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temporal specification

Pim Cuijpers, Mirjam Reijnders, Marcus J H Huibers
Psychotherapies may work through techniques that are specific to each therapy or through factors that all therapies have in common. Proponents of the common factors model often point to meta-analyses of comparative outcome studies that show all therapies have comparable effects. However, not all meta-analyses support the common factors model; the included studies often have several methodological problems; and there are alternative explanations for finding comparable outcomes. To date, research on the working mechanisms and mediators of therapies has always been correlational, and in order to establish that a mediator is indeed a causal factor in the recovery process of a patient, studies must show a temporal relationship between the mediator and an outcome, a dose-response association, evidence that no third variable causes changes in the mediator and the outcome, supportive experimental research, and have a strong theoretical framework...
December 14, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Lu Wang, Michelle S Frei, Aleksandar Salim, Kai Johnsson
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool to visualize biomolecules and cellular structures at the nanometer scale. Employing these techniques in living cells has opened up the possibility to study dynamic processes with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Different physical approaches to super-resolution microscopy have been introduced over the last years. A bottleneck to apply these approaches for live-cell imaging has become the availability of appropriate fluorescent probes that can be specifically attached to biomolecules...
December 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Julie E Cubicciotti, Jason C Vladescu, Kenneth F Reeve, Regina A Carroll, Lauren K Schnell
Children with autism spectrum disorder are typically taught conditional discriminations using a match-to-sample arrangement. Consideration should be given to the temporal order in which antecedent stimuli (the sample and comparison stimuli) are presented during match-to-sample trials, as various arrangements have been used in the extant literature. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of four stimulus presentation orders on the acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Puja Agrawal, Katelyn E Heimbruch, Sridhar Rao
Gene expression is regulated by numerous elements including enhancers, insulators, transcription factors, and architectural proteins. Regions of DNA distal to the transcriptional start site, called enhancers, play a central role in the temporal and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression through RNA polymerase II. The identification of enhancers and other cis regulatory elements has largely been possible due to advances in next generation sequencing technologies. Enhancers regulate gene expression through chromatin loops mediated by architectural proteins such as YY1, CTCF, the cohesin complex, and LDB1...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Chenghao Chu, Ying Zhang, Wanzhu Tu
Biological processes are usually defined on timelines that are anchored by specific events. For example, cancer growth is typically measured by the change in tumor size from the time of oncogenesis. In the absence of such anchoring events, longitudinal assessments of the outcome lose their temporal reference. In this paper, we considered the estimation of local change rates in the outcomes when the anchoring events are interval-censored. Viewing the subject-specific anchoring event times as random variables from an unspecified distribution, we proposed a distribution-free estimation method for the local growth rates around the unobserved anchoring events...
December 14, 2018: Biometrics
Frank Qasim Machin, Malin Beckers, Xin Tian, Alice Fairnie, Teri Cheng, Wolf-Rüdiger Scheible, Peter Doerner
Cell-, tissue- or organ-specific inducible expression systems are powerful tools for functional analysis of changes to the pattern, level or timing of gene expression. However, plant researchers lack standardised reagents that promote reproducibility across the community. Here, we report the development and functional testing of a Gateway-based system for quantitatively, spatially and temporally controlling inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis which overcomes several drawbacks of legacy systems. We used this modular driver/effector system with intrinsic reporting of spatio-temporal promoter activity to generate 18 well-characterised homozygous transformed lines showing the expected expression patterns specific for the major cell types of the Arabidopsis root; seed and plasmid vectors are available through the Arabidopsis stock centre...
December 13, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Cecilia W P Li-Tsang, Tim M H Li, Mandy S W Lau, Amy G W Lo, Choco H Y Ho, Howard W H Leung
BACKGROUND/AIM: Handwriting difficulties can be detrimental to students' performance in school tests and even in public examinations. It is crucial for school-based occupational therapists to identify students with handwriting difficulties and support them with appropriate adaptive strategies. The purpose of this study is to validate a computerised assessment - the Computerised Handwriting Speed Test System (CHSTS) of both Chinese and English handwriting for Chinese secondary students and provide an objective reference for extra time allowance in paper-based examinations...
