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Bracha Y Schindler, Leon Blaustein, Ran Lotan, Hadar Shalom, Gyongyver J Kadas, Merav Seifan
The combination of green roofs with photovoltaic (PV) panels has been proposed to provide synergistic benefits as the panel is cooled by the presence of the vegetation, and thus produces more electricity, while the solar panel enhances growing conditions for vegetation, and increases abiotic heterogeneity, resulting in higher plant diversity. We tested these hypotheses in a non-irrigated green roof in a Mediterranean climate with replicated plots including green roofs only, green roofs with a PV panel, and a conventional roof surface with a PV panel...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Paul L Rosin, Yu-Kun Lai, Chang Liu, Graham R Davis, David Mills, Gary Tuson, Yuki Russell
There is a large body of historical documents that are too fragile to be opened or unrolled, making their contents inaccessible. Recent improvements in X-ray scanning technology and computer vision techniques make it possible to perform a "virtual" unrolling of such documents. We describe a novel technique to process a stack of 3D X-ray images to identify the surface of parchment scrolls, unroll them, and create a visualization of their written contents. Unlike existing techniques, we can handle even challenging cases with minimal manual interaction...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Junyi Wang, Xiujun Wang, Jiaping Wang
Adding gypsum and/or straw is a common practice for ameliorating saline-alkali soils. However, the effect of amendment on soil CO2 is poorly known. An incubation experiment was conducted for over two years in a saline-alkali soil of Yanqi Basin, which included four treatments: control, gypsum addition (Ca), wheat straw addition (S) and gypsum-wheat straw combination (Ca+S). We continuously monitored soil CO2 concentration, temperature and moisture at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm. There was a clear seasonality in soil CO2 under all four treatments, which was generally similar to those in soil temperature and moisture...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Malte F Stuecker, Michelle Tigchelaar, Michael B Kantar
Changes in crop yield and production over time are driven by a combination of genetics, agronomics, and climate. Disentangling the role of these various influences helps us understand the capacity of agriculture to adapt to change. Here we explore the impact of climate variability on rice yield and production in the Philippines from 1987-2016 in both irrigated and rainfed production systems at various scales. Over this period, rice production is affected by variations in soil moisture, which are largely driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...
2018: PloS One
Sinead T Keaveney, Gourab Kundu, Franziska Schoenebeck
The full control over multiple competing coupling sites would enable straightforward access to densely functionalized compound libraries. Historically, the site-selection in Pd(0) catalyzed functionalizations of poly(pseudo)halogenated arenes has been unpredictable, being dependent on the employed catalyst, conditions and the substrate itself. Building on our previous report of Br-selective functionalization in the presence of C-OTf and C-Cl sites, we herein complete the sequence and demonstrate the first general arylations and alkylations of C-OTf (in <10 minutes), followed by the C-Cl site (in <25 min) at room temperature using the same air- and moisture stable Pd(I) dimer...
August 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jackie Rees, Fania Pagnamenta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Xiaodong Wang, Huiyue Zhao, Yuanyuan Cao, Yanyan Niu, Jun Shen
Surface fogging induced degradation has been a bottleneck problem in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals due to they are grown from aqueous solution. In this paper, we developed a facile method to prepare a double-layer antireflective coating with moisture-proof and laser damage resistant properties for KDP crystals. The bottom layer was a poly-siloxane coating with dense structure and silanol side groups, while the top layer was a hexamethyl-disilazane (HMDS) modified nano-porous SiO2 coating. Both of the sols were non-alkaline and non-aqueous to make sure those are harmless to KDP crystals...
August 8, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Summer Praetorius, Maria Rugenstein, Geeta Persad, Ken Caldeira
Arctic amplification is a consequence of surface albedo, cloud, and temperature feedbacks, as well as poleward oceanic and atmospheric heat transport. However, the relative impact of changes in sea surface temperature (SST) patterns and ocean heat flux sourced from different regions on Arctic temperatures are not well constrained. We modify ocean-to-atmosphere heat fluxes in the North Pacific and North Atlantic in a climate model to determine the sensitivity of Arctic temperatures to zonal heterogeneities in northern hemisphere SST patterns...
August 7, 2018: Nature Communications
José A Bran, Rolnei R Daros, Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Maria José Hötzel
This cross-sectional survey aimed to verify farmers' awareness and knowledge about lameness in grazing dairy cows and to analyze their perspectives and actions intended to control this issue. Farms (n = 44, mean herd size: 42, SD = 11.2) located in southern Brazil were visited twice in 2015. On the first visit the farmers were requested to answer a questionnaire on lameness knowledge (relative importance as a health issue, aetiology, impacts on culling) and management (prevention, treatment and veterinary assistance) on their farms...
September 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sylvie Meaume, Marc Marty
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess the incidence of pressure ulcer (PU) in patients at high risk of PU and lying between 15-20 hours per day on an alternating-pressure mattress overlay (APMO). Secondary objectives were the patient's satisfaction with the comfort of the APMO, patient acceptance of its sound level, and the care team's assessment of its use and the moisture level. METHOD: This prospective observational study was conducted in three rehabilitation centres and two nursing homes between June 2016 and March 2017...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
Justin F Binder, Stephanie C Kosnik, P Blake J St Onge, Charles Lloyd Bergstrom Macdonald
A convenient synthesis of dicyanophosphide and dicyanoarsenide anions is reported. These heavy homologues of the long-known and fundamentally important dicyanamide anion were formed through the nucleophilic displacement of bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) from the pnictogen+ transfer agents [dppePn][BPh4] (Pn = P, As) by exposure to cyanide salts. The protocol requires three synthetic steps from commercially available materials and the [dppePn][BPh4] salts are remarkably temperature, air, and moisture stable...
