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spatial hearing

Florian Pausch, Lukas Aspöck, Michael Vorländer, Janina Fels
Theory and implementation of acoustic virtual reality have matured and become a powerful tool for the simulation of entirely controllable virtual acoustic environments. Such virtual acoustic environments are relevant for various types of auditory experiments on subjects with normal hearing, facilitating flexible virtual scene generation and manipulation. When it comes to expanding the investigation group to subjects with hearing loss, choosing a reproduction system which offers a proper integration of hearing aids into the virtual acoustic scene is crucial...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Benjamin Dieudonné, Tom Francart
OBJECTIVES: To establish a framework to unambiguously define and relate the different spatial effects in speech understanding: head shadow, redundancy, squelch, spatial release from masking (SRM), and so on. Next, to investigate the contribution of interaural time and level differences to these spatial effects in speech understanding and how this is influenced by the type of masking noise. DESIGN: In our framework, SRM is uniquely characterized as a linear combination of head shadow, binaural redundancy, and binaural squelch...
October 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Paul M Lantos, Gabriela Maradiaga-Panayotti, Xavier Barber, Eileen Raynor, Debara Tucci, Kate Hoffman, Sallie R Permar, Pearce Jackson, Brenna L Hughes, Amy Kind, Geeta K Swamy
Objective Approximately 1 to 2 of every 1000 American newborns has hearing loss identified by newborn screening. This study was designed to determine if infant hearing loss is more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Study Design In this retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical record data using geostatistical models. Setting Infants were residents of Durham County, North Carolina, born in 2 hospitals of the Duke University Health System. This county includes the city of Durham and surrounding suburban and rural communities...
October 9, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Anshuman Ganguly, Issa Panahi
Robust speech source localization (SSL) is an important component of the speech processing pipeline for hearing aid devices (HADs). SSL via time direction of arrival (TDOA) estimation has been known to improve performance of HADs in noisy environments, thereby providing better listening experience for hearing aid users. Smartphones now possess the capability to connect to the HADs through wired or wireless channel. In this paper, we present our findings about the non-uniform non-linear microphone array (NUNLA) geometry for improving SSL for HADs using an L-shaped three-element microphone array available on modern smartphones...
October 2018: Journal of Signal Processing Systems
Rebekka Hoffmann, Vigdís Vala Valgeirsdóttir, Ómar I Jóhannesson, Runar Unnthorsson, Árni Kristjánsson
Vibrotactile displays can compensate for the loss of sensory function of people with permanent or temporary deficiencies in vision, hearing, or balance, and can augment the immersive experience in virtual environments for entertainment, or professional training. This wide range of potential applications highlights the need for research on the basic psychophysics of mechanisms underlying human vibrotactile perception. One key consideration when designing tactile displays is determining the minimal possible spacing between tactile motors (tactors), by empirically assessing the maximal throughput of the skin, or, in other words, vibrotactile spatial acuity...
October 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Kathryn Hamlyn, Katie Welldon, Benjamin Clark, Willem van Steenbrugge, Sarosh Kapadia
BACKGROUND: Auditory processing (AP) is commonly regarded as the perceptual processing of auditory information in the central nervous system. However, the degree to which higher level cognitive processes are involved in AP or its disorders is contentious. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the effects of nonauditory cognitive processes on the various tests of AP in common clinical usage and thus on clinical diagnoses of auditory processing disorder. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of increased cognitive demand, generated by using a dual-task paradigm, on performance on different AP tests and types of AP tests in common clinical usage...
