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Barbara Kramarz, Paola Roncaglia, Birgit H M Meldal, Rachael P Huntley, Maria J Martin, Sandra Orchard, Helen Parkinson, David Brough, Rina Bandopadhyay, Nigel M Hooper, Ruth C Lovering
The analysis and interpretation of high-throughput datasets relies on access to high-quality bioinformatics resources, as well as processing pipelines and analysis tools. Gene Ontology (GO, is a major resource for gene enrichment analysis. The aim of this project, funded by the Alzheimer's Research United Kingdom (ARUK) foundation and led by the University College London (UCL) biocuration team, was to enhance the GO resource by developing new neurological GO terms, and use GO terms to annotate gene products associated with dementia...
November 29, 2018: Genes
Faleha Zafar, Waseem Tariq, Raja Farhat Shoaib, Ahmed Shah, Maimoona Siddique, Abdullah Zaki, Salman Assad
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of ischemic stroke subtypes based on Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Stroke Unit of Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad. We included 145 patients who presented to us from November 2015 to February 2016 with radiological confirmed neurological deficits consistent with ischemic stroke...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Rene L Utianski, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Sarah M Boland, Mary M Machulda, Jennifer L Whitwell, Keith A Josephs
Purpose: This case series details the clinical progression of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) to illustrate, using several methods and supplemental material examples, the changes that occur in speech and language functioning in this patient population. Method: Four patients who presented with PPAOS were followed between 5 and 6 years. Two patients had predominant articulatory abnormalities (termed phonetic PPAOS), 1 had predominant prosodic abnormalities (prosodic PPAOS), and 1 had relatively equal articulatory and prosodic abnormalities (mixed PPAOS)...
November 21, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Wan-Chun Liao, Chung-Liang Lai, Pi-Shan Hsu, Kun-Chung Chen, Chun-Hou Wang
BACKGROUND: Improving balance ability, increasing walking ability, and reducing the occurrence of falls are important objectives in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Do the posture balance training and the intervention of lateral wedge insoles to improve of balance function and increase walking ability in patients with a chronic stroke? METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants who had a chronic stroke (onset >6 months) were recruited from the rehabilitation and neurology departments of a hospital in central Taiwan...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
B R R Boaretto, R C Budzinski, T L Prado, Jürgen Kurths, S R Lopes
Anomalous phase synchronization describes a synchronization phenomenon occurring even for the weakly coupled network and characterized by a non-monotonous dependence of the synchronization strength on the coupling strength. Its existence may support a theoretical framework to some neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's and some episodes of seizure behavior generated by epilepsy. Despite the success of controlling or suppressing the anomalous phase synchronization in neural networks applying external perturbations or inducing ambient changes, the origin of the anomalous phase synchronization as well as the mechanisms behind the suppression is not completely known...
October 2018: Chaos
Ilse Gantois, Jelena Popic, Arkady Khoutorsky, Nahum Sonenberg
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent inherited form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP, engenders molecular, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in FXS patients. Experiments using different animal models advanced our knowledge of the pathophysiology of FXS and led to the discovery of many targets for drug treatments. In this review, we discuss the potential of metformin, an antidiabetic drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, to correct core symptoms of FXS and other neurological disorders in humans...
October 26, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
James L Sowers, Ping Wu, Kangling Zhang, Douglas S DeWitt, Donald S Prough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The underlying mechanisms responsible for chronic and progressive neurological damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood, and therefore, current treatment options are limited. Proteomics is an emerging methodology to study changes to the TBI proteome in both patients and experimental models. RECENT FINDINGS: Although experimentally complex, mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches are converging on a set of common methods...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
D James Cooper, Alistair D Nichol, Michael Bailey, Stephen Bernard, Peter A Cameron, Sébastien Pili-Floury, Andrew Forbes, Dashiell Gantner, Alisa M Higgins, Olivier Huet, Jessica Kasza, Lynne Murray, Lynette Newby, Jeffrey J Presneill, Stephen Rashford, Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Michael Stephenson, Shirley Vallance, Dinesh Varma, Steven A R Webb, Tony Trapani, Colin McArthur
Importance: After severe traumatic brain injury, induction of prophylactic hypothermia has been suggested to be neuroprotective and improve long-term neurologic outcomes. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of early prophylactic hypothermia compared with normothermic management of patients after severe traumatic brain injury. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Prophylactic Hypothermia Trial to Lessen Traumatic Brain Injury-Randomized Clinical Trial (POLAR-RCT) was a multicenter randomized trial in 6 countries that recruited 511 patients both out-of-hospital and in emergency departments after severe traumatic brain injury...
October 24, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jessica Bruijel, Sven Z Stapert, Annemiek Vermeeren, Jennie L Ponsford, Caroline M van Heugten
BACKGROUND: Fatigue and sleep problems are common after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are experienced as highly distressing symptoms, playing a significant role in the recovery trajectory, and they can drastically impact the quality of life and societal participation of the patient and their family and friends. However, the etiology and development of these symptoms are still uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the development of fatigue and sleep problems following moderate to severe TBI and to explore the changes in underlying biological (pain, brain damage), psychological (emotional state), and social (support family, participation) factors across time...
