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Enrico Bagnoli, Una FitzGerald
The olfactory bulb (OB) is often affected at very early stages of neurodegenerative disorders, in the so-called 'prodromal' phase. In Parkinson's disease (PD), olfactory disturbances appear years before motor symptoms arise. Additionally, pathological alpha-synuclein aggregates are found in olfactory regions before spreading to other areas of the brain. Being positioned at the frontier between the brain and a potentially hostile environment, could explain the particular vulnerability of the OB. Mitral cells (MCs), the principal projecting neurons of the olfactory system, are involved in the pathogenesis and in the prion-like progression of PD...
August 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Espen Røysamb, Ragnhild B Nes, Nikolai O Czajkowski, Olav Vassend
Human wellbeing is influenced by personality traits, in particular neuroticism and extraversion. Little is known about which facets that drive these associations, and the role of genes and environments. Our aim was to identify personality facets that are important for life satisfaction, and to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the association between personality and life satisfaction. Norwegian twins (N = 1,516, age 50-65, response rate 71%) responded to a personality instrument (NEO-PI-R) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Topi Uusitalo, Heikki Virtanen, Jukka Viheriälä, Mihail Dumitrescu
Dual longitudinal mode distributed feedback lasers have been fabricated using surface gratings with and without apodization. Analytic formulas and simulations that have been used to derive design guidelines are presented. The fabricated device characteristics are in good agreement with the simulations. The grating apodization enables a lower threshold current density, a higher output power and a broader range of difference frequency tunability by bias, which can be extended beyond the measured 15-55 GHz by changing the device structure...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Tong Hoang Tuan, Shunei Kuroyanagi, Kenshiro Nagasaka, Takenobu Suzuki, Yasutake Ohishi
For the first time, an all-solid tellurite optical glass rod with a transversely disordered refractive index profile was fabricated successfully as a medium to study the transverse localization of light and near-infrared (NIR) optical image transport. Two tellurite glass compositions of 70TeO2 -8Li2 O-17WO3 -3MoO3 -2Nb2 O5 (TLWMN) and 75TeO2 -15ZnO-5Na2 O-5La2 O3 (TZNL) which have a small difference in softening temperature (about 0.5 °C), compatible thermal expansions from room to 400 °C and broad transmission range from about 0...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Kristen A Sunter, Karl K Berggren
We present optical modeling of superconducting nanowire single photon detector devices using an analytical approach based on the transfer matrix method. We find that the optimal dielectric layer thicknesses vary slightly with the thickness and fill factor of the NbN layer and explore novel device geometries that can be described as a stack of thin films, such as devices on multilayered substrates, free-standing membranes, and optical fiber facets. In addition, the analytical results here show the importance of accounting for coherence correctly when an integrated cavity is included in the device structure and the relative insignificance of an anti-reflection coating in most cases...
June 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Jiahua Jiang, Yanqiu Li, Shihuan Shen, Shanshan Mao
High-numerical-aperture (NA) anamorphic imaging projection objectives are the industrial choice for extreme ultraviolet lithography under the advanced technology node. The illumination system has to match the elliptical entrance pupil of the high-NA projector. In this paper, an illumination system suitable for a high-NA anamorphic projection objective is designed. The two-mirror relay system of the illumination system is designed by a two-stage process. The first-order initial configuration with spherical surfaces is calculated by a method based on matrix optics...
July 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Deepak K Sharma, Shailendra K Chaubey, Adarsh B Vasista, Jesil Jose Karumancheril, Ravi P N Tripathi, Alexandre Bouhelier, G V Pavan Kumar
Directional harmonic generation is an important property characterizing the ability of nonlinear optical antennas to diffuse the signal in a well-defined region of space. Herein, we show how sub-wavelength facets of an organic molecular mesowire crystal can be utilized to systematically vary the directionality of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the forward-scattering geometry. We demonstrate this capability on crystalline diamonoanthraquinone (DAAQ) mesowires with sub-wavelength facets. We observed that the radial angles of the SHG emission can be tuned over a range of 130 deg...
July 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Jiawei Zhang, Jinyu Ye, Qiyuan Fan, Yating Jiang, Yifan Zhu, Huiqi Li, Zhenming Cao, Qin Kuang, Jun Cheng, Jun Zheng, Zhaoxiong Xie
Developing active and durable electro-catalysts towards ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) with high selectivity towards the C-C bond cleavage is an important issue for the commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cell. Unfortunately, current ethanol oxidation electro-catalysts (e.g. Pt, Pd) still suffer from poor selectivity for direct oxidation of ethanol to CO2, and rapid activity degradation. Here we report a facile route to the synthesis of a new kind of cyclic penta-twinned (CPT) Rh nanostructures that are self-supported nanobranches (NBs) built with 1-dimension CPT nanorods as subunits...
August 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mihaela Temelie, Diana Iulia Savu, Nicoleta Moisoi
Impaired mitochondrial function and accumulation of DNA damage have been recognized as hallmarks of age-related diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction initiates protective signalling mechanisms coordinated at nuclear level particularly by modulating transcription of stress signalling factors. In turn, cellular response to DNA lesions comprises a series of interconnected complex protective pathways, which require the energetic and metabolic support of the mitochondria. These are involved in intracellular as well as in extracellular signalling of damage...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Sarah Nicolas, Delphine Debayle, Catherine Béchade, Luc Maroteaux, Anne-Sophie Gay, Pascale Bayer, Catherine Heurteaux, Alice Guyon, Joëlle Chabry
Major depression is a psychiatric disorder with complex etiology. About 30% of depressive patients are resistant to antidepressants that are currently available, likely because they only target the monoaminergic systems. Thus, identification of novel antidepressants with a larger action spectrum is urgently required. Epidemiological data indicate high comorbidity between metabolic and psychiatric disorders, particularly obesity and depression. We used a well-characterized anxiety/depressive-like mouse model consisting of continuous input of corticosterone for seven consecutive weeks...
