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Daniele Moscheni, Federica Bertolotti, Laura Piveteau, Loredana Protesescu, Dmitry N Dirin, Maksym V Kovalenko, Antonio Cervellino, Jan Skov Pedersen, Norberto Masciocchi, Antonietta Guagliardi
Surface chemistry and core defects are known to play a prominent role in governing the photophysical properties of nanocrystalline semiconductors. Nevertheless, investigating them in small nanocrystals remains a complex task. Here, by combining X-ray scattering techniques in the wide- and small-angle regions and using the Debye Scattering Equation (DSE) method of analysis, we unveil a high density of planar defects in oleate-terminated zincblende (ZB) CdSe colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and size-dependent faceting within a square-cuboid morphology...
December 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Stefanie J Rodenbeck, Devin D Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The funduscopic examination can be a technically difficult, and often omitted, portion of the neurologic examination, despite its great potential to influence patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical practitioners are often first taught to examine the ocular fundus using a direct ophthalmoscope, however, this skill requires frequent practice. Nonmydriatic tabletop and portable fundus photography and even smartphone-based photography offer alternative and practical means for approaching examination of the ocular fundus...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Matthew Mills, Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn
Mathematical models of the human spine can be used to investigate spinal biomechanics without the difficulties, limitations and ethical concerns associated with physical experimentation. Validation of such models is necessary to ensure the modeled system behavior accurately represents the physics of the actual system. The goal of this work was to validate a medical image-based nonlinear lumbosacral spine finite element model of a healthy 20-year-old female subject under physiological moments. Range of motion, facet joint forces, and intradiscal pressure were compared with experimental values and validated finite element models from the literature...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Uruj Zehra, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Cora Bow, William Lu, Dino Samartzis
The aim of the current study was to investigate the multi-dimensional characteristics of lumbar endplate defects in humans in relation to disc degeneration and other MRI phenotypes as well as their role with pain and disability. 108 subjects were recruited and underwent 3T MRI of the lumbar spine. Structural endplate defects were identified and their dimensions were measured in terms of maximum width and depth, and were then standardized to the actual width of the endplate and depth of the vertebral body, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Wadie D Mahauad-Fernandez, Wasifa Naushad, Tyler D Panzner, Amani Bashir, Geeta Lal, Chioma M Okeoma
Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) mediates various facets of cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we show that BST-2 is linked to poor survival in invasive breast cancer patients as its expression positively correlates with disease severity. However, the mechanisms that drive the pro-metastatic functions of BST-2 are not fully understood. Correlation of BST-2 expression and tumor aggressiveness was analyzed in human tissue samples. Migration, invasion, and competitive experimental metastasis assays were used to measure the cellular responses after silencing BST-2 expression...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Geneviève Sauvé, Rex B Kline, Jai L Shah, Ridha Joober, Ashok Malla, Mathieu B Brodeur, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Lack of insight is a frequent characteristic of psychotic disorders, both in patients who recently experienced a first episode of psychosis (FEP) and those who experience recurrent multiple episodes (MEP). Insight is a multifaceted construct: its clinical form notably includes the unawareness of being ill, of symptoms, and of the need for treatment. Cognitive capacity is among the key determinants of insight into symptoms, but less is known about whether stage of illness (FEP vs...
December 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Chao He, Yujuan Wu, Liming Peng, Ning Su, Xue Li, Kun Yang, Yongjie Liu, Shucheng Yuan, Renhui Tian
Cyclic deformation at low-stress amplitudes of a rare earth-containing magnesium alloy (Mg⁻Gd⁻Y⁻Zr) was investigated with emphasis on the responsible microstructural relationship between deformation mechanism and fatigue crack initiation. The results show that the microstructural deformation is extremely inhomogeneous at the low-stress amplitudes. Both deformation twinning and non-basal slip are barely observed, and basal slip is the predominant deformation to accommodate micro-plasticity. Fatigue crack initiation occurred at the basal slip bands, causing the morphology of facet on the fracture surface...
