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Alexsandra F DE Queiroz, Alessandra M Salviano, Tony J F DA Cunha, Nelci Olszevski, Valdomiro S DE Souza Júnior, Manoel B DE Oliveira Neto
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potentialities and limitations of the agricultural use of representative classes of semi-arid regions of the state of Bahia, based on the pedological and evaluation of their soil characteristics. Five areas were selected where trenches were opened to collect samples for the analyses: Eutric Haplustept which presents vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation due to poor drainage with risks of erosion, waterlogging, salinization and compaction but having good natural fertility; Abrupt Kandiustalf with high vulnerability to physical degradation due to the presence of gravel and pebbles which may limit the development of deep rooting plants and mechanization but also with good natural fertility; Typic quartzipsaments and Typic Eutrustalf with no limitations related to drainage as low risk of compaction but featuring limitation of low moisture-holding capacity and nutrients; and Arenic Haplustulf wose characteristics are high vulnerability to degradation due to the drainage limitation related to the Btx horizon cementing in addition to low natural fertility and therefore is not recommended to agricultural use...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
L Giachetti
Noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are steadily increasing. Unfortunately, NCCL restorations represent one of the less durable types of restorations due to problems, including isolation and crevicular moisture control, especially in cases where the cervical margin is covered by soft tissue. This article presents a technique that allows us, through the use of a common metallic matrix, to isolate and make accessible class V cavities with intrasulcular cervical margins. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are presented...
December 5, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Paul W Baker, Adam Charlton, Mike D C Hale
The application of solid state fermentation offers an alternative to conventional, submerged approaches for a variety of bioconversion processes, including animal feeds, biofuels and fungal bioproducts. Optimising solid state fermentation under low moisture conditions could significantly impact the proportion of dry biomass that could be processed and improve the commercial viability of this approach, because of reduced input costs and higher yields of final products. Pleurotus erygnii that appeared to show tolerance to low moisture conditions was grown on saturated and desaturated wheat straw...
December 5, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Michelle Barakat-Johnson, Michelle Lai, Timothy Wand, Fiona Coyer, Kathryn White
Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common, painful, difficult-to-treat skin condition. PURPOSE: A 2-part, quasi-experimental, post-test study was conducted to evaluate the impact of prevention initiatives on IAD prevalence and incontinence practices. METHOD: In part 1, from May 2017 to November 2017, a quasi-experimental post-test study design was conducted in a health district in Australia. Following an audit of IAD prevalence and identification of evidence practice gaps in 4 hospitals in a local health district (12 wards, 250 patients), an implementation science approach was used to implement evidence-based initiatives...
December 2018: Ostomy/wound Management
Jiufu Luo, Xuemin Liu, Jun Yang, Yuguo Liu, Jinxing Zhou
Plant functional groups (PFGs) have been increasingly introduced in land degradation (LD) studies; however, it is unclear whether PFGs can indicate LD. Here, we selected five different degraded lands (i.e., pristine and, lightly, moderately, seriously and extremely degraded) higher than 4650 m on the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, we investigated floristic metrics (i.e., composition, height, cover, biomass and abundance) and soil conditions (e.g., moisture, temperature and gravel ratio) by sampling 225 subplots...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ramona Marasco, María J Mosqueira, Marco Fusi, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Giuseppe Merlino, Jenny M Booth, Gillian Maggs-Kölling, Don A Cowan, Daniele Daffonchio
BACKGROUND: The rhizosheath-root system is an adaptive trait of sandy-desert speargrasses in response to unfavourable moisture and nutritional conditions. Under the deserts' polyextreme conditions, plants interact with edaphic microorganisms that positively affect their fitness and resistance. However, the trophic simplicity and environmental harshness of desert ecosystems have previously been shown to strongly influence soil microbial community assembly. We hypothesize that sand-driven ecological filtering constrains the microbial recruitment processes in the speargrass rhizosheath-root niche, prevailing over the plant-induced selection...
