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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546103/the-neurobiological-basis-of-narcolepsy
#1
REVIEW
Carrie E Mahoney, Andrew Cogswell, Igor J Koralnik, Thomas E Scammell
Narcolepsy is the most common neurological cause of chronic sleepiness. The discovery about 20 years ago that narcolepsy is caused by selective loss of the neurons producing orexins (also known as hypocretins) sparked great advances in the field. Here, we review the current understanding of how orexin neurons regulate sleep-wake behaviour and the consequences of the loss of orexin neurons. We also summarize the developing evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder that may be caused by a T cell-mediated attack on the orexin neurons and explain how these new perspectives can inform better therapeutic approaches...
December 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536389/brain-structure-and-neurological-and-behavioural-functioning-in-infants-born-preterm
#2
Claire E Kelly, Deanne K Thompson, Jeanie Ly Cheong, Jian Chen, Joy E Olsen, Abbey L Eeles, Jennifer M Walsh, Marc L Seal, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle
AIM: To examine: (1) relationships between brain structure, and concurrently assessed neurological and behavioural functioning, in infants born preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA; approximately 38-44wks); and (2) whether brain structure-function relationships differ between infants born very (24-29wks) and moderate-late (32-36wks) preterm. METHOD: A total of 257 infants (91 very preterm, 166 moderate-late preterm; 120 males, 137 females) had structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological and behavioural assessments (Prechtl's general movements assessment, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale [NNNS] and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination [HNNE])...
December 10, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496832/trait-mindfulness-is-associated-with-lower-pain-reactivity-and-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network
#3
Richard Harrison, Fadel Zeidan, Georgios Kitsaras, Dila Ozcelik, Tim V Salomons
Mindfulness-based training reduces pain in clinical and experimental settings. Evidence suggests these beneficial effects are facilitated via increased focus on the present moment, and reduced emotional enhancement of pain. The majority of the existing literature has focused on mindfulness as a learned skill, and on the neural mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of this skill. It is unknown whether similar mechanisms are associated with trait mindfulness in the absence of training and whether these mechanisms confer the ability to cope with pain...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485332/anti-saccades-predict-cognitive-functions-in-older-adults-and-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Julie Ouerfelli-Ethier, Basma Elsaeid, Julie Desgroseilliers, Douglas P Munoz, Gunnar Blohm, Aarlenne Zein Khan
A major component of cognitive control is the ability to act flexibly in the environment by either behaving automatically or inhibiting an automatic behaviour. The interleaved pro/anti-saccade task measures cognitive control because the task relies on one's abilities to switch flexibly between pro and anti-saccades, and inhibit automatic saccades during anti-saccade trials. Decline in cognitive control occurs during aging or neurological illnesses such as Parkinson's disease (PD), and indicates decline in other cognitive abilities, such as memory...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484276/-behavioural-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia-as-the-presenting-symptom-of-corticobasal-degeneration
#5
P Vicente-Alba, M J Moreno-Carretero, B San Millan-Tejado, J M Outomuro-Perez
INTRODUCTION: The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia is characterised by progressive social, cognitive and personality deterioration associated with several molecular pathologies of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD): FTLD-tau, FTLD-TDP and FTLD-FUS. Its diagnosis requires pathological studies. CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old male, with a three-year progressive history of behavioural disorder, apathy, poor language skills, perseveration, lack of empathy, bulimia and executive dysfunction...
December 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474164/implementing-a-new-adolescent-epilepsy-service-improving-patient-experience-and-readiness-for-transition
#6
Fleur A Le Marne, Susan J Towns, Claire Gaskin, Jane Ho, Richard Baker, Erin Beavis, Anne M Bye
AIM: To implement and appraise a new model of care in terms of: patient experience, knowledge of epilepsy, readiness for transition and emotional and behavioural support in a new purpose-built facility for adolescents and young adults. METHODS: The new model of care included: upskilling of neurology staff in adolescent engagement and provision of group education sessions on epilepsy and mental health (MH), along with MH support, in a new purpose-built adolescent facility...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470814/investigating-the-neurological-correlates-of-workplace-deviance-using-a-rodent-model-of-extinction
#7
J Tabor, Y Griep, R Collins, R Mychasiuk
Employee deviance and time theft is an expensive and pervasive workplace problem. Research indicates that a primary reason employees engage in deviant behaviour is the perception of injustice often associated with psychological contract breach (i.e., broken promises). This study used a rodent model to mimic said experience of broken promises and then examined the subsequent neurophysiological changes that lead to the display of deviant behaviours. Specifically, we generated a psychological contract using a 3 choice serial reaction task, then broke the promise, and finally examined deviant behaviours and neurological correlates...
