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Bo Wang, Pengpeng Shao, Jie Li, Fan Chen, Li Ma, Qingbin Li, Mengxi Zhang, Junwen Zhou, Anxiang Yin, Xiao Feng
Covalent organic framework (COF) films combine the processibility of polymers with porosity and atomic precision of crystalline porous materials are long-sought-after in electronics yet hard to realize. Here, we prepared four flexible COF films with different alkoxy side chains via interfacial polymerization. The COF films exhibit ultralow dielectric constant (κ = 1.19 ± 0.04 at 105 Hz), small dielectric loss (< 0.02, 103 ~ 106 Hz), high breakdown voltage (> 63 kV cm-1) and low leakage current (10-10 A cm-2 at 1 kV cm-1)...
October 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jefferson H T Barros, Vânia R N Telis, Sebastião Taboga, Celia M L Franco
The effect of the partial substitution (0, 10, 15, and 20%) of wheat flour with resistant starch (RS) on dough rheology and structure, and on the quality and staling rate of bread was evaluated. The results from farinograph, extensograph, alveograph, oscillatory rheological tests, and from confocal laser scanning microscopy, indicated that the substitution up to 15% of flour with RS slightly affected the dough structure, weakening it through dilution of gluten protein. Bread made with 15% of RS had specific volume, crumb moisture, and firmness values similar to those of the control bread (without RS), indicating very good quality...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ali Turan
This study was conducted to determine the effects of hazelnut drying machine (DM1 and DM2 ; at 45 °C and 50 °C, respectively) and sun-drying (concrete ground and grass ground) methods on the chemical properties of Tombul, Palaz, and Ordu Levant hazelnuts. For this purpose, protein, lipid and moisture content, water activity, free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), rancimat value (RV) and fatty acid composition were analyzed. As expected, it was observed that monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) was the main fatty acid group (81...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tihana Žugčić, Radhia Abdelkebir, Francisco J Barba, Anet Rezek-Jambrak, Fernando Gálvez, Sol Zamuz, Daniel Granato, José M Lorenzo
Physicochemical parameters (pH, colour and texture), proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content), amino acid content, and taste profile of beef patties elaborated with soy (control), pulses (pea, lentil and bean) and microalgal ( Chlorella and Spirulina ) proteins were assessed. The pH, colour, ash content, total, essential and non-essential amino acids and amino acid content were significantly different among the beef patties studied. In this regard, beef patties prepared with pea protein presented the highest values for pH; whereas beef patties manufactured with pea also showed the highest values for lightness and patties elaborated with bean the highest values for redness...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Sajad Mohd Wani, F A Masoodi, Mukhtar Ahmad, Sajad Ahmad Mir
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of processing methods and storage periods on the three apricot varieties viz. CITH-1, CITH-2 and New Castle. Apricots were processed by freezing and canning of pulp and drying of whole apricots. After processing these were analysed for various physicochemical and antioxidant properties for a storage period of 12 months at 4 month interval. The results for physicochemical properties like moisture content, TSS, total sugars and reducing sugars showed significant variation with respect to varieties and processing methods during storage...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Alexey Morgounov, Kai Sonder, Aygul Abugalieva, Vijai Bhadauria, Richard D Cuthbert, Vladimir Shamanin, Yuriy Zelenskiy, Ronald M DePauw
Wheat yield dynamic in Canada, USA, Russia and Kazakhstan from 1981 till 2015 was related to air temperature and precipitation during wheat season to evaluate the effects of climate change. The study used yield data from the provinces, states and regions and average yield from 19 spring wheat breeding/research sites. Both at production and research sites grain yield in Eurasia was two times lower compared to North America. The yearly variations in grain yield in North America and Eurasia did not correlate suggesting that higher yield in one region was normally associated with lower yield in another region...
