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Yi Shang, Sanwen Huang
A vast majority of structurally diverse metabolites play essential roles in mediating the interactions between plants and environments, and constitute a valuable resource for industrial applications. Recent breakthroughs in sequencing technology have greatly accelerated metabolic studies of plant natural products, providing opportunities to investigate the molecular basis underlying the diversity of plant specialized metabolites through large-scale analysis. Here, we focus on the biosynthesis of plant triterpenoids, especially the three diversifying reactions (cyclization, oxidation, and glycosylation) that largely contribute to the structural diversity of triterpenoids...
October 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Tao Yun, Jionggang Hua, Weicheng Ye, Bin Yu, Zheng Ni, Liu Chen, Cun Zhang
Duck reovirus (DRV), a member of the genus Orthoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, was first isolated from Muscovy ducks. The disease associated with DRV causes great economic losses to the duck industry. However, the responses of duck (Cairna moschata) to the classical/novel DRV (C/NDRV) infections are largely unknown. To reveal the relationship of pathogenesis and immune response, the proteomes of duck spleen cells under the control and C/NDRV infections were compared. In total, 5986 proteins were identified, of which 5389 proteins were quantified...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Angela Byars-Winston, Veronica Y Womack, Amanda R Butz, Richard McGee, Sandra C Quinn, Emily Utzerath, Carrie L Saetermoe, Stephen Thomas
Introduction: Innovative evidence-based-interventions are needed to equip research mentors with skills to address cultural diversity within research mentoring relationships. A pilot study assessed initial outcomes of a culturally tailored effort to create and disseminate a novel intervention titled Culturally Aware Mentoring (CAM) for research mentors. Intervention: Intervention development resulted in four products: a 6hr CAM training curriculum, a facilitator guide, an online pre-training module, and metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CAM training...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Science
C Kremen, A M Merenlender
How can we manage farmlands, forests, and rangelands to respond to the triple challenge of the Anthropocene-biodiversity loss, climate change, and unsustainable land use? When managed by using biodiversity-based techniques such as agroforestry, silvopasture, diversified farming, and ecosystem-based forest management, these socioeconomic systems can help maintain biodiversity and provide habitat connectivity, thereby complementing protected areas and providing greater resilience to climate change. Simultaneously, the use of these management techniques can improve yields and profitability more sustainably, enhancing livelihoods and food security...
October 19, 2018: Science
Tao Chen, Qiongfeng Shi, Minglu Zhu, Tianyiyi He, Lining Sun, Lei Yang, Chengkuo Lee
Triboelectric nanogenerators and sensors can be applied as human-machine interfaces to the next generation of intelligent and interactive products, where flexible tactile sensors exhibit great advantages for diversified applications such as robotic control. In this paper, we present a self-powered, flexible, triboelectric sensor (SFTS) patch for finger trajectory sensing and further apply the collected information for robotic control. This innovative sensor consists of flexible and environmentally friendly materials, i...
October 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Claudine Ménard, Mathilde Folacci, Lorène Brunello, Mercedes Charreton, Claude Collet, Rosanna Mary, Matthieu Rousset, Jean-Baptiste Thibaud, Michel Vignes, Pierre Charnet, Thierry Cens
In insects, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter and GABA-gated ion channels are the target of different classes of insecticides, including Fipronil. We report here the cloning of six subunits (4 RDL, 1 LCCH3 and 1 GRD) that constitute the repertoire of the GABA-gated ion channel family of the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor), a honeybee ectoparasite. We also isolated a truncated GRD subunit with a premature stop codon. We found that when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, three of the four RDL subunits (VdesRDL1, VdesRDL2 and VdesRDL3) formed functional, homomultimeric anionic receptors, whereas GRD and LCCH3 produced heteromultimeric cationic receptors...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lizhuang Liang, Feng Chen, Lei Shi, Shukui Niu
China harbors diversified forest types, from tropical rainforest to boreal coniferous forest, and has implemented large-scale reforestation/afforestation programs over the past several decades. However, little information is available on changes in China's forest area and the causes. In this study, we used the classified forest distribution thematic map derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets and a revised IPAT model to examine China's forest area change and the possible driving factors from 1982 to 2006...