November 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457401/defining-sensory-modulation-a-review-of-the-concept-and-a-contemporary-definition-for-application-by-occupational-therapists
#8
Anahita Brown, Tamara Tse, Tracy Fortune
BACKGROUND: Sensory interventions are prevalent amongst adult mental health practitioners and are supported by major stakeholders and policy makers across the world. The term commonly used by occupational therapists applying sensory practices is sensory modulation, however this term has evolved. AIMS: This paper aims to investigate and clarify the definition of 'sensory modulation' for application by occupational therapists. METHOD: A framework guided this concept analysis on sensory modulation...
November 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455406/emotional-processing-in-functional-neurological-disorder-a-review-biopsychosocial-model-and-research-agenda
#9
Susannah Pick, Laura H Goldstein, David L Perez, Timothy R Nicholson
Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a common and highly disabling disorder, but its aetiology remains enigmatic. Conceptually, there has been reduced emphasis on the role of psychosocial stressors in recent years, with a corresponding increase in neurobiological explanations. However, a wealth of evidence supports the role of psychosocial adversities (eg, stressful life events, interpersonal difficulties) as important risk factors for FND. Therefore, there is a need to integrate psychosocial (environmental) and neurobiological factors (eg, sensorimotor and cognitive functions) in contemporary models of FND...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450225/neuropsychiatric-profile-and-psychotropic-medication-use-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-from-the-australian-longitudinal-study-of-adults-with-autism
#10
Rachael C Cvejic, Samuel R C Arnold, Kitty-Rose Foley, Julian N Trollor
Background: Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are a highly medicated group. Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric profile and patterns of psychotropic medication use among adults with ASD. Aims: To describe and compare the neuropsychiatric profile and psychotropic medication use in a cohort of adults with ASD and non-autistic controls. Method: Baseline data from a survey-based, longitudinal study of adults with ASD in Australia...
November 2018: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446416/disease-burden-and-government-spending-on-mental-neurological-and-substance-use-disorders-and-self-harm-cross-sectional-ecological-study-of-health-system-response-in-the-americas
#11
Daniel V Vigo, Devora Kestel, Krishna Pendakur, Graham Thornicroft, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Disorders affecting mental health are highly prevalent, can be disabling, and are associated with substantial premature mortality. Yet national health system responses are frequently under-resourced, inefficient, and ineffective, leading to an imbalance between disease burden and health expenditures. We estimated the disease burden in the Americas caused by disorders affecting mental health. This measure was adjusted to include mental, neurological, and behavioural disorders that are frequently not included in estimates of mental health burden...
November 13, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30440719/blowfly-yaw-control-via-electrical-stimulation-of-the-h1-lobula-plate-tangential-cell
#12
Rhys D Williams, Travis L Massey, Michel M Maharbiz
Eliciting predictable flight responses in insects via exogenous stimulation of the nervous system is an area of both scientific and engineering interest. Blowflies in particular possess an excellent biological flight control system, making them an ideal system for characterising responses to stimulation. Here we demonstrate a means of electrically controlling Calliphoridae-Protophormia terranovae wing behaviour, generating a repeatable yaw response via biphasic electrical stimulation of the H1 lobula plate tangential cell (LPTC)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430377/left-sided-infective-endocarditis-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-rare-and-serious
#13
Radka Ivanova-Georgieva, Josefa Ruiz-Morales, Emilio García-Cabrera, María Victoria García-López, Juan Gálvez-Acebal, Antonio Plata-Ciezar, Javier de la Torre Lima, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio, Francisco Javier Martínez-Marcos, David Vinuesa García, Rafael Luque, Arístides de Alarcón González
A comparative study of the behaviour of left-sided infective endocarditis (left-sided IE) due to Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) with left-sided IE caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA). A prospective, multicentre cohort study in eight public hospitals in Spain, from January 1984 to December 2015; comparative analysis and factors associated with mortality. In total, there were 1754 episodes of left-sided IE; 41 (2.3%) caused by GBS vs. 344 (19.6%) due to SA, definitive IE 39 vs. 324 cases, males, 25 vs. 213, respectively...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429282/tapping-into-the-treasures-of-tubulin-using-novel-protein-production-methods
#14
REVIEW
Nuo Yu, Niels Galjart
Microtubules are cytoskeletal elements with important cellular functions, whose dynamic behaviour and properties are in part regulated by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The building block of microtubules is tubulin, a heterodimer of α- and β-tubulin subunits. Longitudinal interactions between tubulin dimers facilitate a head-to-tail arrangement of dimers into protofilaments, while lateral interactions allow the formation of a hollow microtubule tube that mostly contains 13 protofilaments. Highly homologous α- and β-tubulin isotypes exist, which are encoded by multi-gene families...