December 11, 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Sashary Ramos, Rachel E Horness, Jessica A Collins, David Haak, Megan C Thielges
The conformational heterogeneity and dynamics of protein side chains contribute to function, but investigating exactly how is hindered by experimental challenges arising from the fast timescales involved and the spatial heterogeneity of protein structures. The potential of two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy for measuring conformational heterogeneity and dynamics with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution has motivated extensive effort to develop amino acids with functional groups that have frequency-resolved absorptions to serve as probes of their protein microenvironments...
December 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Miriam Scheld, Athanassios Fragoulis, Stella Nyamoya, Adib Zendedel, Bernd Denecke, Barbara Krauspe, Nico Teske, Markus Kipp, Cordian Beyer, Tim Clarner
Widespread inflammatory lesions within the central nervous system grey and white matter are major hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. The development of full-blown demyelinating multiple sclerosis lesions might be preceded by preactive lesions which are characterized by focal microglia activation in close spatial relation to apoptotic oligodendrocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression of signaling molecules of oligodendrocytes that might be involved in initial microglia activation during preactive lesion formation...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ainara Jauregi, Klaus Kessler, Stefanie Hassel
Impulsivity is regarded as a multifaceted construct that comprises two dimensions: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity. It is unclear, however, which aspects of trait impulsivity, as assessed by self-report measures are related to rapid-response impulsivity and/or to reward-delay impulsivity, as different results have been reported in studies using both self-report and cognitive measures. This study aimed to directly relate self-report measures of impulsivity to cognitive measures of impulsivity in individuals at low- or high-levels on two impulsivity dimensions, specifically rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gaia Olivo, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Anna-Kaisa Tuunainen, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
Atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) has a high incidence in adolescents and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Neuroimaging could improve our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of eating disorders (EDs), however research on adolescents with EDs is limited. To date no neuroimaging studies have been conducted to investigate brain functional connectivity in atypical AN. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity using 3 T MRI in 22 drug-naïve adolescent patients with atypical AN, and 24 healthy controls...
December 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shriya S Srinivasan, Benjamin E Maimon, Maurizio Diaz, Hyungeun Song, Hugh M Herr
Optogenetics has been used to orchestrate temporal- and tissue-specific control of neural tissues and offers a wealth of unique advantages for neuromuscular control. Here, we establish a closed-loop functional optogenetic stimulation (CL-FOS) system to control ankle joint position in murine models. Using the measurement of either joint angle or fascicle length as a feedback signal, we compare the controllability of CL-FOS to closed-loop functional electrical stimulation (CL-FES) and demonstrate significantly greater accuracy, lower rise times and lower overshoot percentages...
December 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Azita Fazelkhah, Katrin Braasch, Samaneh Afshar, Elham Salimi, Michael Butler, Greg Bridges, Douglas Thomson
In mammalian cells cytoplasm ion concentrations and hence cytoplasm conductivity is an important indicator of their physiological state. Changes in the cytoplasm conductivity has been associated with physiological changes such as progression of cancer and apoptosis. In this work, a model that predicts the effects of physiological changes in ion transport on the cytoplasm conductivity of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is demonstrated. We determined CHO-specific model parameters, Na+ /K+ ATPase pumps and ion channels densities, using a flux assay approach...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiang Li, Paul R Marshall, Laura J Leighton, Esmi L Zajaczkowski, Ziqi Wang, Sachithrani U Madugalle, Jiayu Yin, Timothy W Bredy, Wei Wei
We have identified a member of the growth arrest and DNA damage (Gadd45) protein family, Gadd45 ׆ , which is known to be critically involved in DNA repair, as a key player in the regulation of immediate early gene (IEG) expression underlying the consolidation of associative fear memory in adult male C57/Bl6 mice. Gadd45 ׆ temporally influences learning-induced IEG expression in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PLPFC) through its interaction with DNA double-strand break (DSB)-mediated changes in DNA methylation...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mingfeng Li, Gabriel Santpere, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Oleg V Evgrafov, Forrest O Gulden, Sirisha Pochareddy, Susan M Sunkin, Zhen Li, Yurae Shin, Ying Zhu, André M M Sousa, Donna M Werling, Robert R Kitchen, Hyo Jung Kang, Mihovil Pletikos, Jinmyung Choi, Sydney Muchnik, Xuming Xu, Daifeng Wang, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Shuang Liu, Paola Giusti-Rodríguez, Hyejung Won, Christiaan A de Leeuw, Antonio F Pardiñas, Ming Hu, Fulai Jin, Yun Li, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James T R Walters, Danielle Posthuma, Pat Levitt, Daniel R Weinberger, Thomas M Hyde, Joel E Kleinman, Daniel H Geschwind, Michael J Hawrylycz, Matthew W State, Stephan J Sanders, Patrick F Sullivan, Mark B Gerstein, Ed S Lein, James A Knowles, Nenad Sestan
To broaden our understanding of human neurodevelopment, we profiled transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes across brain regions and/or cell types for the entire span of prenatal and postnatal development. Integrative analysis revealed temporal, regional, sex, and cell type-specific dynamics. We observed a global transcriptomic cup-shaped pattern, characterized by a late fetal transition associated with sharply decreased regional differences and changes in cellular composition and maturation, followed by a reversal in childhood-adolescence, and accompanied by epigenomic reorganizations...
