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behavioural neurology

Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Yeong Yeh Lee
Aspartame (NutraSweet®, Equal®) is a widely used artificial sweetener, has been reported to be accountable for neurological and behavioural disturbances in people. Upon ingestion, aspartame is hydrolyzed in gut and provides its metabolite; such as essential amino acid phenylalanine (Phy) (50%), aspartic acid (40%), and methanol (10%). Altered brain neurochemical compositions [such as dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT)] have long been a concern and being involved in observed neurophysiological symptom (such as headaches, memory loss, mood changes, as well as depression) in aspartame consumers...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Nadir Ali, Muhammad Shaban Rafi, Muhammad Sikander Ghayas Khan, Uzma Mahfooz
Aphasia is considered as an acquired neurological disorder of communication, which is characterised by the symptoms on all levels of language dysfunction. The current study was planned to explore the outcomes of script training in a patient with Broca's aphasia through quantitative approach using a single-subject-multiple-baseline research design across behaviours. The probes were obtained during the baseline, treatment, maintenance and generalisation phases for tracking the spoken use of scripted content. All the probes were transcribed verbatim and no value of Cohen's Kappa Coefficient (K) was below 0...
July 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sara Hussain, Khulood Al Jarman, Sahar Hussain
A young man previously diagnosed with Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) presented with abnormal behaviour over the last 8 days. This included decreased sleeping hours and appetite, hypersexuality, aggressiveness and visual hallucinations. All blood tests and investigations in the emergency department yielded normal results. A preliminary diagnosis of a KLS episode with psychosis was made and the patient was started on a regimen of aripiprazole 10 mg once daily along with lorazepam 2 mg intravenously in two divided doses in the event of agitation or insomnia...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Zheheng Jiang, Danny Crookes, Brian D Green, Yunfeng Zhao, Haiping Ma, Ling Li, Shengping Zhang, Dacheng Tao, Huiyu Zhou
Automated recognition of mouse behaviours is crucial in studying psychiatric and neurologic diseases. To achieve this objective, it is very important to analyse temporal dynamics of mouse behaviours. In particular, the change between mouse neighbouring actions is swift in a short period. In this paper, we develop and implement a novel Hidden Markov Model (HMM) algorithm to describe the temporal characteristics of mouse behaviours. In particular, we here propose a hybrid deep learning architecture, where the first unsupervised layer relies on an advanced spatial-temporal segment Fisher Vector (SFV) encoding both visual and contextual features...
October 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Suraiya Saleem, Rajaretinam Rajesh Kannan
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is emerging as an increasingly successful model for translational research on human neurological disorders. In this review, we appraise the high degree of neurological and behavioural resemblance of zebrafish with humans. It is highly validated as a powerful vertebrate model for investigating human neurodegenerative diseases. The neuroanatomic and neurochemical pathways of zebrafish brain exhibit a profound resemblance with the human brain. Physiological, emotional and social behavioural pattern similarities between them have also been well established...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Irene Toldo, Valeria Brasson, Marina Miscioscia, Maria Federica Pelizza, Renzo Manara, Stefano Sartori, Giulia Mantegazza, Marilena Vecchi, Margherita Nosadini, Michela Gatta
AIM: We aimed to study tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) in children and adolescents with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHOD: Retrospective and prospective cohort study conducted at a Paediatric Neurology Unit of an Italian Tertiary Care Hospital. Clinical and neuroimaging data were reviewed. Scores for neurological and epilepsy outcomes (Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, Paediatric Version and Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale modified), semi-structured interviews (authorized Italian version of the TAND checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) and questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) were applied at last follow-up...