November 14, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423163/acute-psychosis-and-wilson-s-disease
#15
Sagnik Biswas, Samagra Agarwal, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas
Wilson's Disease is an inborn error of metabolism associated with accumulation of copper in the body manifesting as hepatic, neurological and behavioural symptoms. Almost 20% patients initially present with behavioural symptoms such as depression, personality changes or even mania. Schizophrenia and catatonia are less common. We describe the case of a 35 year old female with behavioural abnormalities diagnosed as a case of Schizophrenia and started on antipsychotics, which led to further worsening of her primary complaints...
November 13, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418586/how-right-hemisphere-damage-after-stroke-can-impair-speech-comprehension
#16
Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Diego L Lorca-Puls, Thomas M H Hope, Oiwi Parker Jones, Mohamed L Seghier, Susan Prejawa, Jennifer T Crinion, Alex P Leff, David W Green, Cathy J Price
Acquired language disorders after stroke are strongly associated with left hemisphere damage. When language difficulties are observed in the context of right hemisphere strokes, patients are usually considered to have atypical functional anatomy. By systematically integrating behavioural and lesion data from brain damaged patients with functional MRI data from neurologically normal participants, we investigated when and why right hemisphere strokes cause language disorders. Experiment 1 studied right-handed patients with unilateral strokes that damaged the right (n = 109) or left (n = 369) hemispheres...
December 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417416/evidence-supporting-dual-process-theory-of-medical-diagnosis-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#17
Jerome I Rotgans, Henk G Schmidt, Lucy V Rosby, Gerald J S Tan, Silvia Mamede, Laura Zwaan, Naomi Low-Beer
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the dual-process theory of medical diagnosis enjoys neuroscientific support. To that end, the study explored whether neurological correlates of system-2 thinking could be located in the brain. It was hypothesised that system-2 thinking could be observed as the activation of the prefrontal cortex. METHOD: An experimental paradigm was applied that consisted of a learning and a test phase. During the learning phase, 22 medical students were trained in diagnosing chest X-rays...
September 26, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412819/use-of-coping-strategies-in-multiple-sclerosis-association-with-demographic-and-disease-related-characteristics-%C3%A2
#18
D P Holland, D K Schlüter, C A Young, R J Mills, D J Rog, H L Ford, K Orchard
BACKGROUND: Coping positively and negatively influences psychosocial and other outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is conflicting evidence about the use of different coping strategies and their associations with demographic and disease characteristics. Our aims were to examine which coping strategies are used by a large sample of people with MS, then to identify any associations between demographic and disease related factors with use of individual coping strategies. METHODS: Participants in the Trajectories of Outcomes in Neurological Conditions (TONiC) study completed the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE60) questionnaire...
October 22, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408744/generation-of-two-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-lines-from-a-mucopolysaccharydosis-iiib-mpsiiib-patient
#19
Sara Vallejo-Diez, Aarne Fleischer, José María Martín-Fernández, Almudena Sánchez-Gilabert, Daniel Bachiller
Mucopolysaccharydosis IIIB is the second most frequent form of Sanfilippo syndrome, a degenerative, pediatric lysosomal storage disease (LSD) characterized by severe neurological disorders and death. We have generated two iPSCs lines derived from dermal fibroblast from a MPSIIIB homozygous (P358L) donor. Cells were reprogrammed with OriP/EBNA1-based episomal plasmids containing: OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28, BCL-xL and shp53. Both cell lines are homozygous for the P358L mutation of the α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) gene, have normal karyotype, are free of plasmid integration, express high levels of pluripotency-associated markers and can differentiate into the three germ layers...
November 1, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408067/exploring-resting-state-functional-connectivity-invariants-across-the-lifespan-in-healthy-people-by-means-of-a-recently-proposed-graph-theoretical-model
#20
Paolo Finotelli, Ottavia Dipasquale, Isa Costantini, Alessia Pini, Francesca Baglio, Giuseppe Baselli, Paolo Dulio, Mara Cercignani
In this paper we investigate the changes in the functional connectivity intensity, and some related properties, in healthy people, across the life span and at resting state. For the explicit computation of the functional connectivity we exploit a recently proposed model, that bases not only on the correlations data provided by the acquisition equipment, but also on different parameters, such as the anatomical distances between nodes and their degrees. The leading purpose of the paper is to show that the proposed approach is able to recover the main aspects of resting state condition known from the available literature, as well as to suggest new insights, perspectives and speculations from a neurobiological point of view...
2018: PloS One
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