November 30, 2018: Materials
Thomas C Erren, Philip Lewis
Chronotype, defined as the temporal phenotype of an organism, has been addressed in Chronobiology International in some 200 publications between 1997 and 2018. Readers may thus be interested in what roles chronotype may play in studies concerning chronobiology and health. In line with Karl Popper, our objective is to synthesize terms and concepts for falsifiable experimental, field, and ultimately epidemiological research. To this end, we offer 17 building blocks where each should follow from one or more others...
December 4, 2018: Chronobiology International
Guoqing Wu, Yanan Wang, Yuhui Yang, Yonghui Shi, Jin Sun, Yunchong Xu, Tingyu Luo, Guowei Le
SCOPE: Dietary methionine restriction (MR) promotes multi-faceted health benefits. Moreover, lower rate of protein synthesis by dietary MR is associated with life span extension. The goal of this work is to explore how dietary MR would affect protein metabolism in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO). METHODS AND RESULTS: DIO mice (male C57BL/6) were subjected to dietary MR for 22 weeks. High-throughput sequencing technology, qRT-PCR analysis, and the dual luciferase reporter assay were performed to verify that MiR-328-3p directly targets cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) to modulate endogenous H2 S production...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Samraj Mollick, Soumya Mukherjee, Dongwook Kim, Qiao Zhiwei, Aamod V Desai, Rajat Saha, Yogeshwar D More, Jianwen Jiang, Myoung Soo Lah, Sujit K Ghosh
Metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) are a promising class of crystalline porous materials with multifarious potential applications. Although MOPs and Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have similar potentials in terms of their intrinsic porosity and physicochemical properties, the exploitation of carboxylate MOPs is still rudimentary due to lack of systematic development addressing their chemical stability. Here we describe the fabrication of chemically robust carboxylate MOPs via outer surface functionalization as an a priori methodology which could be applied to stabilize of those MOPs system also where metal-ligand bond is not so strong...
December 4, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Claudia Kasales, Christine Peterson, Eric Gagnon
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate interview techniques currently used in the selection of diagnostic radiology resident candidates and to identify factors influencing the use of alternative interview techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous 25 question e-mail survey was provided to 319 active members of the Association of Program Directors in Radiology. The survey included questions on residency demographics, organization of resident applicant interviews, types of interview techniques utilized, scoring and ranking of applicants, and facets of the interview/application felt most important to the selection process...
November 30, 2018: Academic Radiology
David W Lee, Christopher Huston
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature studying therapeutic intraarticular zygapophyseal (commonly referred to as facet) joint injections in the atraumatic patient population. As a result of this, intraarticular injections have been dismissed as a possible treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint-mediated pain. Radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) is currently the accepted treatment for facet joint neck pain. OBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study investigated injection response in an atraumatic population to determine treatment viability and whether injections reduce the need for RFN in neck pain patients...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Jaya Sanapati, Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Sairam Atluri, Sheldon Jordan, Sheri L Albers, Miguel A Pappolla, Alan D Kaye, Kenneth D Candido, Vidyasagar Pampati, Joshua A Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Several cell-based therapies have been proposed in recent years the management of low back pain, including the injection of medicinal signaling cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). However, there is only emerging clinical evidence to support their use at this time. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of MSCs or PRP injections in the treatment of low back and lower extremity pain. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and metaanalysis of the effectiveness of PRP and MSCs injections in managing low back and lower extremity pain...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Xiaojuan Wang, Xiaoyang Chen, Chaoxia Zhu, Haichang Ma, Fang Wang, Lingzhi Qin, Wei Li
INTRODUCTION: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), a rare, serious, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is associated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of 67 patients. 49 and 18 of 67 cases (male/female: 11/56) were AQP4-IgG (+) and AQP4-IgG (-), respectively. The initial symptoms were optic neuritis [n = 34, AQP4-IgG (+)/(-): 31/3], myelitis [n = 18, AQP4-IgG(+)/(-): 13/5], co-occurrence of ON and myelitis [n = 15, AQP4-IgG (+)/(-): 5/10]...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Philipp E Bartko, Henrike Arfsten, Gregor Heitzinger, Noemi Pavo, Max-Paul Winter, Aurel Toma, Guido Strunk, Christian Hengstenberg, Martin Hülsmann, Georg Goliasch
Aims: Bivalvular functional regurgitation (BVFR) defined as concomitant mitral and tricuspid insufficiency has not been described or systematically assessed before. Therefore, this study sought to define incidence, impact and natural history of BVFR in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) to provide the foundation for risk assessment and directions for potential treatment strategies. Methods and results: We enrolled 1021 consecutive patients with HFrEF under guideline-directed medical therapy and performed comprehensive echocardiographic and neurohumoral profiling...