October 9, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Angela O'Rourke, Emma Power, Robyn O'Halloran, Rachael Rietdijk
BACKGROUND: Communication partner training (CPT) programmes for health and care staff working with people with the neurologically based communication disorders associated with stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dementia are efficacious in improving communication. However, current programmes are lengthy and disorder specific, and therefore may not be suitable as staff training tools in environments with people with multiple communication disorders, and services with a variety of neurological populations...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Clément Chollat, Loic Sentilhes, Stéphane Marret
Cerebral palsy (CP) remains the most significant neurological disorder associated with preterm birth. It disrupts quality of life and places huge cost burdens on society. Antenatal magnesium sulphate administration to females before 32 weeks' gestation has proven to be an effective intervention to reduce the rate of CP. In models of hypoxia, hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation, and excitotoxicity in various animal species, magnesium sulphate preconditioning decreased the resulting lesion sizes and inflammatory cytokine levels, prevented cell death, and improved long-term cognitive and motor behaviours...
October 7, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
N Toschi, R Riccelli, I Indovina, A Terracciano, L Passamonti
A key objective of the emerging field of personality neuroscience is to link the great variety of the enduring dispositions of human behaviour with reliable markers of brain function. This can be achieved by analyzing large sets of data with methods that model whole-brain connectivity patterns. To meet these expectations, we exploited a large repository of personality and neuroimaging measures made publicly available via the Human Connectome Project. Using connectomic analyses based on graph theory, we computed global and local indices of functional connectivity (e...
2018: Personality neuroscience
Sara Palermo, Leonardo Lopiano, Rosalba Morese, Maurizio Zibetti, Alberto Romagnolo, Mario Stanziano, Mario Giorgio Rizzone, Giuliano Carlo Geminiani, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Martina Amanzio
Objectives: The detection of dyskinesias-reduced-self-awareness (DRSA), in Parkinson's disease (PD), was previously associated to executive and metacognitive deficits mainly due to dopaminergic overstimulation of mesocorticolimbic circuits. Response-inhibition dysfunction is often observed in PD. Apart from being engaged in response-inhibition tasks, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is part of a functional system based on self-awareness and engaged across cognitive, affective and behavioural contexts. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between response-inhibition disabilities and DRSA using whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), over the course of a specific executive task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Soyoung Kim, Stephen R Jackson, Maddie Groom, Georgina M Jackson
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurological condition characterised by an evolving repertoire of chronic motor tics and one or more phonic tics. Tics, like habits, are inflexible and repetitive behaviours that are acquired over a period of time. It has been proposed that tics arise in TS as a result of increased habit learning: which may bias the child to acquire automatic behaviours (i.e., tics) more readily than is normal and make it harder to unlearn maladaptive habits once they have been acquired...
September 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Maria Santos-Galdiano, Diego Perez-Rodriguez, Berta Anuncibay-Soto, Enrique Font-Belmonte, Irene F Ugidos, Carlos Cesar Perez-Garcia, Arsenio Fernandez-Lopez
BACKGROUND: Areas of selective neuronal loss (SNL) represent the first morphological signs of damage in the penumbra region and are considered putative targets for ischemic stroke therapy. Here we performed a novel assessment of measuring the effects of the anti-inflammatory agent, celecoxib, analyzing simultaneously the different neural populations (neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells) in SNL and non-SNL areas. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and treated with celecoxib 1 h and 24 h after ischemia...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Orrin Devinsky, Jordyn M Boesch, Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez, Barbara Coffey, Kathryn Davis, Daniel Friedman, Brian Hainline, Katherine Houpt, Daniel Lieberman, Pamela Perry, Harald Prüss, Martin A Samuels, Gary W Small, Holger Volk, Artur Summerfield, Charles Vite, Thomas Wisniewski, Barbara Natterson-Horowitz
Structural and functional elements of biological systems are highly conserved across vertebrates. Many neurological and psychiatric conditions affect both humans and animals. A cross-species approach to the study of brain and behaviour can advance our understanding of human disorders via the identification of unrecognized natural models of spontaneous disorders, thus revealing novel factors that increase vulnerability or resilience, and via the assessment of potential therapies. Moreover, diagnostic and therapeutic advances in human neurology and psychiatry can often be adapted for veterinary patients...
