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spatial hearing

Omid Kokabi, Fabian Brinkmann, Stefan Weinzierl
The two most important aspects in binaural speech perception-better-ear-listening and spatial-release-from-masking-can be predicted well with current binaural modeling frameworks operating on head-related impulse responses, i.e., anechoic binaural signals. To incorporate effects of reverberation, a model extension was proposed, splitting binaural room impulse responses into an early, useful, and late, detrimental part, before being fed into the modeling framework. More recently, an interaction between the applied splitting time, room properties, and the resulting prediction accuracy was observed...
November 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jens Cubick, Jörg M Buchholz, Virginia Best, Mathieu Lavandier, Torsten Dau
Cubick and Dau [(2016). Acta Acust. Acust. 102 , 547-557] showed that speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in noise, obtained with normal-hearing listeners, were significantly higher with hearing aids (HAs) than without. Some listeners reported a change in their spatial perception of the stimuli due to the HA processing, with auditory images often being broader and closer to the head or even internalized. The current study investigated whether worse speech intelligibility with HAs might be explained by distorted spatial perception and the resulting reduced ability to spatially segregate the target speech from the interferers...
November 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Lisa D Urness, Xiaofen Wang, Huy Doan, Nathan Shumway, C Albert Noyes, Edgar Gutierrez-Magana, Ree Lu, Suzanne L Mansour
Morphogenesis of the inner ear epithelium requires coordinated deployment of several signaling pathways, and disruptions cause abnormalities of hearing and/or balance. The FGFR2b ligands, FGF3 and FGF10, are expressed throughout otic development and are required individually for normal morphogenesis, but their prior and redundant roles in otic placode induction complicates investigation of subsequent combinatorial functions in morphogenesis. To interrogate these roles and identify new effectors of FGF3 and FGF10 signaling at the earliest stages of otic morphogenesis, we used conditional gene ablation after otic placode induction, and temporal inhibition of signaling with a secreted, dominant-negative FGFR2b ectodomain...
November 30, 2018: Development
Eszter Berekméri, Orsolya Deák, Tímea Téglás, Éva Sághy, Tamás Horváth, Máté Aller, Ádám Fekete, László Köles, Tibor Zelles
Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger and regulator in both physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in the hearing organ. Investigation of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the mature cochlea is hampered by the special anatomy and high vulnerability of the organ. A quick, straightforward and reliable Ca2+ imaging method with high spatial and temporal resolution in the mature organ of Corti is missing. Cell cultures or isolated cells do not preserve the special microenvironment and intercellular communication, while cochlear explants are excised from only a restricted portion of the organ of Corti and usually from neonatal pre-hearing murines...
November 10, 2018: Hearing Research
Paige Heeke, Andrew J Vermiglio, Emery Bulla, Keerthana Velappan, Xiangming Fang
BACKGROUND: Temporal acoustic cues are particularly important for speech understanding, and past research has inferred a relationship between temporal resolution and speech recognition in noise ability. A temporal resolution disorder is thought to affect speech understanding abilities because persons would not be able to accurately encode these frequency transitions, creating speech discrimination errors even in the presence of normal pure-tone hearing. PURPOSE: The primary purpose was to investigate the relationship between temporal resolution as measured by the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) and speech recognition in noise performance as measured by the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in adults with normal audiometric thresholds...
November 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Annie Moulin, Judith Vergne, Stéphane Gallego, Christophe Micheyl
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work was to build a 15-item short-form of the Speech Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) that maintains the three-factor structure of the full form, using a data-driven approach consistent with internationally recognized procedures for short-form building. This included the validation of the new short-form on an independent sample and an in-depth, comparative analysis of all existing, full and short SSQ forms. DESIGN: Data from a previous study involving 98 normal-hearing (NH) individuals and 196 people with hearing impairments (HI), non hearing aid wearers, along with results from several other published SSQ studies, were used for developing the short-form...
November 19, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Robert T Dwyer, David Kessler, Iliza M Butera, René H Gifford
BACKGROUND: Bilateral cochlear implantation is the standard of care for individuals with moderate sloping-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss who do not receive benefit from appropriately fit hearing aids. Because of financial, insurance, or medical reasons, some unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipients are unable to obtain a second CI. Here, we evaluated the first clinically available solution for individuals who have been unilaterally implanted and who do not or cannot use technology (e...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Skylar Trott, Trey Cline, Jeffrey Weihing, Deidra Beshear, Matthew Bush, Jennifer Shinn
BACKGROUND: Estrogen has been identified as playing a key role in many organ systems. Recently, estrogen has been found to be produced in the human brain and is believed contribute to central auditory processing. After menopause, a low estrogen state, many women report hearing loss but demonstrate no deficits in peripheral hearing sensitivity, which support the notion that estrogen plays an effect on central auditory processing. Although animal research on estrogen and hearing loss is extensive, there is little in the literature on the human model...