December 4, 2018: Microbiome
Arianna Fallacara, Filippo Marchetti, Michele Pozzoli, Ugo Raffaello Citernesi, Stefano Manfredini, And Silvia Vertuani
The present work evaluates for the first time the use of urea-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA-CL), a novel derivative of native hyaluronic acid (HA), to produce microspheres (MS) by emulsification-solvent evaporation, for dermal delivery of sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP). As the term of comparison, HA MS were prepared. A pre-formulation study-investigation of the effects of polymers solutions properties (pH, viscosity) and working conditions-led to the - production of optimized HA-CL MS and HA-CL-SAP MS with: almost unimodal size distributions; mean diameter of 13...
December 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Yingtong Cui, Xuejuan Zhang, Wen Wang, Zhengwei Huang, Ziyu Zhao, Guanlin Wang, Shihao Cai, Hui Jing, Ying Huang, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Netilmicin (NTM) is one of the first-line drugs for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) therapy, but its nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity caused by intravenous injection restrict its clinical application. Dry powder inhalation (DPI) is a popular local drug delivery system that is introduced as a solution. Due to the nature of NTM hygroscopicity that hinders its direct use through DPI, in this study, L-leucine (LL) was added into NTM dry powder to reduce its moisture absorption rate and improve its aerosolization performance...
December 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Ioannis K Karabagias, Miguel Maia, Vassilios K Karabagias, Ilias Gatzias, Anastasia V Badeka
The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality and bio-functional properties of Portuguese honeys of different botanical and geographical origins. Quality parameter analyses included the determination of palynological (predominant, secondary, minor and isolated pollen percentage), physicochemical (°Brix, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, free acidity, total dissolved solids, salinity, vitamin C content and specific weight) including colour-metrics (CIELAB, Pfund and colour intensity determinations), along with volatile compounds identification using solid phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Maosheng Li, Yue Tao, Jiadong Tang, Yanchao Wang, Xiaoyong Zhang, Youhua Tao, Xianhong Wang
Ring-opening polymerization of O-carboxyanhydrides (OCAs) can furnish polyesters with a diversity of functional groups that are traditionally hard to harvest by polymerization of lactones. Typical ring-opening catalysts are subject to unavoidable racemization of most OCA monomers, which hampers the synthesis of highly isotactic crystalline polymers. Here, we describe an effective bifunctional single-molecule organocatalysis for selective ring-opening polymerization of OCAs without epimerization. The close vicinity of both activating groups in the same molecule engenders amplified synergetic effect thus allows for the use of mild bases, thereby leading to minimal epimerization for polymerization...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mohamed Hazman, Kathleen M Brown
BACKGROUND: Root architectural and anatomical phenotypes are important for adaptation to drought. Many rice-growing regions face increasing water scarcity. This study describes drought responses of 11 Egyptian rice cultivars with emphasis on plastic root responses that may enhance drought adaptation. RESULTS: Eleven Egyptian rice cultivars were phenotyped for root architectural and anatomical traits after 6 weeks growth in soil mesocosms under well-watered conditions...
