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Fabien B Vincent, Emily Lin, Joanne Sahhar, Gene-Siew Ngian, Rangi Kandane-Rathnayake, Rachel Mende, Alberta Y Hoi, Eric F Morand, Tali Lang, James Harris
Objectives: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), members of the same cytokine superfamily, are linked to the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate their clinical relevance in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods: Serum MIF and DDT were quantified in 105 SSc patients by ELISA and levels compared to healthy controls (HC) (47) and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (184)...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Alexandra Lenoir, Jean-William Fitting, Pedro-Manuel Marques-Vidal, Peter Vollenweider, Laurent P Nicod
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function predicts increased mortality, but its prevalence may vary depending on definition considered, use of bronchodilation and applied reference values. We aimed to assess lung function abnormalities in Lausanne, Switzerland, and their association with clinical history. METHODS: In a general population sample, spirometry was performed and bronchodilation applied if the ratio forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) or the FVC was below the lower limit of normal (LLN) according to Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 references...
December 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
Alexa Núñez, Cristina Esquinas, Miriam Barrecheguren, Myriam Calle, Ricard Casamor, Marc Miravitlles
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of morning symptoms in COPD using the Capacity of Daily Living during the Morning (CDLM) questionnaire and to determine the clinical variables that are related to CDLM scores. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, and multicenter study conducted in stable COPD patients. CDLM scores ranged from 0 to 5 and were transformed into a qualitative variable according to tertile values to compare patient characteristics...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Han Ni, Soe Moe, Zay Soe, Kay Thi Myint, K Neelakantan Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Several dual bronchodilator combinations of long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) have been approved for treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) recommendations suggest the use of LABA/LAMA combinations in people with group B COPD with persistent symptoms, group C COPD with further exacerbations on LAMA therapy alone and group D COPD with or without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)...
December 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Juan José Soler-Cataluña, Maribel Marzo, Pablo Catalán, Cristina Miralles, Bernardino Alcazar, Marc Miravitlles
Background: It has recently been proposed that the concept of clinical control in COPD may be useful for deciding treatment in COPD, but the original control criteria (OCC) were considered too restrictive. Objective: Define and subsequently validate "modified" control criteria (MCC) of COPD. Method: Prospective observational study in COPD patients with a 1-year follow-up. Control was defined as the presence of low clinical impact and clinical stability...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Yuji Oba, Edna Keeney, Namratta Ghatehorde, Sofia Dias
BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilators such as long-acting β-agonist (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) combinations have been used in people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to control symptoms such as dyspnoea and cough, and prevent exacerbations. A number of LABA/LAMA combinations are now available for clinical use in COPD. However, it is not clear which group of above mentioned inhalers is most effective or if any specific formulation works better than the others within the same group or class...
December 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Evangelos Bouros, Vassilios Protogerou, Ourania Castana, Georgios Vasilopoulos
Introduction: Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system. Aim: The purpose of this research is to examine the function of the respiratory system of wind instrumentalists. Material and methods: Thirty-two adult professional musicians from two philharmonic bands (Piraeus and Zografou Municipality) participated in the survey. Each participant, after completing a questionnaire given, went through two spirometric tests, one before and one after the rehearsal...
October 2018: Materia Socio-medica
Olga Archangelidi, Siobhán B Carr, Nicholas J Simmonds, Diana Bilton, Winston Banya, Paul Cullinan
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for respiratory failure and airway clearance is an established intervention in cystic fibrosis (CF), but its therapeutic benefit on lung function and survival remains under-investigated. METHODS: Using data from the UK CF Registry between 2007 and 2015, we explored the patterns of NIV use, and assessed changes in mean percent predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1 ) prior to and after NIV use, and the survival of patients on NIV. RESULTS: Among 11,079 patients, 1107 had at least one record of NIV treatment...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Rebecca M Schwartz, Wil Lieberman-Cribbin, Andrea Wolf, Raja M Flores, Emanuela Taioli
BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on quality of life (QoL) after treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). There are still questions as to which surgical procedure, extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or pleurectomy decortication (P/D) is most effective and results in better survival outcomes, involves fewer complications, and results in better QoL. Here we performed a literature review on MPM patients to assess and compare QoL changes after P/D and EPP. METHODS: Research articles concerning QoL after mesothelioma surgery were identified through May 2018 in Medline...
November 29, 2018: BMC Cancer
Bruce J Kirenga, Rebecca Nantanda, Corina de Jong, Levicatus Mugenyi, Qingyu Meng, Gilbert Aniku, Sian Williams, Hellen Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Moses Kamya, Stephan Schwander, Thys van der Molen, Vahid Mohsenin
Air pollution is a major cause of sub-optimal lung function and lung diseases in childhood and adulthood. In this study we compared the lung function (measured by spirometry) of 537 Ugandan children, mean age 11.1 years in sites with high (Kampala and Jinja) and low (Buwenge) ambient air pollution levels, based on the concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5 ). Factors associated with lung function were explored in a multiple linear regression model. PM2.5 level in Kampala, Jinja and Buwenge were 177...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lori Mendelsohn, Christiaan Wijers, Ritika Gupta, Nadzeya Marozkina, Chun Li, Benjamin Gaston
OBJECTIVES: Oxygen tension affects the biology of aerobic and denitrifying organisms. Using a novel, fast-response sensor, we developed a noninvasive procedure to measure pO2 in distal human airways. We hypothesized that distal pO2 would be low in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the fraction of expired oxygen (FEO2 ) in real time using a fast laser diode analyzer in healthy subjects and in patients with CF, asthma, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD)...