October 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Steffen Wolter, Dorit Möhrle, Hannes Schmidt, Sylvia Pfeiffer, Dennis Zelle, Philipp Eckert, Michael Krämer, Robert Feil, Peter K D Pilz, Marlies Knipper, Lukas Rüttiger
Sensory axon T-like branching (bifurcation) in neurons from dorsal root ganglia and cranial sensory ganglia depends on the molecular signaling cascade involving the secreted factor C-type natriuretic peptide, the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B; also known as Npr2) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI, also known as PKGI). The bifurcation of cranial nerves is suggested to be important for information processing by second-order neurons in the hindbrain or spinal cord. Indeed, mice with a spontaneous GC-B loss of function mutation ( Npr2cn/cn ) display an impaired bifurcation of auditory nerve (AN) fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Elizabeth E Austin, Naomi Sweller, Penny Van Bergen
Spatial communication tasks, such as following route directions through unfamiliar environments, place considerable demands on multiple cognitive processes, including language comprehension and memory. Gestures accompanying spoken route directions may aide task performance by enhancing cognitive processes such as language and memory processing. It is not yet clear whether different kinds of gesture might influence the processing of route information in different ways. In 2 experiments, we examined how different gestures would enhance or reduce listeners' recall of spatial information when given route directions through an unfamiliar building...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Tom Francart, Konstantin Wiebe, Thomas Wesarg
Currently there is a growing population of cochlear-implant (CI) users with (near) normal hearing in the non-implanted ear. This configuration is often called SSD (single-sided deafness) CI. The goal of the CI is often to improve spatial perception, so the question raises to what extent SSD CI listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs). In a controlled lab setup, sensitivity to ITDs was investigated in 11 SSD CI listeners. The stimuli were 100-pps pulse trains on the CI side and band-limited click trains on the acoustic side...
September 27, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Christian Füllgrabe, Brian C J Moore
The ability to process binaural temporal fine structure (TFS) information, which influences the perception of speech in spatially distributed soundscapes, declines with increasing hearing loss and age. Because of the relatively small sample sizes used in previous studies, and the population-unrepresentative distribution of hearing loss and ages within study samples, it has been difficult to determine the relative and combined contributions of hearing loss and age. The aim of this study was to survey published and unpublished studies that assessed binaural TFS sensitivity using the TFS-low frequency (LF) test...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Mandy Sonntag, Maren Blosa, Sophie Schmidt, Katja Reimann, Kerstin Blum, Tobias Eckrich, Gudrun Seeger, Dietmar Hecker, Bernhard Schick, Thomas Arendt, Jutta Engel, Markus Morawski
BACKGROUND: Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized aggregations of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules surrounding specific neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). PNNs are supposed to control synaptic transmission and are frequently associated with neurons firing at high rates, including principal neurons of auditory brainstem nuclei. The origin of high-frequency activity of auditory brainstem neurons is the indefatigable sound-driven transmitter release of inner hair cells (IHCs) in the cochlea...
September 26, 2018: BMC Biology
Elisabeth Wallhäusser-Franke, Tobias Balkenhol, Svetlana Hetjens, Nicole Rotter, Jerome J Servais
Objectives: Patient-reported outcomes gain importance for the assessment of auditory abilities in cochlear implant users and for the evaluation of auditory rehabilitation. Aims of the study were to explore the interrelation of self-reported improvements in auditory ability with improvements in speech comprehension and to identify factors other than audiological improvement that affect self-reported auditory ability. Study Design: Explorative prospective analysis using a within-subjects repeated measures design...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Carina Frykholm, Joakim Klar, Tatjana Tomanovic, Adam Ameur, Niklas Dahl
Vestibular disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases with transient or permanent loss of vestibular function. Vestibulopathy is in most cases associated with migraine, Ménière disease, hereditary ataxias, or sensorineural hearing loss. We identified two brothers and their first cousin affected by hearing loss and episodic vertigo. The brothers were homozygous STRC nonsense variant [c.4027 C > T, p.(Q1343*)], whereas their first cousin was compound heterozygous for the STRC nonsense variant and a 97 kb deletion spanning the entire STRC gene...