August 16, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Lindsay H Dewa, Elizabeth Cecil, Lynne Eastwood, Ara Darzi, Paul Aylin
BACKGROUND: The first signs of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression are likely to occur before the age of 25. The combination of high prevalence of severe mental health symptoms, inability to recognise mental health deterioration and increased likelihood of comorbidity in a complex transitional young group makes detecting deterioration paramount. Whilst studies have examined physical and mental health deterioration in adults, no systematic review has examined the indicators of mental and physical deterioration in young adults with SMI...
August 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Masahito Oshina, Yasushi Oshima, Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, Yuki Taniguchi, Hirotaka Chikuda, Kiehyun Daniel Riew, Sakae Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Nutrient foramina are often encountered around the entry point of pedicle screws. Further, while probing the pedicle for pedicle screw insertion around the nutrient foramen, bleeding from the probe insertion hole is often observed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of nutrient foramina, the association between the nutrient foramen and pedicle, and the safety and accuracy of cervical and thoracic pedicle screw placement using the nutrient foramen as the entry point...
August 16, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Mary Gemma Cherry, Peter James Taylor, Stephen Lloyd Brown, William Sellwood
BACKGROUND: Expressed emotion (EE) is a global index of familial emotional climate, which is comprised of emotional over-involvement (EOI) and critical comments (CC)/hostility. Although EE is an established predictor of negative outcomes for both people with long-term mental health difficulties and their family carers, its psychological underpinnings remain relatively poorly understood. This paper examined associations between attachment, mentalisation ability and aspects of EE. METHODS: Carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties (n = 106) completed measures of adult attachment (the Experiences in Close Relationships-Short Form questionnaire), mentalisation (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale) and EE (the Family Questionnaire)...
August 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Michael Gehl, Nicholas Boynton, Christina Dallo, Andrew Pomerene, Andrew Starbuck, Dana Hood, Douglas C Trotter, Anthony Lentine, Christopher T DeRose
Measurement uncertainties in the techniques used to characterize loss in photonic waveguides becomes a significant issue as waveguide loss is reduced through improved fabrication technology. Typical loss measurement techniques involve environmentally unknown parameters such as facet reflectivity or varying coupling efficiencies, which directly contribute to the uncertainty of the measurement. We present a loss measurement technique, which takes advantage of the differential loss between multiple paths in an arrayed waveguide structure, in which we are able to gather statistics on propagation loss from several waveguides in a single measurement...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
T C Newell, F Grillot, A Gavrielides, R Kaspi, C Lu, C Yang, T Bate, S Luong
Mode creation and temporal response of broad-area quantum cascade lasers (BA-QCL) placed within an external feedback cavity are described in this publication. The critical feedback parameter becomes the mirror angle relative to the BA-QCL facet. With judicious angle choices, a plethora of curious modes can be created, each with their particular threshold and slope efficiency. These range from a nearly single far-field intensity peak to highly multimode emission similar to their diode counterparts. Dynamics are strongly dominated by transverse mode competition ranging for less than 20MHz to greater than 100MHz...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Mu-Chieh Lo, Robinson Guzmán, Guillermo Carpintero
In this paper, a monolithically integrated ∼1.55 µm semiconductor laser in the fourth harmonic colliding pulse mode locking configuration is reported. This device was developed within a multi-project wafer run at an InP-based active-passive generic foundry. The 1.66-mm Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed with two on-chip reflector building blocks rather than cleaved facets. In the cavity, three absorber sections symmetrically divide the cavity in four gain segments. This laser diode is able to emit 100-GHz pulse trains with 500-fs pulse duration as well as two-tone emissions with a frequency separation of 2...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Lloyd D Harvey, Stephen Y Chan
Our appreciation of the roles of non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs, in the manifestation of pulmonary hypertension (PH) has advanced considerably over the past decade. Comprised of small nucleotide sequences, microRNAs have demonstrated critical and broad regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of PH via the direct binding to messenger RNA transcripts for degradation or inhibition of translation, thereby exerting profound influence on cellular activity. Yet, as inherently pleiotropic molecules, microRNAs have been difficult to study using traditional, reductionist approaches alone...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Murray Grossman
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) refers to a disorder of declining language associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal degeneration and Alzheimer disease. Variants of PPA are important to recognize from a medical perspective because these syndromes are clinical markers suggesting specific underlying pathology. In this review, I discuss linguistic aspects of PPA syndromes that may prove informative for parsing our language mechanism and identifying the neural representation of fundamental elements of language...
2018: Annual Review of Linguistics
Ahmed Ghalgaoui, Ridha Horchani, Jijin Wang, Aimeric Ouvrard, Serge Carrez, Bernard Bourguignon
Obtaining insight into the type of surface sites involved in a reaction is essential to understand catalytic mechanisms at atomic level and a key for understanding selectivity in surface-catalyzed reactions. Here we use ultrafast broad-band vibrational spectroscopy to follow in real-time diffusion of CO molecules over a palladium nanoparticle surface toward an active site. Site-to-site hopping is triggered by laser excitation of electrons and followed in real-time from subpicosecond changes in the vibrational spectra...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
James F Lutsko, Julien Lam
While in principle, classical density functional theory (cDFT) should be a powerful tool for the study of crystallization, in practice this has not so far been the case. Progress has been hampered by technical problems which have plagued the study of the crystalline systems using the most sophisticated fundamental measure theory models. In this paper, the reasons for the difficulties are examined and it is proposed that the tensor functionals currently favored are in fact numerically unstable. By reverting to an older, more heuristic model it is shown that all of the technical difficulties are eliminated...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
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