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temporal specification

Gabe Shaughnessy, Sebastian Schafer, Michael A Speidel, Charles M Strother, Charles A Mistretta
PURPOSE: 4D-DSA reconstruction provides three dimensional time-resolved visualization of contrast bolus passage through arterial vasculature in the interventional setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using these data in measuring blood velocity and flow. METHODS: The pulsatile signals in the time concentration curves (TCCs) measured at different points along a vessel are markers of the movement of a contrast bolus and thus of blood flow...
August 13, 2018: Medical Physics
Changli Zhang, Minsheng Liu, Shaoxian Liu, Hui Yang, Qiang Zhao, Zhipeng Liu, Weijiang He
Phosphorescence lifetime Zn2+ imaging possesses the advantage over normal fluorescence imaging in offering the more accurate temporal-spatial Zn2+ information. Herein, we report a new phosphorescent cyclometalated Ir(III) complex with a Zn2+ -chelator bearing 1,10-phenanthrolin acting as ancillary ligand, Zin-IrDPA, which displays the specific Zn2+ -induced enhancement of phosphorescence and phosphorescence lifetime, and the mitochondria-targeting ability. Moreover, its Zn2+ -induced phosphorescence lifetime enhancement factor is not affected by medium lipophilicity, viscosity, polarity, and especially ambient oxygen...
August 13, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
David S Fischer, Fabian J Theis, Nir Yosef
Temporal changes to the concentration of molecular species such as mRNA, which take place in response to various environmental cues, can often be modeled as simple continuous functions such as a single pulse (impulse) model. The simplicity of such functional representations can provide an improved performance on fundamental tasks such as noise reduction, imputation and differential expression analysis. However, temporal gene expression profiles are often studied with models that treat time as a categorical variable, neglecting the dependence between time points...
August 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Daorong Feng, Dulguun Amgalan, Rajat Singh, Jianwen Wei, Jennifer Wen, Tszki Peter Wei, Timothy E McGraw, Richard N Kitsis, Jeffrey E Pessin
The t-SNARE protein SNAP23 conventionally functions as a component of the cellular machinery required for intracellular transport vesicle fusion with target membranes and has been implicated in the regulation of fasting glucose levels, BMI, and type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, we observed that adipocyte-specific KO of SNAP23 in mice resulted in a temporal development of severe generalized lipodystrophy associated with adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, liver steatosis, and early death...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Irving E Vega, Andrew Umstead, Cassandra M Wygant, John S Beck, Scott E Counts
BACKGROUND: The lack of diagnostic tools and disease-modifying treatments against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders, collectively known as tauopathies, have led to a socioeconomic burden of epidemic proportion. Proteomics approaches can be used to identify novel proteome changes that could help us understand the pathogenesis of tau-related pathological hallmarks and/or cellular stress responses associated with tauopathy. These studies, however, need to be conducted taking in consideration brain region specificity and stage of neurodegeneration in order to provide insights about the pathological role of the identified proteins...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontín, André A Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E Goodenough, Andrew G Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D Mazgajski, Ruedi G Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Sven G Nilsson, Ana C Norte, Rianne Pinxten, Hugo Robles, Tapio Solonen, Alberto Sorace, Arie J van Noordwijk, Marcel M Lambrechts
1.Co-existence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co-occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variation in co-existence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. 2.We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across Europe and Northern Africa during 1957-2012 for a total of 19,075 great tit and 16,729 blue tit clutches to assess correlative evidence for a relationship between laying date and clutch size, respectively, and density consistent with effects of intraspecific and interspecific competition...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ciprian B Anea, Ana M Merloiu, David J R Fulton, Vijay Patel, R Dan Rudic
Aim: The circadian clock is a molecular network that controls the body physiological rhythms. In blood vessels, the circadian clock components modulate vascular remodeling, blood pressure, and signaling. The goal in this study was to determine the pattern of expression of circadian clock proteins in the endothelium, smooth muscle, and adventitia of the vasculature of human and mouse tissues. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed in frozen sections of mouse aorta, common carotid artery, femoral artery, lung, and heart at 12 AM and 12 PM for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per and other clock components...