October 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Paula M Herrera, Alberto Vélez Van Meerbeke, Olivier Bonnot
Some diseases secondary to inborn errors of metabolism are associated with psychiatric disorders or minor neurological symptoms. The existence of some cases with exclusively psychiatric symptoms represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this article is to describe seven treatable neurometabolic disorders that should be taken into account in the psychiatric consultation as they manifest with psychiatric symptoms that mask the organic origin of the disorder. Homocysteine metabolism and urea cycle disorders, Wilson's disease, Niemann-Pick disease Type C, acute porphyria and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis are described...
October 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Xuefei Yang, Mariana B Alonso, Erli Schneider Costa, João Paulo M Torres, Olaf Malm, Damià Barceló, Ethel Eljarrat
Eight PBDE congeners, three emerging brominated flame retardants, five dechloranes and eight MeO-PBDEs were monitored in tissues (muscular, adipose, brain) and fur of southern elephant seal and Antarctic fur seal of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula. Total PBDEs and total dechloranes concentrations ranged between n.d.-6 ng/g lw. While PBDEs were not detected in brain tissue, Dec 602 was found in brain tissue of both seal species indicating that dechloranes -with potential neurological toxicity- could cross the blood-brain barrier...
September 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yann Nadjar, Ana Lucia Hütter-Moncada, Philippe Latour, Xavier Ayrignac, Elsa Kaphan, Christine Tranchant, Pascal Cintas, Adrian Degardin, Cyril Goizet, Chloe Laurencin, Lionel Martzolff, Caroline Tilikete, Mathieu Anheim, Bertrand Audoin, Vincent Deramecourt, Thierry Dubard De Gaillarbois, Emmanuel Roze, Foudil Lamari, Marie T Vanier, Bénédicte Héron
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal lipid storage disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. The clinical presentation and evolution of NP-C and the effect of miglustat treatment are described in the largest cohort of patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C studied to date. METHODS: Observational study based on clinical chart data from adult patients with NP-C (> 18 year old) diagnosed in France between 1990 and 2015...
October 1, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Kimaya Sarmukadam, Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Mary M E McMillan, Linda L Agnew
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting about 1 in 100 children and is currently incurable. ASD represents a challenge to traditional methods of assessment and diagnosis, and it has been suggested that direct measures of brain activity and connectivity between brain regions during demanding tasks represents a potential pathway to building more accurate models of underlying brain function and ASD. One of the key behavioural diagnostic indicators of ASD consists of sensory features (SF), often characterised by over- or under-reactivity to environmental stimuli...
October 1, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Kerstin J Olbrich, Dirk Müller, Sarah Schumacher, Ekkehard Beck, Kinga Meszaros, Florian Koerber
INTRODUCTION: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD, septicaemia and/or meningitis) has a severe acute and long-term burden: 5-10% of patients die within 48 h, and long-term sequelae have been reported in 10-20% of survivors. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly but inconsistently assessed. METHODS: A systematic literature review on Neisseria meningitidis IMD sequelae and HRQoL in survivors of all ages and their caregivers, including family, was conducted for high-income countries from 2001 to 2016 (in Medline and Embase, following Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines)...
September 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Caterina Galandra, Gianpaolo Basso, Marina Manera, Chiara Crespi, Ines Giorgi, Giovanni Vittadini, Paolo Poggi, Nicola Canessa
The neural bases of cognitive impairment(s) in alcohol use disorders (AUDs) might reflect either a global brain damage underlying different neuro-cognitive alterations, or the involvement of specific regions mostly affected by alcohol neuro-toxic effects. While voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) studies have shown a distributed atrophic pattern in fronto-limbic and cerebellar structures, the lack of comprehensive neuro-cognitive assessments prevents previous studies from drawing robust inferences on the specificity of the association between neuro-structural and cognitive impairments in AUDs...
September 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bruno Bordoni, Bruno Morabito
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most debilitating and common gastrointestinal disorders; nevertheless, its pathophysiology is still unclear. It affects 11% of the world's population, and is characterized by alternating periods of pain and/or motility disorders with periods of remission and without any evidence of any structural and functional organic variation. It has been recently proposed that an altered contractile ability of the diaphragm muscle might adversely influence intestinal motility...
July 23, 2018: Curēus
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