December 1, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Minji Yang, Huichao He, Aizhen Liao, Ji Huang, Yi Tang, Jun Wang, Gaili Ke, Faqin Dong, Long Yang, Liang Bian, Yong Zhou
The crystal facet of the BiVO4 photoanode has potential influence on its charge-transfer and separation properties as well as water oxidation kinetics. In the present work, a BiVO4 polyhedral film with exposed {121}, {132}, {211}, and {251} high-index facets was synthesized by a facile Bi2 O3 template-induced method and investigated as a photoanode for water oxidation. In comparison with the normal BiVO4 film with a {121} monohigh-index facet, the BiVO4 film with multihigh-index crystal facets shows higher activity and faster kinetics for photoelectrochemical water oxidation...
December 3, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Gary Mitchell, Shauna Rooney, Colin Sheeran, Joanne Strain
Dementia care has evolved over the years, with a rise in person-centred non-pharmacological interventions such as reminiscence therapy, reality orientation and validation therapy. While these non-pharmacological interventions are an important facet of dementia care, nurses also require up-to-date knowledge of the medicines used to manage the symptoms of dementia, including antidepressants, cognitive enhancers and analgesics. Nurses should also understand the effects of behaviour-modifying medicines such as antipsychotics, anxiolytics and hypnotics, which are often overused or inappropriately prescribed in people with dementia...
December 3, 2018: Nursing Standard
Mélanie Gerphagnon, Ramsy Agha, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg, Alexandre Bec, Fanny Perriere, Cecilia Rad-Menéndez, Claire M M Gachon, Justyna Wolinska
Chytrids are ubiquitous fungal parasites in aquatic ecosystems, infecting representatives of all major phytoplankton groups. They repack carbon from inedible phytoplankton hosts into easily ingested chytrid propagules (zoospores), rendering this carbon accessible to zooplankton. Grazing on zoospores may circumvent bottlenecks in carbon transfer imposed by the dominance of inedible or poorly nutritious phytoplankton (mycoloop). We explored qualitative aspects of the mycoloop by analyzing lipid profiles (fatty acids, sterols) of two chytrids infecting two major bloom-forming phytoplankton taxa of contrasting nutritional value: the diatom Asterionella formosa and the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Vishnu Chaturvedi, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Ferry Hagen, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Hamid Badali, Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca, Jose F Cano-Lira, Cunwei Cao, Sudha Chaturvedi, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Anne D van Diepeningen, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Jesus Guinea, Sybren de Hoog, Macit Ilkit, Rui Kano, Weida Liu, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Marcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Mario Augusto Ono, Yuping Ran, Stephane Ranque, Celia Maria de Almeida Soares, Takashi Sugita, Philip A Thomas, Anna Vecchiarelli, Nancy L Wengenack, Patrick C Y Woo, Jianping Xu, Rosely M Zancope-Oliveira
Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to 'diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.' This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5-5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect humans and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that dwells into the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles...
November 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Ju-Eun Kim, Dae-Jung Choi
Foraminal decompression using a minimally invasive technique to preserve facet joint stability and function without fusion reportedly improves the radicular symptoms in approximately 80% of patients and is considered one of the good surgical treatment choices for lumbar foraminal or extraforaminal stenosis. However, proper decompression was not possible because of the inability to access the foramen at the L5-S1 level due to prominence of the iliac crest. To overcome this challenge, endoscopy-based minimally invasive spine surgery has recently gained attention...
December 2018: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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