2018: Vessel plus
Deepali Savargaonkar, Swati Sinha, Bina Srivastava, B N Nagpal, Abhinav Sinha, Arshad Shamim, Ram Das, Veena Pande, Anupkumar R Anvikar, Neena Valecha
OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology of dengue with reference to serological, demographic profile, spatio-temporal distribution, vectors, circulating serotypes and coinfections. METHODS: Demographic data and presenting symptoms of fever cases reporting to the clinic were recorded. Suspected patients were tested for dengue, chikungunya and malaria. Dengue specific RT-PCR was performed to detect circulating DENV serotypes. Vector surveys were carried out to detect Aedes breeding...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Stavros Zanos, Irene Rembado, Daofen Chen, Eberhard E Fetz
The functional role of cortical beta oscillations, if any, remains unresolved. During oscillations, the periodic fluctuation in excitability of entrained cells modulates transmission of neural impulses and periodically enhances synaptic interactions. The extent to which oscillatory episodes affect activity-dependent synaptic plasticity remains to be determined. In nonhuman primates, we delivered single-pulse electrical cortical stimulation to a "stimulated" site in sensorimotor cortex triggered on a specific phase of ongoing beta (12-25 Hz) field potential oscillations recorded at a separate "triggering" site...
August 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Taketaro Sadahiro, Mari Isomi, Naoto Muraoka, Hidenori Kojima, Sho Haginiwa, Shota Kurotsu, Fumiya Tamura, Hidenori Tani, Shugo Tohyama, Jun Fujita, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Yoshifumi Kawamura, Naoki Goshima, Yuka W Iwasaki, Kensaku Murano, Kuniaki Saito, Mayumi Oda, Peter Andersen, Chulan Kwon, Hideki Uosaki, Hirofumi Nishizono, Keiichi Fukuda, Masaki Ieda
The mesoderm arises from pluripotent epiblasts and differentiates into multiple lineages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Tbx6 is enriched in the paraxial mesoderm and is implicated in somite formation, but its function in other mesoderms remains elusive. Here, using direct reprogramming-based screening, single-cell RNA-seq in mouse embryos, and directed cardiac differentiation in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), we demonstrated that Tbx6 induces nascent mesoderm from PSCs and determines cardiovascular and somite lineage specification via its temporal expression...
July 26, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Michael de Ridder, Karsten Klein, Jean Yang, Pengyi Yang, Jim Lagopoulos, Ian Hickie, Max Bennett, Jinman Kim
Analysis and interpretation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to characterise many neuronal diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. Functional connectivity networks (FCNs) are widely used because they greatly reduce the amount of data that needs to be interpreted and they provide a common network structure that can be directly compared. However, FCNs contain a range of data uncertainties stemming from inherent limitations, e.g. during acquisition, as well as the loss of voxel-level data, and the use of thresholding in data abstraction...
August 11, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Zhenhua Gao, Lingxiao Wang, Fu Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Junqi He, Songlin Wang
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in tooth development. However, their expression has not been studied in miniature pigs, which have many anatomical similarities in oral and maxillofacial region compared to human. This study investigated BMP2/4/7 expression patterns during deciduous molar development in miniature pigs on embryonic days (E) 40, 50, and 60. The mandibles were fixed, decalcified, and embedded before sectioning. H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization using specific radionuclide-labeled cRNA probes, and real-time PCR were used to detect the BMP expression patterns during morphogenesis of the third deciduous molar...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
Michael J Silverman
For adults with mental illness, coping skills represent an integral component of illness management and recovery (IMR) programs. Music therapy can be used to target IMR but empirical research specific to coping is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine if educational music therapy can influence coping self-efficacy in acute care mental health inpatients. Adults on an acute care mental health unit (N = 92) were cluster-randomized to one of three single-session conditions over 24 group-based sessions: educational lyric analysis, educational songwriting, or control...
