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Immunosuppressive Treatment

Dustin H. Marks, Adam Friedman
Cannabinoids have demonstrated utility in the management of cancer, obesity, and neurologic disease. More recently, their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified for the treatment of several dermatologic conditions. This review thus assesses the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, endoocannabinoids, and chemically synthetic cannabinoids in the management of cutaneous disease. The PubMed® and Scopus® databases were subsequently reviewed in December 2017 using MeSH and keywords, such as cannabinoid, THC, dermatitis, pruritus, and skin cancer...
November 2018: Skin Therapy Letter
Alessia Castellino, Jose S Pulido, Patrick B Johnston, Kay M Ristow, N Nora Bennani, David J Inwards, William R Macon, Ivana N M Micallef, Rebecca L King, Diva R Salomao, Thomas E Witzig, Thomas M Habermann, Grzegorz S Nowakowski
Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) management remains a challenge. We present 72 patients with VRL, diagnosed at Mayo Clinic between 1990-2018. Three nondiffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) histology cases were excluded. Among 69 DLBCL, 33 patients had primary VRL (PVRL), 18 concurrent intraocular and central nervous system (CNS) or systemic disease and 18 secondary VRL. Patients received intraocular chemotherapy (intraocular injections of rituximab or metothrexate or steroids or in combination), radiotherapy, systemic or combined systemic plus intraocular treatment in 9, 10, 35, and 15 cases, respectively...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Bruno L Ferreyro, Laveena Munshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A wide spectrum of heterogeneous conditions can render a patient immunocompromised. Recent years have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised patients given the earlier detection of conditions that require immunosuppressive therapies, changes in immunosuppressive regimens leading to increased survival or novel therapeutic advancements in oncologic care. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the leading cause of critical illness and mortality in this population...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
V Gavrysyuk, E Merenkova, G Gumeniuk, M Gumeniuk, Y Dziublyk
Immunosuppressants are traditionally administered in sarcoidosis patients with contraindications for the use of glucocorticosteroids (GCS), or in those with serious adverse reactions on GCS, as well as in the cases of GCS-therapy resistance. Aim - to study the effectiveness and safety of methotrexate monotherapy in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients with either GCS contraindication or adverse reactions. We examined 33 patients with st. II pulmonary sarcoidosis, 20 men and 13 women, 23-67 years of age. In all cases a general physical examination; chest computed tomography and spirometry were performed...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Emina Kasumagic-Halilovic, Nermina Ovcina-Kurtovic
Background: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed type of hypersensitivity from contact with a specific allergen to which the patients has developed a specific sensitivity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of epicutaneous patch testing with standard series of contact allergen in patients suspected to have ACD. Methods: 355 cases of ACD were included in the study. Test substances were applied on the upper part of the patient's back, on clinically uninvolved and untreated skin...
October 2018: Medical Archives
Asha Recino, Shu Uin Gan, Kian Chuan Sia, Yvonne Sawyer, Jenny Trendell, Richard Kay, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann, Rob Foale, Maria Notaridou, Nick Holmes, Andrew Lever, Kok Onn Lee, Amit Nathwani, Anne Cooke, Roy Calne, Maja Wallberg
We report the restoration of euglycaemia in chemically induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice and spontaneously diabetic Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice by intravenous systemic administration of a single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV2/8) codon optimised (co) vector encoding furin cleavable human proinsulin under a liver-specific promoter. There were no immunological barriers to efficacy of insulin gene therapy in chemically induced C57BL/6 mice, which enjoyed long-lasting correction of hyperglycaemia after therapy, up to 250 days...
December 4, 2018: Gene Therapy
Haoran Zha, Xinxin Wang, Ying Zhu, Dian-Gang Chen, Xiao Han, Fei Yang, Jianbao Gao, Chunyan Hu, Chi Shu, Yi Feng, Yulong Tan, Jinyu Zhang, Yongsheng Li, Yisong Y Wan, Bo Guo, Bo Zhu
Complement aids in the construction of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor cell-derived C3 has been previously reported, but whether and how it acts on antitumor immunity remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe a mechanism for tumor cell-derived C3 in suppressing antitumor immunity. Tumor cell-derived C3 was activated intracellularly, which results in generation of C3a. C3a modulated tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) via C3a-C3aR-PI3Kγ signaling, thereby repressing antitumor immunity...