August 7, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jingxuan Cai, Cuiping Zhang, Arshad Khan, Liqiu Wang, Wen-Di Li
The authors report a new patterned electroless metallization process for creating micro- and nanoscale metallic structures on polymeric substrates, which are essential for emerging flexible and stretchable optical and electronic applications. This novel process features a selective adsorption of catalytic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) on a lithographically masked poly(dopamine) (PDA) interlayer in-situ polymerized on the substrates. The moisture-resistant PDA layer has excellent stability under harsh electroless plating bath, which enables electroless metallization on versatile substrate materials regardless of their hydrophobicity, and significantly strengthens the attachment of electroless plated metallic structures on the polymeric substrates...
August 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Katsura Mori, Tsuyoshi Seki, Kazuhiro Kaizu, Yutaka Takagi, Masahiro Miyaki, Chiaki Ishizaki, Ichiro Katayama
BACKGROUND: Skin moisturizing is advocated to take care of the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). However, many patients stop using moisturizers in the summer because of excessive sweating and high humidity. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of a moisturizing gel containing a pseudo-ceramide and a eucalyptus extract, which enhances epidermal ceramide synthesis of patients with mild AD in the summer. METHODS: We performed a single-blinded 4-week clinical trial of body care on 44 Japanese subjects who had mild AD...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Husain Akbari Majdar, Mehdi Vafakhah, Mohammad Sharifikia, Ardavan Ghorbani
This research has been tried to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of surface soil moisture (SM) in a semi-arid and cold region of Ardabil Province in Iran with an area of about 10,000 km2 . The used SM data is the SMAP Enhanced L2 Radiometer Half-Orbit 9 km Soil Moisture, provided by NASA. The study area was subdivided into 120 locations consisting 10 × 12 grids, matching with the pixels of the SMAP images. In order to evaluate the spatial variations of SM, the relation of mean SM with coefficient of variation and standard deviation has been evaluated and, then, the representative location for mean SM of the area has been identified using the index of temporal stability...
August 6, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Margherita Raccuglia, Christian Heyde, Alex Lloyd, Daniel Ruiz, Simon Hodder, George Havenith
In this study, we addressed potential biases which can occur when sensorial scores of temperature, wetness and discomfort are repeatedly reported, in transient exercise conditions. We pointed out that, when repeatedly reported, previous sensorial scores can be set by the participants as reference values and the subsequent score may be given based on the previous point of reference, the latter phenomenon leading to a bias which we defined as 'anchoring bias'. Indeed, the findings shown that subsequent sensorial scores are prone to anchoring biases and that the bias consisted in a systematically higher magnitude of sensation as compared to when reported a single time only...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Felicia Chiang, Omid Mazdiyasni, Amir AghaKouchak
During droughts, low surface moisture may translate surface heating into warming, since excess energy will be converted into sensible heat instead of evaporating as latent heat. Recent concurrent occurrences of droughts and heatwaves have caused compounding ecosystem and societal stresses, which prompted our investigation of whether there has been a shift in temperatures under meteorological drought conditions in the United States. Using historical observations, we detect that droughts have been warming faster than the average climate in the southern and northeastern United States...
August 2018: Science Advances
Ohana Y A Costa, Jos M Raaijmakers, Eiko E Kuramae
A wide range of microorganisms produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), highly hydrated polymers that are mainly composed of polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA. EPS are fundamental for microbial life and provide an ideal environment for chemical reactions, nutrient entrapment, and protection against environmental stresses such as salinity and drought. Microbial EPS can enhance the aggregation of soil particles and benefit plants by maintaining the moisture of the environment and trapping nutrients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fevzi Şevik, İsmail Tosun, Kamil Ekinci
This study was conducted to determine the effects of C/N ratio and free air space in co-composting of sewage sludge with tomato stalk and dairy manure. Experiments were carried out in 100 L of stainless steel aerobic compost reactors with full automation system and monitored for 32 days. The temperature was controlled according to the Rutgers strategy. During the composting process, moisture content, organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, total phosphorus, potassium, NH4 + -N, NO3 - -N and heavy metals contents were determined...
August 3, 2018: Waste Management
Hiroyuki Murota, Kosuke Yamaga, Emi Ono, Ichiro Katayama
Sweat is a transparent hypotonic body fluid made from eccrine sweat glands. Various ingredients contained in sweat are involved in a broad sense in skin homeostasis including temperature regulation, skin moisture, and immune functions. Thus, sweat plays a major role in maintaining skin homeostasis. Therefore, abnormal sweating easily compromises human health. For example, in atopic dermatitis (AD), perspiration stagnation accompanying sweat tube or sweat pore blockage, leakage of perspiration from the sweat gland to the outside tissue, and impaired secretion of sweat from the sweat gland are confirmed...
August 3, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Nabeel Shahid, Zunera Razzaq, Muhammad Irfan Siddique, Haliza Katas, Muhammad Khurram Waqas, Kashif-Ur Rahman
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to optimize and develop matrix type transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) containing tizanidine hydrochloride (TZH) using different polymers by solvent evaporation method. SIGNIFICANCE: A strong need exists for the development of transdermal patch having improved bioavailability at the site of action with fewer side effects at off-target organs. METHOD: The patches were physically characterized by texture analysis (color, flexibility, smoothness, transparency, and homogeneity), in-vitro dissolution test and FTIR analysis...
August 6, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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