August 11, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Natalie R Peer, Sze Ming Law, Brenda Murdoch, Eugenia H Goulding, Edward M Eddy, Kwanhee Kim
Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA), a retinoic acid-dependent transcription factor, is expressed in both somatic and germ cells of the testis. Rara-null male mice with global Rara mutations displayed severely degenerated testis and infertility phenotypes. To elucidate the specific responsibility of germ cell RARA in spermatogenesis, Rara was deleted in germ cells, generating germ cell-specific Rara conditional knockout (Rara cKO) mice. These Rara cKO animals exhibited phenotypes of quantitatively reduced epididymal sperm counts and disorganized germ cell layers in the seminiferous tubules, which worsened with aging...
August 6, 2018: Endocrinology
Yu-Han Chen, Breannan Howell, J Christopher Edgar, Mingxiong Huang, Peter Kochunov, Michael A Hunter, Cassandra Wootton, Brett Y Lu, Juan Bustillo, Joseph R Sadek, Gregory A Miller, José M Cañive
Background: Auditory encoding abnormalities, gray-matter loss, and cognitive deficits are all candidate schizophrenia (SZ) endophenotypes. This study evaluated associations between and heritability of auditory network attributes (function and structure) and attention in healthy controls (HC), SZ patients, and unaffected relatives (UR). Methods: Whole-brain maps of M100 auditory activity from magnetoencephalography recordings, cortical thickness (CT), and a measure of attention were obtained from 70 HC, 69 SZ patients, and 35 UR...
August 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Derek Rutherford, Lindsey Buckingham, Janice Moreside, Ivan Wong, Glen Richardson
BACKGROUND: Knee function is impaired in individuals with moderate hip osteoarthritis. How this extends to those undergoing total hip arthroplasty is unknown despite the common requirement for knee arthroplasty in this population. The study purpose was to determine whether sagittal plane knee joint movements and quadriceps and hamstring activation patterns differ between individuals with either moderate or severe unilateral hip osteoarthritis, and between ipsilateral and contralateral knees...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Louise Y Sun, Jack V Tu, Heather Sherrard, Norvinda Rodger, Thais Coutinho, Michele Turek, Elizabeth Chan, Heather Tulloch, Lisa McDonnell, Lisa M Mielniczuk
BACKGROUND: Differences in outcomes have previously been reported between urban and rural settings across a multitude of chronic diseases. Whether these discrepancies have changed over time, and how sex may influence these findings is unknown in ambulatory heart failure (HF) patients. We examined the temporal incidence and mortality trends by geography in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 36,175 Eastern Ontario residents who were diagnosed with HF in an outpatient setting between 1994-2013...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Daizo Ishii, Takahito Okazaki, Toshinori Matsushige, Katsuhiro Shinagawa, Shigeyuki Sakamoto, Jumpei Oshita, Kaoru Kurisu
OBJECTIVES: The dilatation of superficial temporal artery (STA) and middle meningeal artery (MMA) were occasionally observed after bypass surgery for moyamoya angiopathy. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between angiographic outcomes and MR images, specifically focusing on postoperative dilatation ratio of the STA (rSTA) and MMA (rMMA). METHODS: A total of 56 hemispheres in 36 consecutive patients who underwent revascularization for moyamoya angiopathy were evaluated...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hua Yu Sun, Qin Li, Aundrea F Bartley, Lynn E Dobrunz
Short-term plasticity enables synaptic strength to be dynamically regulated by input timing. Excitatory synapses arising from the same axon can have profoundly different presynaptic forms of short-term plasticity onto inhibitory and excitatory neurons. We previously showed that Schaffer collateral synapses onto most hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons have less paired-pulse facilitation than synapses onto CA1 pyramidal cells, but little difference in steady-state short-term depression. However, less is known about how synapses onto interneurons respond to temporally complex patterns that occur in vivo...
August 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Aglieri Virginia, Chaminade Thierry, Takerkart Sylvain, Belin Pascal
Recognizing who is speaking is a cognitive ability characterized by considerable individual differences, which could relate to the inter-individual variability observed in voice-elicited BOLD activity. Since voice perception is sustained by a complex brain network involving temporal voice areas (TVAs) and, even if less consistently, extra-temporal regions such as frontal cortices, functional connectivity (FC) during an fMRI voice localizer (passive listening of voices vs non-voices) has been computed within twelve temporal and frontal voice-sensitive regions ("voice patches") individually defined for each subject (N = 90) to account for inter-individual variability...
August 9, 2018: NeuroImage
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