November 28, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Angela Koutsokera, Rhea A Varughese, Jenna Sykes, Ani Orchanian-Cheff, Prakesh S Shah, Cecilia Chaparro, Elizabeth Tullis, Lianne G Singer, Anne L Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Mortality risk stratification is essential in lung transplantation (LTx) to allow listing, prioritization and mitigating strategies. In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, predictors of post-LTx mortality are not established. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, seven databases were searched until January 3, 2018 to identify predictors of post-LTx mortality in CF. We excluded studies of multi-organ transplantation, re-transplantation and graft survival...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Carlos Antonio Amado, Maria Teresa García-Unzueta, Bernardo Alio Lavin, Armando Raúl Guerra, Juan Agüero, Laura Ramos, Pedro Muñoz
BACKGROUND: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), low muscle mass has been associated with several clinical outcomes such as low exercise capacity, hospital admission, and mortality. The Sarcopenia Index (SI) is a novel way to estimate muscle mass based on the ratio of serum creatinine (produced exclusively by muscle)/cystatin C (produced by all nucleated body cells). OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the SI in stable COPD outpatients, as compared with a healthy control group, to quantify its relationship with several important clinical features in COPD, and to study its potential usefulness to predict COPD exacerbations and hospital admissions...
November 27, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Berne Eriksson, Helena Backman, Linda Ekerljung, Malin Axelsson, Anne Lindberg, Eva Rönmark, Bo Lundbäck
Cardiovascular diseases are the most common comorbidities in COPD, due to common risk factors such as smoking. The prevalence of current smokers in Sweden has decreased over four decades to around 10%. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution and associations of cardiovascular comorbidities in COPD by disease severity in two large areas of Sweden, both with low-smoking prevalence. Data from clinical examinations in 2009-2012, including spirometry and structured interview, from two large-scale population studies, the West Sweden Asthma Study (WSAS) and the OLIN Studies in Northern Sweden, were pooled...
November 26, 2018: COPD
Fernanda C Lanza, Rejane A S Castro, Anderson A de Camargo, Drielly J M Zanatta, Samia Rached, Rodrigo Athanazio, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach, Simone Dal Corso
The COPD assessment test (CAT) is a short questionnaire developed to help patients and clinicians to assess the impact of symptoms in routine clinical practice. We aimed to validate and to test the reproducibility of CAT in patients with bronchiectasis and correlate with the severity of dyspnea, aerobic and functional capacity, and physical activity in daily life. This is a cross-sectional study, patients with bronchiectasis underwent spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), Saint George`s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and received pedometer...
November 23, 2018: COPD
Yuliana Pascual-González, Marta López-Sánchez, Jordi Dorca, Salud Santos
COPD is characterized by a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory process. Several authors have reported the elevation of multiple inflammatory markers in patients with COPD; however, their use in routine clinical practice has limitations. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a useful and cost-effective inflammatory marker derived from routine complete blood count. We performed a systematic literature review using the PRISMA statement. Twenty-two articles were included, recruiting 7,601 COPD patients and 784 healthy controls...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Allison A Lambert, Surya P Bhatt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current respiratory society guidelines recommend confirming the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with demonstration of airflow obstruction on spirometry. However, multiple recent studies have demonstrated that smokers without overt airflow obstruction on spirometry, termed symptomatic smokers, have evidence of structural lung disease on imaging, have a substantial symptom burden, and also suffer respiratory exacerbations. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology of symptomatic smokers, and address issues of screening and diagnosis, evaluation, and management considerations...
November 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Luigi Santambrogio, Paolo Tarsia, Paolo Mendogni, Davide Tosi
Lung transplantation (LTx) in advanced stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with significant improvement in lung function and exercise capacity. However, demonstration that the procedure also provides a survival benefit has been more elusive compared to other respiratory conditions. Identification of patients with increased risk of mortality is crucial: a low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) is perhaps the most common reason for referral to a lung transplant center, but in itself is insufficient to identify which COPD patients will benefit from LTx...
October 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Almerico Marruchella, Paola Faverio, Giulia Bonaiti, Alberto Pesci
Lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures for emphysematous patients were firstly introduced in the second half of the twentieth century. Over time, from the first invasive surgical procedures, new less invasive techniques have been conceived. In regards to the surgical approach, the adoption of VATS and the execution, in selected centers, of a non-resectional approach, with folding of less functional lung tissue, reduced mortality and adverse events risks. As regards to the bronchoscopic approach, endobronchial valves (EBV) and intrabronchial valves (IBV) were initially proposed in the early 2000s to obtain segmental or lobar atelectasis of the more compromised lung parenchyma...
October 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Ian S Mudway, Isobel Dundas, Helen E Wood, Nadine Marlin, Jeenath B Jamaludin, Stephen A Bremner, Louise Cross, Andrew Grieve, Alex Nanzer, Ben M Barratt, Sean Beevers, David Dajnak, Gary W Fuller, Anna Font, Grainne Colligan, Aziz Sheikh, Robert Walton, Jonathan Grigg, Frank J Kelly, Tak H Lee, Chris J Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Low emission zones (LEZ) are an increasingly common, but unevaluated, intervention aimed at improving urban air quality and public health. We investigated the impact of London's LEZ on air quality and children's respiratory health. METHODS: We did a sequential annual cross-sectional study of 2164 children aged 8-9 years attending primary schools between 2009-10 and 2013-14 in central London, UK, following the introduction of London's LEZ in February, 2008...
November 14, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
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