September 24, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Elsa Legris, John Galvin, Sylvie Roux, Marie Gomot, Jean-Marie Aoustin, Mathieu Marx, Shuman He, David Bakhos
BACKGROUND: Adults with single sided deafness (SSD) have lost binaural function, which limits sound source localization, speech understanding in noise, and quality of life. For SSD patients, restoration of bilateral auditory input is possible only with a cochlear implant (CI). In this study, cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) and behavioral performance were measured in left-implanted (SSD-CI-L) and right-implanted (SSD-CI-R) patients before and after cochlear implantation. We hypothesized that improvements in behavioral performance would be accompanied by changes in CAEPs after cochlear implantation...
2018: PloS One
Michael Valente, Kristi Oeding, Alison Brockmeyer, Steven Smith, Dorina Kallogjeri
BACKGROUND: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) and American Academy of Audiology (AAA) have created Best Practice Guidelines for fitting hearing aids to adult patients. These guidelines recommend using real-ear measures (REM) to verify that measured output/gain of hearing aid(s) match a validated prescriptive target. Unfortunately, approximately 70-80% of audiologists do not routinely use REM when fitting hearing aids, instead relying on a manufacturer default "first-fit" setting...
September 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Basile Tarchini, Chantal Longo-Guess, Cong Tian, Abigail L D Tadenev, Nicholas Devanney, Kenneth R Johnson
Hundreds of thousands of cis-regulatory DNA sequences are predicted in vertebrate genomes, but unlike genes themselves, few have been characterized at the functional level or even unambiguously paired with a target gene. Here we serendipitously identified and started investigating the first reported long-range regulatory region for the Nr2f1 (Coup-TFI) transcription factor gene. NR2F1 is temporally and spatially regulated during development and required for patterning and regionalization in the nervous system, including sensory hair cell organization in the auditory epithelium of the cochlea...
September 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Edda Bild, Karin Pfeffer, Matt Coler, Ori Rubin, Luca Bertolini
Understanding the relationship between people and their soundscapes in an urban context of innumerable and diverse sensory stimulations is a difficult endeavor. What public space users hear and how they evaluate it in relation to their performed or intended activities can influence users' engagement with their spaces as well as their assessment of suitability of public space for their needs or expectations. While the interaction between the auditory experience and activity is a topic gaining momentum in soundscape research, capturing the complexity of this relationship in context remains a multifaceted challenge...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Aaron C Moberly, Kara Vasil, Jodi Baxter, Christin Ray
HYPOTHESIS: For experienced adult cochlear implant (CI) users who have reached a plateau in performance, a clinician-guided aural rehabilitation (CGAR) approach can improve speech recognition and hearing-related quality of life (QOL). BACKGROUND: A substantial number of CI users do not reach optimal performance in terms of speech recognition ability and/or personal communication goals. Although self-guided computerized auditory training programs have grown in popularity, compliance and efficacy for these programs are poor...
October 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Xuelin Wang, Rong Z Gan
The conductive hearing loss caused by acute otitis media (AOM) is commonly related to a reduction of the tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in response to sound stimuli. However, spatial alterations of the TM surface motion associated with AOM have rarely been addressed. In this study, the TM surface motion was determined using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV) in a chinchilla model of AOM. The AOM was established by transbullar injection of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. The TM surface vibration was measured in control (uninfected) animals and two AOM groups of animals: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation...
September 6, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Carlos R Esquivel, Mark Parker, Kwame Curtis, Andy Merkley, Phil Littlefield, George Conley, Sean Wise, Brent Feldt, Lynn Henselman, Zsolt Stockinger
Hearing is a critical sense to military performance. The ability to detect, identify, and localize sounds, the ability to maintain spatial awareness on the battlefield and the awareness to control one's own noise production can be vital to troop's stealth, survivability, and lethality. Hazardous noise is an environmental public health threat encountered in training at war, and in many off-duty activities. The risk to hearing and the resultant damage from any of these hazardous exposures is generally invisible, insidious and cumulative...
September 1, 2018: Military Medicine
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