September 23, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Erin M Picou, Todd A Ricketts
BACKGROUND: People with hearing loss experience difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments. Beamforming microphone arrays in hearing aids can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and thus also speech recognition and subjective ratings. Unilateral beamformer arrays, also known as directional microphones, accomplish this improvement using two microphones in one hearing aid. Bilateral beamformer arrays, which combine information across four microphones in a bilateral fitting, further improve the SNR...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Andrew J Vermiglio, Caroline C Herring, Paige Heeke, Courtney E Post, Xiangming Fang
BACKGROUND: Speech recognition in noise (SRN) evaluations reveal information about listening ability that is unavailable from pure-tone thresholds. Unfortunately, SRN evaluations are not commonly used in the clinic. A lack of standardization may be an explanation for the lack of widespread acceptance of SRN testing. Arguments have been made for the utilization of steady-state speech-shaped noise vs. multi-talker babble. Previous investigations into the effect of masker type have used a monaural presentation of the stimuli...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Kasey M Jakien, Frederick J Gallun
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report normative data and predict thresholds for a rapid test of spatial release from masking for speech perception. The test is easily administered and has good repeatability, with the potential to be used in clinics and laboratories. Normative functions were generated for adults varying in age and amounts of hearing loss. Method: The test of spatial release presents a virtual auditory scene over headphones with 2 conditions: colocated (with target and maskers at 0°) and spatially separated (with target at 0° and maskers at ± 45°)...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Anshuman Ganguly, Abdullah Kucuk, Issa Panahi
In this paper, we present an improved version of a Speech source Iocalization method for Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation using only two microphones. We also present a real-time Android application on a latest smartphone to help improve the spatial awareness of hearing impaired users. Unlike earlier methods, the proposed method is computationally more efficient and fully adaptive to dynamically changing background noise. We compare the performance of proposed method with similar earlier methods and demonstrate significantly lower DOA estimation errors as well as lower computation times...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Oscar M Cañete, Suzanne C Purdy, Colin R S Brown, Michel Neeff, Peter R Thorne
BACKGROUND: A unilateral hearing loss (UHL) can have a significant functional and social impact on children and adults, affecting their quality of life. In adults, UHL is typically associated with difficulties understanding speech in noise and sound localization, and UHL increases the self-perception of auditory disability for a range of listening situations. Furthermore, despite evidence for the negative effects of reduced unilateral auditory input on the neural encoding of binaural cues, the perceptual consequences of these changes are still not well understood...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Amanda M Griffin, Sarah F Poissant, Richard L Freyman
OBJECTIVES: (1) Measure sentence recognition in co-located and spatially separated target and masker configurations in school-aged children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and with normal hearing (NH). (2) Compare self-reported hearing-related quality-of-life (QoL) scores in school-aged children with UHL and NH. DESIGN: Listeners were school-aged children (6 to 12 yrs) with permanent UHL (n = 41) or NH (n = 35) and adults with NH (n = 23). Sentence reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured using Hearing In Noise Test-Children sentences in quiet and in the presence of 2-talker child babble or a speech-shaped noise masker in target/masker spatial configurations: 0/0, 0/-60, 0/+60, or 0/±60 degrees azimuth...
November 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Ashley Zaleski-King, Matthew J Goupell, Dragana Barac-Cikoja, Matthew Bakke
BACKGROUND: Bilateral inputs should ideally improve sound localization and speech understanding in noise. However, for many bimodal listeners [i.e., individuals using a cochlear implant (CI) with a contralateral hearing aid (HA)], such bilateral benefits are at best, inconsistent. The degree to which clinically available HA and CI devices can function together to preserve interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs, respectively) enough to support the localization of sound sources is a question with important ramifications for speech understanding in complex acoustic environments...
November 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Philip X Joris, Laurence O Trussell
The calyx of Held is the preeminent model for the study of synaptic function in the mammalian CNS. Despite much work on the synapse and associated circuit, its role in hearing remains enigmatic. We propose that the calyx is one of the key adaptations that enables an animal to lateralize transient sounds. The calyx is part of a binaural circuit that is biased toward high sound frequencies and is sensitive to intensity differences between the ears. This circuit also shows marked sensitivity to interaural time differences, but only for brief sound transients ("clicks")...
November 7, 2018: Neuron
Attila Óvári, Christoph Heckeler, Karsten Ehrt, Hans-Edgar Bernd, Hans-Wilhelm Pau, Albrecht Eiber
PURPOSE: Surgical manipulation with application of inappropriate force may damage middle ear structures leading to hearing loss. This work analyzes the forces applied in simulated otosurgical exercises in a laboratory set-up by measuring the spatial components of applied forces with objective assessment criteria. With these criteria, the individual force characteristics applied by the surgeon can be quantified and an objective feedback can be given about their surgical maneuvers. METHODS: A natural size model of the human incus was mounted on a load cell to measure the spatial forces in all three directions during different manipulation tasks performed under the microscope by ten surgeons from our department having different levels of experience in otosurgery...
November 8, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Basak Günel, Christiane M Thiel, K Jannis Hildebrandt
Previous research in the visual domain suggests that exogenous attention in form of peripheral cueing increases spatial but lowers temporal resolution. It is unclear whether this effect transfers to other sensory modalities. Here, we tested the effects of exogenous attention on temporal and spectral resolution in the auditory domain. Eighteen young, normal-hearing adults were tested in both gap and frequency change detection tasks with exogenous cuing. Benefits of valid cuing were only present in the gap detection task while costs of invalid cuing were observed in both tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jens Kreitewolf, Samuel R Mathias, Régis Trapeau, Jonas Obleser, Marc Schönwiesner
Cocktail parties pose a difficult yet solvable problem for the auditory system. Previous work has shown that the cocktail-party problem is considerably easier when all sounds in the target stream are spoken by the same talker (the voice-continuity benefit ). The present study investigated the contributions of two of the most salient voice features-glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL)-to the voice-continuity benefit. Twenty young, normal-hearing listeners participated in two experiments. On each trial, listeners heard concurrent sequences of spoken digits from three different spatial locations and reported the digits coming from a target location...
October 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jan Rennies, Gerald Kidd
In contrast to the well-known benefits for speech intelligibility, the advantage afforded by binaural stimulus presentation for reducing listening effort has not been thoroughly examined. This study investigated spatial release of listening effort and its relation to binaural speech intelligibility in listeners with normal hearing. Psychometric functions for speech intelligibility of a frontal target talker masked by a stationary speech-shaped noise were estimated for several different noise azimuths, different degrees of reverberation, and by maintaining only interaural level or time differences...
October 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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