December 4, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Paul E Clavijo, Jay Friedman, Yvette Robbins, Ellen C Moore, Ernest S Smith, Maurice Zauderer, Elizabeth E Evans, Clint T Allen
Tumor infiltration by immunosuppressive myeloid cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), causes resistance to immunotherapy. Semaphorin4D, originally characterized for its axonal guidance properties, also contributes to endothelial cell migration and survival and modulates global immune cytokine profiles and myeloid cell polarization within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show how a therapeutic murine Sema4D mAb improves responses to immune checkpoint blockade in two murine carcinoma models...
December 4, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Chi Liu, Ping Zhu, Masayuki Fujino, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hidenori Ito, Kiwamu Takahashi, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Jian Zhuang, Xiao-Kang Li
BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant indicated for various immunological diseases; however, it can induce chronic kidney injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a crucial role in CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. The present study evaluated the protective effect of combining 5-aminolaevulinic acid with iron (5-ALA/SFC), a precursor of heme synthesis, to enhance HO-1 activity against CsA-induced chronic nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Mice were divided into three groups: the control group (using olive oil as a vehicle), CsA-only group, and CsA+5-ALA/SFC group...
December 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jiao Wang, Kyle B Lupo, Andrea M Chambers, Sandro Matosevic
BACKGROUND: The anti-tumor immunity of natural killer (NK) cells can be paralyzed by the CD73-induced generation of immunosuppressive adenosine from precursor ATP within the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors. In an effort to redirect purinergic immunosuppression of NK cell anti-tumor function, we showed, for the first time, that immunometabolic combination treatment with NKG2D-engineered CAR-NK cells alongside blockade of CD73 ectonucleotidase activity can result in significant anti-tumor responses in vivo...
December 4, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Kevin Sek, Christina Mølck, Gregory D Stewart, Lev Kats, Phillip K Darcy, Paul A Beavis
The immune system plays a major role in the surveillance and control of malignant cells, with the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlating with better patient prognosis in multiple tumor types. The development of 'checkpoint blockade' and adoptive cellular therapy has revolutionized the landscape of cancer treatment and highlights the potential of utilizing the patient's own immune system to eradicate cancer. One mechanism of tumor-mediated immunosuppression that has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target is the purinergic signaling axis, whereby the production of the purine nucleoside adenosine in the tumor microenvironment can potently suppress T and NK cell function...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Reiji Muto, Yasuo Sugita, Seiya Momosaki, Yuriko Ito, Yoshiyuki Wakugawa, Koichi Ohshima
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by reactivation of the JC virus (JCV), which is named after the initials of the patient from whom the virus was first isolated. JCV is highly prevalent worldwide, infects humans in early childhood, and the infection persists throughout the course of life in latent form. The present paper deals with the second autopsy case report of rituximab-associated PML in Japan. A 63-year-old woman who had undergone chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma developed progressive dysarthria and cerebellar ataxia...
December 3, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Hideki Nagata, Ryu Kanzaki, Takashi Kanou, Naoko Ose, Soichiro Funaki, Yasushi Shintani, Masato Minami, Isamu Mizote, Yasushi Sakata, Koichi Maeda, Toru Kuratani, Yoshiki Sawa, Meinoshin Okumura
BACKGROUND: The age of patients with lung cancer is advancing, and the number of patients with lung cancer who have cardiac diseases is expected to increase. Recently, the rate of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has increased as treatment for aortic stenosis (AS). TAVI is minimally invasive compared with conventional aortic valve replacement. We herein report two patients with lung cancer who underwent lobectomy after TAVI for severe AS. CASE PRESENTATION: Two patients with AS and lung cancer were treated with two-stage surgery of TAVI followed by lobectomy...