2018: PloS One
Minglian Su, Yuanyang Nie, Ruocheng Shao, Shihao Duan, Youhui Jiang, Mingyue Wang, Zhichao Xing, Qun Sun, Xinghui Liu, Wenming Xu
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a high-risk pregnancy complication of great effect on the perinatal health of women and newborns, may cause changes of gut microbiota in mothers and further affect gut microbiota in newborns. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of mother GDM on newborns' gut microbiota. Meconium DNA was extracted from a total of 34 full-term and C-sectioned newborns, in which 20 newborns had mothers diagnosed with GDM, while 14 had unaffected mothers. Sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of 16S rRNA indicated that the gut microbiota of GDM newborns showed differences compared to control newborns...
2018: PloS One
Stephanie Chua, Ruopian Fang, Zhenhua Sun, Mingjie Wu, Zi Gu, Yuzuo Wang, Judy Hart, Neeraj Sharma, Da-Wei Wang, Feng Li
Solid polymer electrolytes are of rapidly increasing importance for the research and development of future safe batteries with extraordinary energy density. The diversified chemistry and structures of polymers allow the utilization of a wide range of soft structures for all-polymer solid-state electrolytes. With equal importance is the hybrid solid-state electrolytes consisting of both 'soft' polymeric structure and 'hard' inorganic nanofillers. The recent emergence of the re-discovery of many two-dimensional layered materials has stimulated the booming of advanced research in energy storage fields, such as batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells...
October 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shantanu P Shukla, Camila Plata, Michael Reichelt, Sandra Steiger, David G Heckel, Martin Kaltenpoth, Andreas Vilcinskas, Heiko Vogel
The ability to feed on a wide range of diets has enabled insects to diversify and colonize specialized niches. Carrion, for example, is highly susceptible to microbial decomposers, but is kept palatable several days after an animal's death by carrion-feeding insects. Here we show that the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides preserves carrion by preventing the microbial succession associated with carrion decomposition, thus ensuring a high-quality resource for their developing larvae. Beetle-tended carcasses showed no signs of degradation and hosted a microbial community containing the beetles' gut microbiota, including the yeast Yarrowia In contrast, untended carcasses showed visual and olfactory signs of putrefaction, and their microbial community consisted of endogenous and soil-originating microbial decomposers...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Benjamin H Good, Stephen Martis, Oskar Hallatschek
Microbial communities can evade competitive exclusion by diversifying into distinct ecological niches. This spontaneous diversification often occurs amid a backdrop of directional selection on other microbial traits, where competitive exclusion would normally apply. Yet despite their empirical relevance, little is known about how diversification and directional selection combine to determine the ecological and evolutionary dynamics within a community. To address this gap, we introduce a simple, empirically motivated model of eco-evolutionary feedback based on the competition for substitutable resources...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aditya Pisupati, Keith J Mickolajczyk, William Horton, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sree V Chintapalli, Xiaofan Li, Jose Chu-Luo, Gregory Busey, William O Hancock, Timothy Jegla
The Shaker-like family of voltage-gated K+ channels comprises four functionally independent gene subfamilies, Shaker (Kv1), Shab (Kv2), Shaw (Kv3), and Shal (Kv4), each of which regulates distinct aspects of neuronal excitability. Subfamily-specific assembly of tetrameric channels is mediated by the N-terminal T1 domain and segregates Kv1-4, allowing multiple channel types to function independently in the same cell. Typical Shaker-like Kv subunits can form functional channels as homotetramers, but a group of mammalian Kv2-related genes (Kv5...
October 15, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Maneesh K Misra, Danillo G Augusto, Gonzalo Montero Martin, Neda Nemat-Gorgani, Jürgen Sauter, Jan A Hofmann, James A Traherne, Betsy González-Quezada, Clara Gorodezky, Will P Bultitude, Wesley Marin, Cynthia Vierra-Green, Kirsten M Anderson, Antonio Balas, Jose L Caro-Oleas, Elisa Cisneros, Francesco Colucci, Ravi Dandekar, Sally M Elfishawi, Marcelo A Fernández-Viña, Merhan Fouda, Rafael González-Fernández, Arend Große, Maria J Herrero-Mata, Sam Q Hollenbach, Steven G E Marsh, Alex Mentzer, Derek Middleton, Ashley Moffett, Miguel A Moreno-Hidalgo, Ghada I Mossallam, Annettee Nakimuli, Jorge R Oksenberg, Stephen J Oppenheimer, Peter Parham, Maria-Luiza Petzl-Erler, Dolores Planelles, Florentino Sánchez-García, Francisco Sánchez-Gordo, Alexander H Schmidt, John Trowsdale, Luciana B Vargas, Jose L Vicario, Carlos Vilches, Paul J Norman, Jill A Hollenbach
The goals of the KIR component of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW) were to encourage and educate researchers to begin analyzing KIR at allelic resolution, and to survey the nature and extent of KIR allelic diversity across human populations. To represent worldwide diversity, we analyzed 1269 individuals from ten populations, focusing on the most polymorphic KIR genes, which express receptors having three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains (KIR3DL1/S1, KIR3DL2 and KIR3DL3). We identified 13 novel alleles of KIR3DL1/S1, 13 of KIR3DL2 and 18 of KIR3DL3...
