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Alejandra L Collopy, Shiqian Ding, Yewei Wu, Ian A Finneran, Loïc Anderegg, Benjamin L Augenbraun, John M Doyle, Jun Ye
We report three-dimensional trapping of an oxide molecule (YO), using a radio-frequency magneto-optical trap (MOT). The total number of molecules trapped is ∼1.5×10^{4}, with a temperature of 4.1(5) mK. This diversifies the frontier of molecules that are laser coolable and paves the way for the second-stage narrow-line cooling in this molecule to the microkelvin regime. Futhermore, the new challenges of creating a 3D MOT of YO resolved here indicate that MOTs of more complex nonlinear molecules should be feasible as well...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jun Inoue, Noriyuki Satoh
Identification of orthologous or paralogous relationships of coding genes is fundamental to all aspects of comparative genomics. For accurate identification of orthologs among deeply diversified bilaterian lineages, precise estimation of gene trees is indispensable, given the complicated histories of genes over millions of years. By estimating gene trees, orthologs can be identified as members of an orthogroup, a set of genes descended from a single gene in the last common ancestor of all the species being considered...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Carolina Palomino-Camargo, Yuniesky González-Muñoz, Elevina Pérez-Sira, Victor Hugo Aguilar
This review assesses the Delphi methodology as an expert consulting technique in the area of Public Health, particularly with a focus on food safety management and prevention of foodborne diseases, providing researchers with methodological information for its use. The data was compiled during January-August 2017 in the databases of Scopus, Medline, and Scielo. It was evidenced that, with the technological advances, the method shows an upturn, obtaining results in less time and cost of process, and a greater reach to distant experts, diversifying its applicability in Food Safety and ATS prevention...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Eileen M Harwood, Amy R Jones, Darin Erickson, Dedra Buchwald, Japera Johnson-Hemming, Harlan P Jones, Spero Manson, Richard McGee, Ann Smith, Clifford J Steer, Jamboor K Vishwanatha, Anne M Weber-Main, Kolawole S Okuyemi
A hallmark of success for early career biomedical researchers is the acquisition of research funding. There are marked disparities among principal investigators who submit grants and the likelihood of receiving national funding. The National Research Mentoring Network was funded by the National Institutes of Health to diversify the biomedical research workforce and included grantsmanship training for early career researchers. Self-efficacy in developing research grant applications is significantly improved over time with training and experience...
December 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
M Laura Mascotti, Hemant Kumar, Quoc-Thai Nguyen, Maximiliano Juri Ayub, Marco W Fraaije
During the last decade the number of characterized F420 -dependent enzymes has significantly increased. Many of these deazaflavoproteins share a TIM-barrel fold and are structurally related to FMN-dependent luciferases and monooxygenases. In this work, we traced the origin and evolutionary history of the F420 -dependent enzymes within the luciferase-like superfamily. By a thorough phylogenetic analysis we inferred that the F420 -dependent enzymes emerged from a FMN-dependent common ancestor. Furthermore, the data show that during evolution, the family of deazaflavoproteins split into two well-defined groups of enzymes: the F420 -dependent dehydrogenases and the F420 -dependent reductases...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Taylor Beard, Tai Maaz, Kristy Borrelli, James Harsh, William Pan
Raindrop-induced crusting of mineral soils supporting wheat ( L.) in the semiarid US Pacific Northwest reduces seedling establishment of late summer-seeded winter crops during dry, hot conditions. Canola ( L.) integration is diversifying regional food, feed and fuel global markets. Subsequent shifts in recycled crop residue characteristics, including Si and crop fiber, may shift soil characteristics of traditional wheat-dominated systems, potentially affecting their propensity to form soil crusts. In a greenhouse study, wheat and canola were fertilized with varying N rates...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Farron McIntee, Kendra R Evans, Jeanne M Andreoli, Abigail J Fusaro, Melanie Hwalek, Ambika Mathur, Andrew L Feig
For many college students, joining a research group is a critical step toward developing strong mentor-mentee relationships that help shape their science identities and research self-efficacy. ReBUILDetroit, a program that seeks to diversify the biomedical research workforce, uses a scaffolded process to help its scholars transition into research. The first-year curriculum includes a research methods course and a course-based undergraduate research experience that prepare ReBUILDetroit Scholars for entering a research group...