2018: PloS One
John Arnold, Stephan Hohloch, Mary Garner, Corwin Booth, Wayne Lukens, Colin Gould, Daniel Lussier, Laurent Maron
We report the synthesis, characterization, and electronic structure studies of a series of thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) bis-tetramethyltetraazaannulene complexes. These sandwich complexes show remarkable stability towards air and moisture, even at elevated temperatures. Electrochemical studies show the uranium complex to be stable in three different oxidation states; isolation of the oxidized species revealed a rare case of a non-innocent TMTAA ligand.
October 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Shuqing Cui, Menghao Qin, Afsaneh Marandi, Victoria Steggles, Sujing Wang, Xiaoxiao Feng, Farid Nouar, Christian Serre
Latent cooling load accounts for 30% of the total load of air-conditioning, and its proportion is even higher in many tropical and subtropical climates. Traditional vapour-compression air-conditioning (VCAC) has a low coefficient of performance (COP) due to the refrigeration dehumidification process, which often makes necessary a great deal of subsequent re-heating. Technologies using conventional desiccants or sorbents for indoor moisture control are even less competitive than VCAC due to their high regeneration temperature, long cycling time and bulky components...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aristides Moustakas, Ioannis N Daliakopoulos, Tim G Benton
Spatio-temporal data are more ubiquitous and richer than even before and the availability of such data poses great challenges in data analytics. Ecological facilitation, the positive effect of density of individuals on the individual's survival across a stress gradient, is a complex phenomenon. A large number of tree individuals coupled with soil moisture, temperature, and water stress data across a long temporal period were followed. Data-driven analysis in the absence of hypothesis was performed. Information theoretic analysis of multiple statistical models was employed in order to quantify the best data-driven index of vegetation density and spatial scale of interactions...
September 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Balaghi, N Ghal-Eh, A Mohammadi, H R Vega-Carrillo
A prototype moisture measurement system was designed and constructed, based on neutron scattering, for preforming measurements in the laboratory. The system consisted of a rectangular soil container, an 241 Am/Be neutron source and two parallel 10 BF3 detectors (one near the source and the other far from it). Neutrons from the source are moderated and backscattered within the soil sample before being detected by two parallel counters, whose count ratios are shown to be linearly related to the soil moisture even within short measurement times...
October 8, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Shaodong Guo, Heng Liang, Langming Bai, Fangshu Qu, An Ding, Bin Ji, Xun Wang, Guibai Li
The effects of wheat straw powder (WSP) used as physical conditioner on sludge dewatering was investigated under sodium persulfate (SPS)/Fe(II) oxidation. Sludge dewatering performance in terms of capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and moisture content (MC) was enhanced with increasing WSP and SPS dosages. The results showed presence of synergistic effect in WSP and SPS conditioning system, with sludge CST and SRF reduced by 43.9% and 65.6%, respectively, after dosing 0.75 g/g DS (dry solid) WSP, 120 mg/g DS SPS and 33 mg/g DS Fe(II), indicating that sludge dewatering became more easily...
October 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Aparupa Pani, Suresh Prasad Singh
This paper highlights the efficacy of partial penetrating chemical columns of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in improving the geo-engineering and leaching characteristics of sedimented ash deposits through a comprehensive laboratory model testing program. Sedimented ash beds were formed in cylindrical tanks and treated with centrally installed chemical columns of either 9M or 18M concentration. After specified curing periods the in-situ moisture content, dry density, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, pH and concentration of major and trace elements were measured at different locations...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hongli Ye, Junwen Cheng, Kun Yu
The identification of materials with beneficial properties for wound healing is a major research goal. In this study, gelatin was used as a reducing agent and stabilizer to restore silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ, which were mixed with chitosan (CS), crosslinked with tannic acid, and then freeze-dried to obtain a new composite Gelatin/CS/Ag. Gelatin/CS/Ag has a dense pore structure with a pore size of about 100-250 μm. The pores were interconnected. The existence of AgNPs was proven by UV visible spectrophotometry, XRD, and electron microscopy...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Philippe Grönquist, Falk K Wittel, Markus Rüggeberg
In recent architectural research, thin wooden bilayer laminates capable of self-actuation in response to humidity changes have been proposed as sustainable, programmed, and fully autonomous elements for facades or roofs for shading and climate regulation. Switches, humidistats, or motor elements represent further promising applications. Proper wood-adapted prediction models for actuation, however, are still missing. Here, a simple model that can predict bending deformation as a function of moisture content change, wood material parameters, and geometry is presented...