October 22, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Chu Sheng-Hua, Ma Yan-Bin, Zhu Zhi-An, Zhang Hong, Feng Dong-Fu, Li Zhi-Qiang, Yuan Xian-Hou
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in Journal of Neuro-Oncology 74 (2005) 99-103 One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere...
November 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ellana Welsby, Michael Ridding, Susan Hillier, Brenton Hordacre
BACKGROUND: Stroke can have devastating consequences for an individual's quality of life. Interventions capable of enhancing response to therapy would be highly valuable to the field of neurological rehabilitation. One approach is to use noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation, to induce a neuroplastic response. When delivered in combination with rehabilitation exercises, there is some evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation is beneficial...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Ciaran S Hill, David K Menon, Michael P Coleman
The antiapoptotic, neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduces neurological deficits when administered to murine in-vivo models of traumatic brain injury. P7C3-A20 is thought to exert its activity through small-molecule activation of the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. This enzyme converts nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide, the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis. Alterations to this bioenergetic pathway have been shown to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) of the distal neurite following injury...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
John H Chi, Kurt M Eichholz, Paul A Anderson, Paul M Arnold, Andrew T Dailey, Sanjay S Dhall, James S Harrop, Daniel J Hoh, Sheeraz Qureshi, Craig H Rabb, P B Raksin, Michael G Kaiser, John E O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures has traditionally involved spinal instrumentation with fusion performed with standard open surgical techniques. Novel surgical strategies, including instrumentation without fusion and percutaneous instrumentation alone, have been considered less invasive and more efficient treatments. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature and determine the role of fusion in instrumented fixation, as well as the role of percutaneous instrumentation, in the treatment of patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures...
October 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Yang Wang, Shiyu Hu, Lijie Ren, Zhihao Lei, Tao Lan, Jingjing Cai, Chao Li
INTRODUCTION: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) is a well-known risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Nevertheless, its role in the acute phase of ischemic stroke is still unclear. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between Lp-PLA2 levels and early neurological deterioration (END) in acute ischemic stroke patients with Trial of Org 10 172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of large arterial atherosclerosis (LAA). METHODS: We enrolled Chinese patients with first ever acute ischemic stroke admitted to Neurology Department of Shenzhen Second People's Hospital within 48 h from onset of symptoms during January - November 2015...
October 8, 2018: Neurological Research
Sahar Gelfman, Quanli Wang, Yi-Fan Lu, Diana Hall, Christopher D Bostick, Ryan Dhindsa, Matt Halvorsen, K Melodi McSweeney, Ellese Cotterill, Tom Edinburgh, Michael A Beaumont, Wayne N Frankel, Slavé Petrovski, Andrew S Allen, Michael J Boland, David B Goldstein, Stephen J Eglen
Here we present an open-source R package 'meaRtools' that provides a platform for analyzing neuronal networks recorded on Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). Cultured neuronal networks monitored with MEAs are now being widely used to characterize in vitro models of neurological disorders and to evaluate pharmaceutical compounds. meaRtools provides core algorithms for MEA spike train analysis, feature extraction, statistical analysis and plotting of multiple MEA recordings with multiple genotypes and treatments. meaRtools functionality covers novel solutions for spike train analysis, including algorithms to assess electrode cross-correlation using the spike train tiling coefficient (STTC), mutual information, synchronized bursts and entropy within cultured wells...
October 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Haodong Xu, Yongbo Wang, Shaofeng Lin, Wankun Deng, Di Peng, Qinghua Cui, Yu Xue
Various posttranslational modifications (PTMs) participate in nearly all aspects of biological processes by regulating protein functions, and aberrant states of PTMs are frequently implicated in human diseases. Therefore, an integral resource of PTM-disease associations (PDAs) would be a great help for both academic research and clinical use. In this work, we reported PTMD, a well-curated database containing PTMs that are associated with human diseases. We manually collected 1950 known PDAs in 749 proteins for 23 types of PTMs and 275 types of diseases from the literature...
August 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Yu-Tse Liu, Tao-Chieh Yang, Shih-Ming Jung, Cheng-Chi Lee
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) usually manifest as headaches, seizures, focal neurological signs, and spontaneous intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. An untreated AVM with associated cyst formation is extremely rare, and the probable pathogenesis is unclear. We propose and discuss the possible pathogenesis of this condition and its diagnosis and management. A 26-year-old male presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Computed tomography showed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a complex composition within the lesion, without a flow-voiding signal...
December 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Lifeng Qi, Xinhong Xue, Jijun Sun, Qingjian Wu, Hongru Wang, Yan Guo, Baoliang Sun
Many studies have reported the recovery ability of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for neural diseases. In this study, the authors explored the roles of UC-MSCs to treat the traumatic brain injury. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from healthy neonatal rat umbilical cord immediately after delivery. The traumatic brain injury (TBI) model was formed by the classical gravity method. The authors detected the behavior changes and measured the levels of inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-lβ and tumor necrosis factor-α by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks after transplantation between TBI treated and untreated with UC-MSCs...
October 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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