2018: Scholarship and practice of undergraduate research
Shuying Zhu, Zhitao Niu, Qingyun Xue, Hui Wang, Xuezhu Xie, Xiaoyu Ding
Owing to its great medicinal and ornamental values, Dendrobium officinale is frequently adulterated with other Dendrobium species on the market. Unfortunately, the utilization of the common DNA markers ITS, ITS2, and matK + rbcL is unable to distinguish D. officinale from 5 closely related species of it ( D. tosaense , D. shixingense , D. flexicaule , D. scoriarum and D. aduncum ). Here, we compared 63 Dendrobium plastomes comprising 40 newly sequenced plastomes of the 6 species and 23 previously published plastomes...
October 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Menglin Wang, Aleš Buček, Jan Šobotník, David Sillam-Dussès, Theodore A Evans, Yves Roisin, Nathan Lo, Thomas Bourguignon
Termites are the principal decomposers in tropical and subtropical ecosystems around the world. Time-calibrated molecular phylogenies show that some lineages of Neoisoptera diversified during the Oligocene and Miocene, and acquired their pantropical distribution through transoceanic dispersal events, probably by rafting in wood. In this paper, we intend to resolve the historical biogeography of one of the earliest branching lineages of Neoisoptera, the Rhinotermitinae. We used the mitochondrial genomes of 27 species of Rhinotermitinae to build two robust time-calibrated phylogenetic trees that we used to reconstruct the ancestral distribution of the group...
November 29, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ben D Cox, Alessandro De Simone, Valerie A Tornini, Sumeet P Singh, Stefano Di Talia, Kenneth D Poss
Osteoblasts are matrix-depositing cells that can divide and heal bone injuries. Their deep-tissue location and the slow progression of bone regeneration challenge attempts to capture osteoblast behaviors in live tissue at high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we have developed an imaging platform to monitor and quantify individual and collective behaviors of osteoblasts in adult zebrafish scales, skeletal body armor discs that regenerate rapidly after loss. Using a panel of transgenic lines that visualize and manipulate osteoblasts, we find that a founder pool of osteoblasts emerges through de novo differentiation within one day of scale plucking...
November 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Aesha Desai, Sandra Geraghty, Delphine Dean
Experimental measurements of cellular mechanical properties have shown large variability in whole-cell mechanical properties between cells from a single population. This heterogeneity has been observed in many cell populations and with several measurement techniques but the sources are not yet fully understood. Cell mechanical properties are directly related to the composition and organization of the cytoskeleton, which is physically coupled to neighboring cells through adherens junctions and to underlying matrix through focal adhesion complexes...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Te Wu, Feng Fu, Long Wang
We study the coevolutionary dynamics of the diversity of phenotype and the evolution of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma. Rather than pre-assigning zero-or-one interaction rate, we diversify the rate of interaction by associating it with phenotypes. Individuals each carry a set of potentially expressible traits and expresses a number of such traits at a cost proportional to the number. The set of traits expressed constitutes phenotype. Phenotypes and thus the rate of interaction are evolvable over time...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Carlo Piccardi, Lucia Tajoli
Trade networks, across which countries distribute their products, are crucial components of the globalized world economy. Their structure affects the mechanism of propagation of shocks from country to country, as observed in a very sharp way in the past decade, characterized by economic uncertainty in many parts of the world. Such trade structures are strongly heterogeneous across products, given the different features of the countries which buy and sell goods. By using a diversified pool of indicators from network science and product complexity theory, we quantitatively demonstrate that, overall, products with higher complexity-i...