December 14, 2018: Science
Xiaoqing Gao, Quoc C Vuong, Bruno Rossion
Following brain damage, the patient PS suffers from selective impairment in recognizing individuals by their faces, i.e., prosopagnosia. Her case has been documented in more than 30 publications to date, informing about the nature of individual face recognition and its neural basis. Here we report new functional neuroimaging data obtained on PS with a recently developed fast periodic stimulation functional imaging (FPS-fMRI) paradigm combining high sensitivity, specificity and reliability in identifying the cortical face-selective network (Gao et al...
November 17, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Samuel Jacquiod, Inês Nunes, Asker Brejnrod, Martin A Hansen, Peter E Holm, Anders Johansen, Kristian K Brandt, Anders Priemé, Søren J Sørensen
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether adaptation and changes in diversity associated to a long-term perturbation are sufficient to ensure functional resilience of soil microbial communities. We used RNA-based approaches (16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon coupled to shotgun mRNA sequencing) to study the legacy effects of a century-long soil copper (Cu) pollution on microbial activity and composition, as well as its effect on the capacity of the microbial community to react to temporal fluctuations...
December 13, 2018: Microbiome
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Gian Mario Mandolini, Andrea Arighi, Cecilia Prunas, Carlo Massimo Mauri, Anna M Pietroboni, Giorgio Marotta, Claudia Maria Cinnante, Fabio Maria Triulzi, Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini, Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Elderly bipolar disorder (BD) and behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) may exhibit similar symptoms and both disorders are characterized by selective abnormalities in cortical and subcortical regions that are associated with cognitive and emotional impairments. We aimed to investigate common and distinct neural substrates of BD and bvFTD by coupling, for the first time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques. METHODS: 3-Tesla MRI and 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scans were acquired for 16 elderly BD patients, 23 bvFTD patients with mild cognitive impairments and 68 healthy controls (48 for PET and 20 for MRI analyses)...
December 13, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Deborah Gérard, Florian Schmidt, Aurélien Ginolhac, Martine Schmitz, Rashi Halder, Peter Ebert, Marcel H Schulz, Thomas Sauter, Lasse Sinkkonen
Temporal data on gene expression and context-specific open chromatin states can improve identification of key transcription factors (TFs) and the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) controlling cellular differentiation. However, their integration remains challenging. Here, we delineate a general approach for data-driven and unbiased identification of key TFs and dynamic GRNs, called EPIC-DREM. We generated time-series transcriptomic and epigenomic profiles during differentiation of mouse multipotent bone marrow stromal cell line (ST2) toward adipocytes and osteoblasts...
December 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Meghan J Bloom, Sachit D Saksena, George P Swain, Marcelo S Behar, Thomas E Yankeelov, Anna G Sorace
Small molecule approaches targeting the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway, a regulator of inflammation, have thus far proven unsuccessful in the clinic in part due to the complex pleiotropic nature of this network. Downstream effects depend on multiple factors including stimulus-specific temporal patterns of NF-kB activity. Despite considerable advances, genome-level impact of changes in temporal NF-kB activity caused by inhibitors and their stimulus dependency remains unexplored. This study evaluates the effects of pathway inhibitors on early NF-κB activity and downstream gene transcription...
December 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
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