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Ellana Welsby, Michael Ridding, Susan Hillier, Brenton Hordacre
BACKGROUND: Stroke can have devastating consequences for an individual's quality of life. Interventions capable of enhancing response to therapy would be highly valuable to the field of neurological rehabilitation. One approach is to use noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation, to induce a neuroplastic response. When delivered in combination with rehabilitation exercises, there is some evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation is beneficial...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Ciaran S Hill, David K Menon, Michael P Coleman
The antiapoptotic, neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduces neurological deficits when administered to murine in-vivo models of traumatic brain injury. P7C3-A20 is thought to exert its activity through small-molecule activation of the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. This enzyme converts nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide, the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis. Alterations to this bioenergetic pathway have been shown to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) of the distal neurite following injury...
October 16, 2018: Neuroreport
John H Chi, Kurt M Eichholz, Paul A Anderson, Paul M Arnold, Andrew T Dailey, Sanjay S Dhall, James S Harrop, Daniel J Hoh, Sheeraz Qureshi, Craig H Rabb, P B Raksin, Michael G Kaiser, John E O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures has traditionally involved spinal instrumentation with fusion performed with standard open surgical techniques. Novel surgical strategies, including instrumentation without fusion and percutaneous instrumentation alone, have been considered less invasive and more efficient treatments. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature and determine the role of fusion in instrumented fixation, as well as the role of percutaneous instrumentation, in the treatment of patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures...
October 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Yang Wang, Shiyu Hu, Lijie Ren, Zhihao Lei, Tao Lan, Jingjing Cai, Chao Li
INTRODUCTION: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) is a well-known risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Nevertheless, its role in the acute phase of ischemic stroke is still unclear. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between Lp-PLA2 levels and early neurological deterioration (END) in acute ischemic stroke patients with Trial of Org 10 172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of large arterial atherosclerosis (LAA). METHODS: We enrolled Chinese patients with first ever acute ischemic stroke admitted to Neurology Department of Shenzhen Second People's Hospital within 48 h from onset of symptoms during January - November 2015...
October 8, 2018: Neurological Research
Sahar Gelfman, Quanli Wang, Yi-Fan Lu, Diana Hall, Christopher D Bostick, Ryan Dhindsa, Matt Halvorsen, K Melodi McSweeney, Ellese Cotterill, Tom Edinburgh, Michael A Beaumont, Wayne N Frankel, Slavé Petrovski, Andrew S Allen, Michael J Boland, David B Goldstein, Stephen J Eglen
Here we present an open-source R package 'meaRtools' that provides a platform for analyzing neuronal networks recorded on Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). Cultured neuronal networks monitored with MEAs are now being widely used to characterize in vitro models of neurological disorders and to evaluate pharmaceutical compounds. meaRtools provides core algorithms for MEA spike train analysis, feature extraction, statistical analysis and plotting of multiple MEA recordings with multiple genotypes and treatments. meaRtools functionality covers novel solutions for spike train analysis, including algorithms to assess electrode cross-correlation using the spike train tiling coefficient (STTC), mutual information, synchronized bursts and entropy within cultured wells...
October 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Haodong Xu, Yongbo Wang, Shaofeng Lin, Wankun Deng, Di Peng, Qinghua Cui, Yu Xue
Various posttranslational modifications (PTMs) participate in nearly all aspects of biological processes by regulating protein functions, and aberrant states of PTMs are frequently implicated in human diseases. Therefore, an integral resource of PTM-disease associations (PDAs) would be a great help for both academic research and clinical use. In this work, we reported PTMD, a well-curated database containing PTMs that are associated with human diseases. We manually collected 1950 known PDAs in 749 proteins for 23 types of PTMs and 275 types of diseases from the literature...
September 21, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Yu-Tse Liu, Tao-Chieh Yang, Shih-Ming Jung, Cheng-Chi Lee
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) usually manifest as headaches, seizures, focal neurological signs, and spontaneous intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. An untreated AVM with associated cyst formation is extremely rare, and the probable pathogenesis is unclear. We propose and discuss the possible pathogenesis of this condition and its diagnosis and management. A 26-year-old male presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Computed tomography showed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a complex composition within the lesion, without a flow-voiding signal...
September 21, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Lifeng Qi, Xinhong Xue, Jijun Sun, Qingjian Wu, Hongru Wang, Yan Guo, Baoliang Sun
Many studies have reported the recovery ability of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for neural diseases. In this study, the authors explored the roles of UC-MSCs to treat the traumatic brain injury. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from healthy neonatal rat umbilical cord immediately after delivery. The traumatic brain injury (TBI) model was formed by the classical gravity method. The authors detected the behavior changes and measured the levels of inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-lβ and tumor necrosis factor-α by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks after transplantation between TBI treated and untreated with UC-MSCs...
October 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sjoerd de Hoogd, Abraham J Valkenburg, Eric P A van Dongen, Edgar J Daeter, Joost van Rosmalen, Albert Dahan, Dick Tibboel, Catherijne A J Knibbe
BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of the suggested hyperalgesic effects of remifentanil is still unclear, especially in the long term. OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluated the impact of remifentanil on thermal thresholds 3 days and 12 months after surgery, measured with Quantitative Sensory Testing. DESIGN: A prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A tertiary care teaching hospital in The Netherlands, from 2014 to 2016...