2018: PloS One
Tomoaki Taniguchi, Akira Tsubouchi, Yuki Imai, Junpei Yuasa, Hiroki Oguri
As an effort to integrate natural products chemistry and coordination chemistry, a diastereomeric pair of chiral alkaloidal manifolds composed of a bispyrrolidinoindoline (BPI) framework was designed and synthesized to generate luminescent EuIII complexes with switchable chiroptical properties. The C2-symmetric alkaloidal manifolds were linked with bis(benzimidazolyl)pyridine (BBIPy) as an achiral metal-binding component through substituents installed at the stereogenic 2/2' positions of the BPI manifolds. The resulting diastereomeric pair of ligands, syn-L1 and anti-L2, allow pseudo-mirror symmetrical presentation of the metal-binding BBIPy units due to the stereogenic centers on the alkaloidal manifold...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ching-Hsing Hsieh, Yung-Han Chang, Shu-Mei Wu
Healthcare providers use distinct medical terminology to communicate in professional healthcare settings in Taiwan. Moreover, nursing students understand the importance of acquiring a good command of this medical terminology to the development of their professional careers. Thus, using proper teaching strategies to boost student participation and interest in their studies is an important responsibility and task. Social Learning Theory has been widely used in education. According to this theory, learners learn about new models of behavior and modify old models through observation and imitation...
December 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Cédric Finet, Amélie Decaras, David Armisén, Abderrahman Khila
The semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) conquered water surfaces worldwide and diversified to occupy puddles, ponds, streams, lakes, mangroves and even oceans. Critical to this lifestyle is the evolution of sets of hairs that allow these insects to maintain their body weight on the water surface and protect the animals against wetting and drowning. In addition, the legs of these insects are equipped with various grooming combs that are important for cleaning and tidying the hair layers for optimal functional efficiency...
November 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Mohiuddin Mohiuddin, Terry John Evans, Md Maminur Rahman, Islam Shamima Keka, Masataka Tsuda, Hiroyuki Sasanuma, Shunichi Takeda
DNA damage tolerance (DDT) releases replication blockage caused by damaged nucleotides on template strands employing two alternative pathways, error-prone translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and error-free template switch (TS). Lys164 of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is SUMOylated during the physiological cell cycle. To explore the role for SUMOylation of PCNA in DDT, we characterized chicken DT40 and human TK6 B cells deficient in the PIAS1 and PIAS4 small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligases...
November 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Taylor Romenesko, Erik R Coats
  As water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) implement biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes to remove excess wastewater nutrients, carboxylic acid demands increase; resource recovery processes (e.g., struvite, polyhydroxyalkanoate production) also demand carboxylates. In this regard, interest in algae to achieve tertiary treatment creates a new intraWRRF fermentation substrate. Indeed, fermentation potential tests indicated that algal augmentation could prove beneficial; carboxylate concentrations increased 31 % over primary solids...
November 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Weihua Liu, Chunzhen Cheng, Fanglan Chen, Shanshan Ni, Yuling Lin, Zhongxiong Lai
BACKGROUND: Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses affecting the banana production. Although some miRNAs have been identified, little is known about the role of miRNAs in response to cold stress in banana, and up to date, there is no report about the role of miRNAs in the response to cold stress in the plants of the cultivated or wild bananas. RESULT: Here, a cold-resistant line wild banana (Musa itinerans) from China was used to profile the cold-responsive miRNAs by RNA-seq during cold stress...
November 29, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Hui Wang, Ling-Ling Shi, Jue Zhou, Guo-Ping Zhu
This research preliminarily discusses the relations of Dendrobium system growth through chloroplast gene rbcL, matK and the nuclear genome ITS2. The DNA barcoding universal sequence for authentication of the Dendrobium medical plants was slected and the possibility concerning utilizing the DNA barcoding to distinguish the D. huoshanenseand its adulterants was analyzed. Using the universal primer pair of ITS2, rbcL and matK, series of extended sequencing in the Dendrobium were conducted. Meanwhile, considering the different index about amplification and sequencing success rate of each sequence, the intraspecific and interspecific aberrance, the employment of BioEdit and MEGA 5...
October 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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