2018: PloS One
Katherine J Whitehouse, Olorunnisola F Owoborode, Olufemi O Adebayo, Olaniyi A Oyatomi, Amudalat B Olaniyan, Michael T Abberton, Fiona R Hay
Maximizing seed longevity is important for genebanks to efficiently manage their accessions, reducing the frequency of costly regeneration cycles and the loss of genetic integrity. Research on rice seeds has shown that subsequent longevity in air-dry storage can be improved by drying seeds, which are metabolically active at harvest (moisture contents above a critical value close to 16.5%), for an initial period at a higher temperature (40°C-60°C) than that currently recommended by the current genebank standards (5°C-20°C)...
October 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
K Toppel, F Kaufmann, H Schön, M Gauly, R Andersson
Several studies have shown that litter moisture is a major reason for foot pad lesions (FPD) and promotes microbial growth of nitrifying bacteria. The aim of the current study was to determine the possible effects of a sodium bisulfate complex (SBS) as a litter additive on FPD, hock burn (HB), and litter parameters. Two application rates of SBS were examined in 2 experiments on a commercial farm. Two groups of about 30,000 broiler chicks each were introduced on spelt granulate spread at 700 g/m² and kept for 36 d...
October 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Aljosa Trmcic, Huihui Chen, Monika Trząskowska, Sandeep Tamber, Siyun Wang
Salmonella enterica is one of the pathogens that is frequently identified as the cause of fresh produce-related outbreaks. Biofilm formation is a factor that can contribute to pathogen survival on produce surface. The goal of our current research was to investigate the survival of five S. enterica strains representing different serotypes (i.e., Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Daytona, Poona, and Newport) on whole mini cucumbers stored at refrigeration (4°C) and room temperature (22°C). We also determined the strains survival on glass slides and in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 and 22°C, as well as the ability to form biofilms on a solid-liquid interphase...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Chang Gang Yang, Shou Xi Chai
Bundled straw covering (BSC), using corn whole straw for partial coverage planting, is a novel dryland cultivation technique. To examine the effects of BSC on the thermal-moisture status and winter wheat yield under typical arid and semiarid conditions in the Loess Plateau of Northwest China, soil temperature, soil water content and consumption, grain yield and water-use efficiency were compared for four treatments, including no-tillage with straw mulch (NTS), whole field plastic mulching with soil covering on the top of the plastic mulch and bunch-seeding (PFM), open field cultivation (CK) and BSC during three growing seasons from 2013 to 2016...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ghislain Vieilledent, Fabian Jörg Fischer, Jérôme Chave, Daniel Guibal, Patrick Langbour, Jean Gérard
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Basic wood density is an important ecological trait for woody plants. It is used to characterize species performance and fitness in community ecology and to compute tree and forest biomass in carbon cycle studies. While wood density has been historically measured at 12% moisture, it is convenient for ecological purposes to convert this measure to basic wood density, i.e., the ratio of dry mass over green volume. Basic wood density can then be used to compute tree dry biomass from living tree volume...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Alan N Costa, Emilio M Bruna, Heraldo L Vasconcelos
Background: Ecosystem engineers are species that transform habitats in ways that influence other species.While the impacts of many engineers have been well described, our understanding of how their impact varies along environmental gradients remains limited. Although disentangling the effects of gradients and engineers on biodiversity is complicated-the gradients themselves can be altered by engineers-doing so is necessary to advance conceptual and mathematical models of ecosystem engineering...
2018: PeerJ
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