pain. We have used the collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) mouse model to examine differences between males and females in the context of spinal regulation of arthritis-induced pain. We have focused on the late phase of this model when joint inflammation has resolved but mechanical hypersensitivity persists. While the intensity of substance P, CGRP and galanin immunoreactivity in the spinal cord was not different from controls, the intensity of microglia (Iba-1) and astrocyte (GFAP) markers was elevated in both males and females...
September 20, 2018: Pain
Yousuke Sano, Akina Sugiuchi, Keisuke Mitomo, Akihide Yanagisawa, Ryo Kambe, Masahiro Furusawa, Takashi Muramatsu
CD90 expression and immunoreactive cell localisation in rat dental pulp cells after cavity preparation was investigated. Cavity preparation was performed on the maxillary first molar of 8-week-old Wistar rats (n = 36), and immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR were performed. CD90-immunoreactivity was observed among subodontoblastic cells in the control group. One day after cavity preparation, the CD90-immunoreactivity disappeared under the cavity area. While CD90-immunoreactivity was faint after 3 days, the re-arrangement of odontoblasts was detected in contact with dentine...
September 21, 2018: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
Helen Q Cai, Vibeke S Catts, Maree J Webster, Cherrie Galletly, Dennis Liu, Maryanne O'Donnell, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines exist in both blood and brain of people with schizophrenia but how this affects molecular indices of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is unclear. Eight mRNAs relating to BBB function, a microglia and three immune cell markers were measured by qPCR in the prefrontal cortex from 37 people with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 37 matched controls. This cohort was previously grouped into "high inflammation" and "low inflammation" subgroups based on cortical inflammatory-related transcripts...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Johannes Bründl, Sabine Wallinger, Johannes Breyer, Florian Weber, Matthias Evert, Nikolaos Theodoros Georgopoulos, Bernd Rosenhammer, Maximilian Burger, Wolfgang Otto, Peter Rubenwolf
BACKGROUND: To study the expression pattern, localisation and potential clinical significance of aquaporin water channels (AQP) both in prostate cancer (PC) cell lines and in benign and malignant human prostate tissue. METHODS: The AQP transcript and protein expression of HPrEC, LNCaP, DU-145 and PC3 cell lines was investigated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy labelling. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to assess AQP protein expression in surgical specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as in PC...
September 3, 2018: BMC Urology
Jeongwoo Kwon, Shuha Park, Min-Jung Seong, Inchul Choi, Nam-Hyung Kim
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) is an RNA-binding protein that promotes elongation of poly(A) tails and regulates mRNA translation. CPEB depletion in mammary epithelium is known to disrupt tight-junction (TJ) assembly via mislocalisation of tight junction protein 1 (TJP1), but the role of CPEB in the biological functions associated with TJs has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of CPEB2 during porcine parthenote development. CPEB2 was detected in both the nuclei and apical cytoplasm at the 4- and 8-cell stages and was localised to cell-cell contact after the initiation of the morula stage...
August 27, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tanmoyita Nayak, Jacqueline Trotter, Dominik Sakry
The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and is abundantly expressed by tumors such as melanoma and glioblastoma. Functions of NG2 include an influence on proliferation, migration and neuromodulation. Similar to other type-1 membrane proteins, NG2 undergoes proteolysis, generating a large ectodomain, a C-terminal fragment (CTF) and an intracellular domain (ICD) via sequential action of α- and γ-secretases which is enhanced by neuronal activity. Functional roles of NG2 have so far been shown for the full-length protein, the released ectodomain and CTF, but not for the ICD...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Suzanne E de Bruijn, Sanne K Verbakel, Erik de Vrieze, Hannie Kremer, Frans P M Cremers, Carel B Hoyng, L Ingeborgh van den Born, Susanne Roosing
BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows substantial genetic heterogeneity. It has been estimated that in approximately 60%-80% of RP cases, the genetic diagnosis can be found using whole exome sequencing (WES). In this study, the purpose was to identify causative variants in individuals with genetically unexplained retinal disease, which included one consanguineous family with two affected siblings and one case with RP. METHODS: To identify the genetic defect, WES was performed in both probands, and clinical analysis was performed...
October 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Nathan Denton, Katherine E Pinnick, Fredrik Karpe
OBJECTIVE: The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) impacts adipocyte function and might determine adipose tissue (AT) function and distribution. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a matricellular protein usually studied in bone and cartilage, is highly differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT. This study aimed to explore COMP's role in human subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT and preadipocyte biology. METHODS: COMP mRNA levels were measured in whole AT and immortalised preadipocytes via quantitative (q)-PCR...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Andrea Kovács-Valasek, Bálint Szalontai, György Sétáló, Robert Gábriel
Nowadays, increasing number of microRNAs are found to have crucial roles in various physiological processes through gene expression regulation via RNA silencing as a result of base pairing with complementary mRNA sequences. To reveal the spatial distribution of microRNA expression in tissues, in situ hybridisation is the only method developed to date. This work aims to provide a novel approach to obtain information on the possible involvement of microRNA-s in regulatory processes under experimental conditions by enhancing fluorescent detection of microRNA labelling...
November 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Yukiko Hanada, Yukiko Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Ozono, Yusuke Ishida, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Manabu Taniguchi, Kazuya Ohata, Yoshihisa Koyama, Takao Imai, Tetsuo Morihana, Makoto Kondo, Takashi Sato, Hidenori Inohara, Shoichi Shimada
We investigated fibroblast growth factor 12 (FGF12) as a transcript enriched in the inner ear by searching published cDNA library databases. FGF12 is a fibroblast growth factor homologous factor, a subset of the FGF superfamily. To date, its localisation and function in the inner ear have not been determined. Here, we show that FGF12 mRNA is localised in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and the vestibular ganglion. We also show that FGF12 protein is localised in SGNs, the vestibular ganglion, and nerve fibres extending beneath hair cells...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nimisha H Bhoola, Zukile Mbita, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
TSPO is a receptor involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial functions. Previous studies showed that the expression of TSPO protein correlated positively with tumour malignancy and negatively with patient survival. The aim of this study was to determine the transcription of Tspo mRNA in various types of normal and cancer tissues. In situ hybridization was performed to localise the Tspo mRNA in various human normal and cancer tissues. The relative level of Tspo mRNA was quantified using fluorescent intensity and visual estimation of colorimetric staining...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martin Zoltner, Nina Krienitz, Mark C Field, Susanne Kramer
Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) regulate mRNA fate by controlling stability and translation through interactions with both the poly(A) tail and eIF4F complex. Many organisms have several paralogs of PABPs and eIF4F complex components and it is likely that different eIF4F/PABP complex combinations regulate distinct sets of mRNAs. Trypanosomes have five eIF4G paralogs, six of eIF4E and two PABPs, PABP1 and PABP2. Under starvation, polysomes dissociate and the majority of mRNAs, most translation initiation factors and PABP2 reversibly localise to starvation stress granules...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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