December 4, 2018: Rice
Sunday Samuel Sobowale, Oluwatoyin Habibat Animashaun, Antoine Floribert Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Temitope Saratallahi Abidoye, Yusuf Olamide Kewuyemi, Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo
The current industrial demand for starchy foods has been dominated by other roots and tubers, while cocoyam, despite being rich in fiber, minerals, and vitamins has remained under exploited. In this study, the effect of feed moisture content (FMC), screw speed (SS) and barrel temperature (BT) on the quality characteristics of cocoyam noodles (proximate, thermo-physical, physicochemical, texture, color, extrudate properties, and sensory characteristics) were investigated using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM)...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
M Mercedes Bertotto, Analía Gastón, María J Rodríguez Batiller, Pablo Calello
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was applied to measure the Tg of rice IRGA 424 at different moisture content values (9.3%-22.3% wet basis). To conduct temperature sweeps, the samples were heated at a rate of 2°C/min from 20 to 120°C keeping frequency to 1 Hz. Tg was measured both from the E ″ peak temperature (Tgmidpoint ) and from the tan ( δ ) peak temperature (Tgendset ). Tgmidpoint and Tgendset increased from 31.8 to 86.6°C and 42.1 to 104.7°C, respectively, as moisture content decreased from 22...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Eleni Papaefstathiou, Agapios Agapiou, Stelios Giannopoulos, Rebecca Kokkinofta
Twenty traditional carob products were measured for their nutritional composition, and their results were compared with the pulp of Cypriot carob cultivars. Moisture, ash, fat, proteins, sugars, dietary fibers, minerals, caffeine-theobromine, carbohydrates, and energy value were determined. Fluctuations of the nutritional composition values based on the ingredients' chemical synthesis and product manufacturing process were noted. Only 60% of the products had a label indicating their nutritional value, and the majority of them (75%) were consistent with that of labeling...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Jun-Hoi Kim, Il Kyung Chung, Hak Yoon Kim, Kyung-Min Kim
We evaluated the direct application of different extracts from plant-derived compounds at different ratios. The best effect was observed with the combination of 18.18% clove, 9.90% cinnamon, 9.09% licorice, 4.55% firmament, 4.55% grapefruit seed extract, and 54.54% apple cider vinegar. The combination of these compounds improved the moisture content of the fruit and showed antifungal, antibrowning, and antifungal/antibrowning effects as compared with the control following 6-week treatment. The treatment resulted in an increase in the overall sugar concentration of dried persimmons...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Saba S Butt, Idris K Mohammed, Vivek Raghavan, James Osborne, Hugh Powell, Maria N Charalambides
Extrusion has potential advantages over baking in terms of throughput, asset cost and flexibility. However, it is challenging to achieve through extrusion the "light, crispy" texture of a more traditional baked confectionery. This study compares and contrasts for the first time confectionery products produced through these two processes, i.e. baking and extrusion. The microstructural differences are measured using imaging techniques, i.e. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT) whereas mechanical characterisation is used to highlight differences in the resulting mechanical properties...
December 2018: Journal of Food Engineering
Brenda B Lin, Monika H Egerer, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha, Stacy M Philpott
Urban gardens are vital green spaces, providing food for residents and space for engaged citizenry and community development. In California, climate change conditions (heat and drought) are becoming more extreme, threatening the resilience of urban gardens. Water use restrictions limit the timing and amount of water that gardeners can access, exacerbating these climate challenges for urban food production. Together with volunteer gardeners, we examined how ambient temperature, water use, vegetation, ground cover, and soil management affect rates of soil moisture gain and loss in urban gardens for a six-week period in the summer of 2017, during the hottest part of the growing season...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yijun Yao, Fang Mao, Yuting Xiao, Jian Luo
At contaminated sites, indoor inhalation of volatile organic compounds from groundwater contamination, known as vapor intrusion (VI), is an important exposure pathway to determine groundwater cleanup level. Based on empirical analysis, US EPA concluded that there is a low probability for vapors from fuel hydrocarbons dissolved in groundwater to induce indoor concentrations that exceed risk-based standards, and recommended 6 feet vertical building-source separation distance as the risk screening tool for such cases...
November 20, 2018: Water Research
Xiaoyan Ge, Long Yu, Zengshe Liu, Hongsheng Liu, Ying Chen, Ling Chen
Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO)-based coatings were developed to reduce moisture sensitivity and permeability of starch-based materials. The coating was applied on starch based films by dipping the samples on AESO-based coating solutions, followed by crosslinking with ultraviolet (UV) light. Effect of AESO concentration, photoinitiator content and processing conditions on the performance of coated starch-based film was systematically investigated, in particular the effect of coating on moisture absorption, permeability and mechanical properties...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sonu Yadav, Adam J Stow, Rebecca M B Harris, Rachael Y Dudaniec
Invertebrate pests often show high morphological variation and wide environmental tolerances. Knowledge of how phenotypic variation is associated with environmental heterogeneity can elucidate the processes underpinning these patterns. Here we examine morphological variation and relative abundance along environmental gradients in a widespread agricultural pest, native to Australia, the wingless grasshopper Phaulacridium vittatum (Sjöstedt). We test for correlations between body size, wing presence, and stripe polymorphism with environmental variables...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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