September 11, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Miaodan Li, Shumin Chen, Xue Shi, Chenfei Lyu, Yongfang Zhang, Miaoqin Tan, Chen Wang, Nailiang Zang, Xiaoxi Liu, Yafang Hu, Jiangang Shen, Liang Zhou, Yong Gu
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammatory responses are the major causes of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced hemorrhagic transformation (HT), while high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) exacerbates inflammatory damage to BBB during the process of brain ischemia/reperfusion. This study aimed to investigate the change of HMGB1 after thrombolytic therapy and whether blocking HMGB1 could ameliorate the neurovasculature complications secondary to tPA treatment in stroke rats...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Roni Rak, Orna Dahan, Yitzhak Pilpel
The pool of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules in cells allows the ribosome to decode genetic information. This repertoire of molecular decoders is positioned in the crossroad of the genome, the transcriptome, and the proteome. Omics and systems biology now allow scientists to explore the entire repertoire of tRNAs of many organisms, revealing basic exciting biology. The tRNA gene set of hundreds of species is now characterized, in addition to the tRNA genes of organelles and viruses. Genes encoding tRNAs for certain anticodon types appear in dozens of copies in a genome, while others are universally absent from any genome...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Serge O Dumoulin, Tomas Knapen
Receptive fields are a core property of cortical organization. Modern neuroimaging allows routine access to visual population receptive fields (pRFs), enabling investigations of clinical disorders. Yet how the underlying neural circuitry operates is controversial. The controversy surrounds observations that measurements of pRFs can change in healthy adults as well as in patients with a range of ophthalmological and neurological disorders. The debate relates to the balance between plasticity and stability of the underlying neural circuitry...
September 15, 2018: Annual Review of Vision Science
Celine Hendriks, Marjolein Drent, Marjon Elfferich, Jolanda De Vries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatigue is a problem experienced by many patients suffering from chronic diseases, including sarcoidosis patients. It has a substantial influence on patients' quality of life (QoL). It is, therefore, important to properly assess fatigue with a valid and reliable measure. The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) is the only validated self-reporting instrument classifying fatigue in sarcoidosis. The aim of this review was to examine the psychometric properties of the FAS and the diseases and languages in which it has been used...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Yanzhuo Zhang, Chunyu Song, Jing Liu, Yonghong Bi, Hao Li
The hyperglycemia-induced enhanced oxidative stress is a key factor of diabetic peripheral neuropathy implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, and microRNA may be involved, playing promotion or protection roles. In this study, we aimed to investigate the function of miR-25 during the development of oxidative/nitrative stress and in subsequent neurological problems. We detected the oxidative stress effects and expression of miR-25 on sciatic nerves from db/db diabetic model mice and analyzed the expression of related genes by qPCR and Western blotting...
August 1, 2018: Neuroreport
Jason C George, Waleed Zafar, Ion Dan Bucaloiu, Alex R Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rapid correction of severe hyponatremia can result in serious neurologic complications, including osmotic demyelination. Few data exist on incidence and risk factors of rapid correction or osmotic demyelination. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a retrospective cohort of 1490 patients admitted with serum sodium <120 mEq/L to seven hospitals in the Geisinger Health System from 2001 to 2017, we examined the incidence and risk factors of rapid correction and osmotic demyelination...
July 6, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Jing Lin, Zhao Han, Chun Wang, Xingyang Yi, Zhenxiao Chai, Qiang Zhou, Ruyue Huang
PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between CYP2C19 genotypes and early neurological deterioration (END), and to carry out a stratified analysis of the effectiveness of clopidogrel alone and dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin for prevention of END according to CYP2C19 genotypes in ischemic stroke (IS) patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, two-center study. A total of 375 acute IS patients were enrolled. Platelet aggregation was measured before and after the 7- to 10-day treatment...
September 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Li-Juan Jie, Melanie Kleynen, Kenneth Meijer, Anna Beurskens, Susy Braun
BACKGROUND: A significant part of neurological rehabilitation focuses on facilitating the learning of motor skills. Training can adopt either (more) explicit or (more) implicit forms of motor learning. Gait is one of the most practiced motor skills within rehabilitation in people after stroke because it is an important criterion for discharge and requirement for functioning at home. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the design of a randomized controlled study assessing the effects of implicit motor learning compared with the explicit motor learning in gait rehabilitation of people suffering from stroke...
May 24, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Simon B N Thompson, Alister Coleman, Nicola Williams
Yawning is a significant behavioural response and, together with cortisol, is potentially a new diagnostic marker of neurological diseases. Evidence of an association between yawning and cortisol was found which supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis and thermoregulation hypotheses, indication that brain cooling occurs when yawning. 117 volunteers aged 18-69 years were randomly allocated to experimentally controlled conditions to provoke yawning. Thirty-three had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after yawning or after stimuli presentation in the absence of yawning...
July 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Kate Allen
Kate Allen speaks to Roshaine Wijayatunga, Managing Commissioning Editor. Dr Kate Allen works as an Executive Director in Science and Public Affairs at World Cancer Research Fund International ( ), an NGO and leading authority in the field of cancer prevention through diet, weight and physical activity. Kate is responsible for the organization's scientific, policy and conference programs in the areas of food, nutrition, physical activity and weight management. An important aspect of her role is helping to create collaborative relationships and activities across the WCRF national charities (in Europe, America and Asia) in these areas, as well as maintaining and creating external partnerships...
June 2018: Future Oncology
Antonio Arauz, Juan Manuel Marquez-Romero, Miguel A Barboza, Fabiola Serrano, Carol Artigas, Luis Manuel Murillo-Bonilla, Carlos Cantú-Brito, José Luis Ruiz-Sandoval, Fernando Barinagarrementeria
Background and purpose: Stroke has been scarcely studied in Latin America (LA). The Mexican Institute of Neurology Stroke Registry was established in 1990 as a prospective computer-based database to register data obtained from patients admitted with stroke. Using this data, we attempted to define the profile of risk factors and outcomes. Methods: The demographic data, stroke description, ancillary tests, vascular risk factors, and modified Rankin scale (mRs) were registered...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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