October 12, 2018: Human Immunology
Min Jung Kwun, Marco R Oggioni, Megan De Ste Croix, Stephen D Bentley, Nicholas J Croucher
Phase-variation of Type I restriction-modification systems can rapidly alter the sequence motifs they target, diversifying both the epigenetic patterns and endonuclease activity within clonally descended populations. Here, we characterize the Streptococcus pneumoniae SpnIV phase-variable Type I RMS, encoded by the translocating variable restriction (tvr) locus, to identify its target motifs, mechanism and regulation of phase variation, and effects on exchange of sequence through transformation. The specificity-determining hsdS genes were shuffled through a recombinase-mediated excision-reintegration mechanism involving circular intermediate molecules, guided by two types of direct repeat...
October 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Diego Santos-Garcia, Ksenia Juravel, Shiri Freilich, Einat Zchori-Fein, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya, Shai Morin, Francisco J Silva
Insect lineages feeding on nutritionally restricted diets such as phloem sap, xylem sap, or blood, were able to diversify by acquiring bacterial species that complement lacking nutrients. These bacteria, considered obligate/primary endosymbionts, share a long evolutionary history with their hosts. In some cases, however, these endosymbionts are not able to fulfill all of their host's nutritional requirements, driving the acquisition of additional symbiotic species. Phloem-feeding members of the insect family Aleyrodidae (whiteflies) established an obligate relationship with Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, which provides its hots with essential amino acids and carotenoids...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marco Springmann, Keith Wiebe, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Timothy B Sulser, Mike Rayner, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: Sustainable diets are intended to address the increasing health and environmental concerns related to food production and consumption. Although many candidates for sustainable diets have emerged, a consistent and joint environmental and health analysis of these diets has not been done at a regional level. Using an integrated health and environmental modelling framework for more than 150 countries, we examined three different approaches to sustainable diets motivated by environmental, food security, and public health objectives...
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Taeyong Kwon, Sung J Yoo, Sun Young Sunwoo, Dong-Uk Lee, Sang H Je, Jun Woo Park, Choi-Kyu Park, Young S Lyoo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen that affects the global swine industry. The continuous evolution of this virus has made control and prevention difficult, which emphasizes the importance of monitoring currently circulating PRRSV strains. In this study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of whole structural genes of 35 PRRSV-2 isolates that circulated between 2012 and 2017 in Korea. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a recently identified PRRSV-2 shared a relatively low level of nucleotide sequence identity that ranged from 86...
October 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
Matthew L Blank, Jon P Boyle
Locus expansion and diversification is pervasive in apicomplexan genomes and is predominantly found in loci encoding secreted proteins that interact with factors outside of the parasite. Key for understanding the impact of each of these loci on the host requires identification and functional characterization of their protein products, but these repetitive loci often are refractory to genome assembly. In this review we focus on Toxoplasma gondii and its nearest relatives to highlight the known impact of duplicated and diversified loci on our understanding of the host-pathogen molecular arms race...
October 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Stephen Maluka
BACKGROUND: In the attempt to move towards universal health coverage (UHC), many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are actively seeking to contract-out non-state providers (NSPs) to deliver health services to a specified population. Research on contracting-out has focused more on the impact of contracting-out than on the actual processes underlying the intervention and contextual factors that influence its performance. This paper reports on perceptions of stakeholders on contracting-out faith-based hospitals through service agreements (SAs) to provide primary healthcare services in Tanzania...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Celia Perales
Hepatitis C virus follows a quasispecies dynamics in infected hosts, and this influences its biology, how the virus diversifies into several genotypes and many subtypes, and how viral populations respond to antiviral therapies. Despite current antiviral combinations being able to cure a great porcentage of HCV-infected patients, the presence of resistance-associated substitutions diminishes the success of antiviral therapies, which is a main concern in the re-treatment of DAA-treated patients. Current methodologies such as ultra deep sequencing are ideal tools to obtain a detailed representation of the mutant spectrum composition that circulates in infected patients...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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