December 3, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Daniel J Lachant, Daniel P Croft, Heather McGrane Minton, Dwight J Hardy, Paritosh Prasad, R Matthew Kottmann
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients are common. Yields from bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been reported to be between 31 and 65%. The clinical impact of pneumocystis and viral Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on BAL has not been extensively evaluated in a mixed immunosuppressed patient population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of immunosuppressed adults with pulmonary infiltrates who underwent BAL at the University of Rochester Medical Center...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
M P Kawa, B Baumert, Z Litwińska, M Gniot, E Pius-Sadowska, D Rogińska, K Lewandowski, B Zdziarska, B Machaliński
BACKGROUND: Donor-related neoplasms are a potential complication of treatment strategies involving stem cell transplantation. Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after these procedures are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), have been difficult to assess. Consequently, we studied the potential of human CML cells to engraft hematopoietic tissues after intravenous implantation in mice...
April 18, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Jaroslaw Pieróg, Kleanthis Fytianos, Luca Tamò, Cedric Simillion, Adriano Taddeo, Gregor Kocher, Mathias Gugger, Tomasz Grodzki, Manfred Heller, Fabian Blank, Thomas Geiser, Ralph A Schmid, Amiq Gazdhar
OBJECTIVES: Stem cells secrete significant amounts of bioactive factors in their secretome that can be immunosuppressive. We studied the effect of the secretome obtained from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-sec) in combination with cyclosporine A following acute rejection of lung allografts in the rat. METHODS: Lung allotransplants were performed from male Brown Norway donor rats to recipient male Fisher 344 rats. Rat BMSC-sec was introduced intratracheally in the recipient every day after the transplant until the day the animal was sacrificed...
December 1, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Suresh S Pillai, Moidu Shameer, Asif Hassan, Abdurehiman K Parambil, Sivasankar Reddy, Bala Vishnu R, Shameem G Mohammad
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case series. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the immunosuppression and secondary bacterial infection after dengue viral infection and the predilection of these infections in the spine. This can trigger further research in to this fact. The possibility of change in the serotype of dengue virus, which are neurotropic, may be looked into. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This is the largest case series of epidural abscess with or without spondylodiscitis within 6 weeks following dengue virus infection...
December 15, 2018: Spine
Janice A Layhadi, Ibon Eguiluz-Gracia, Mohamed H Shamji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT), a disease-modifying treatment for allergic rhinitis, can induce long-term clinical benefits which are mediated by immune responses that include generation of regulatory B (Breg) and T (Treg) cells. The newest member of the IL-12 superfamily, IL-35, is an anti-inflammatory cytokine known to be produced by Breg and Treg cells. Limited studies are available on the role of IL-35 on allergic rhinitis and during SLIT. This review summarizes recent findings relevant to the topic of IL-35 and their role in SLIT...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Pia S Zeiner, Corinna Preusse, Anna Golebiewska, Jenny Zinke, Ane Iriondo, Arnaud Muller, Tony Kaoma, Katharina Filipski, Monika Müller-Eschner, Simon Bernatz, Anna-Eva Blank, Peter Baumgarten, Elena Ilina, Anne Grote, Martin L Hansmann, Marcel A Verhoff, Kea Franz, Friedrich Feuerhake, Joachim P Steinbach, Jörg Wischhusen, Werner Stenzel, Simone P Niclou, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn
While the central nervous system is considered an immunoprivileged site and brain tumors display immunosuppressive features, both innate and adaptive immune responses affect glioblastoma (GBM) growth and treatment resistance. However, the impact of the major immune cell population in gliomas, represented by glioma-associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs), on patients' clinical course is still unclear. Thus, we aimed at assessing the immunohistochemical expression of selected microglia and macrophage markers in 344 gliomas (including gliomas from WHO grade I-IV)...
December 3, 2018: Brain Pathology
Xing-Yan Luo, Hong Zhou, Si-Yu Wang, Jing Xiong, Chun-Fen Mo, Hui-Jie Guo, Yan-Tang Wang, Shu-Xia Yang, Li-Mei Li, Qiang Zou, Yang Liu
Immunosuppressants have shown striking achievements in treating autoimmune diseases in recent years. It is urgent to develop more immunosuppressants to provide more options for patients. PO-296 [2-(6-chlorobenzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-3-ol] was identified as a novel benzoxazole derivative. We observed that it exhibits an obvious immunosuppressive activity to T lymphocytes. PO-296 significantly inhibited the proliferation of activated human T lymphocyte without cytotoxicity. Moreover, PO-296 did not affect the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-25 or CD69 but induced T lymphocyte cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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