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development psychology

Graham Staunton, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based neurofeedback represents the latest applied behavioural neuroscience methodology developed to train participants in the self-regulation of brain regions or networks. However, as with previous biofeedback approaches which rely on electroencephalography (EEG) or related approaches such as brain-machine interface technology (BCI), individual success rates vary significantly, and some participants never learn to control their brain responses at all. Given that these approaches are often being developed for eventual use in a clinical setting (albeit there is also significant interest in using NF for neuro-enhancement in typical populations), this represents a significant hurdle which requires more research...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Alazne Aizpitarte, Olivia E Atherton, Lucy R Zheng, Itziar Alonso-Arbiol, Richard W Robins
Relational aggression-a psychological form of aggression-has numerous negative consequences for physical and emotional health. However, little is known about the risk factors that lead youth to engage in relational aggression. Using multimethod data from a longitudinal research of 674 Mexican-origin youth, this study examined the influence of parents, siblings, and peers on the development of relational aggression. Increases in relational aggression from age 10 to 16 were associated with: (a) low levels of parental monitoring and (b) increased association with deviant peers and siblings...
October 13, 2018: Child Development
Philip Murphy, Richard P Bentall, Daniel Freeman, Suzanne O'Rourke, Paul Hutton
BACKGROUND: An influential psychological model of persecutory delusions proposed that they are caused by a bias towards holding others responsible for negative events (an externalising attributional bias), preventing the individual from becoming aware of underlying low self-esteem. An early version of the model predicted self-esteem would, therefore, be preserved in people with these delusions, but a later version suggested it would be unstable, and that there would be a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem, with the latter being lower...
October 9, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Yuan Yang, Hengwen Sun, Ting Liu, Jingying Zhang, Hongmei Wang, Weijiang Liang, Yu Chen, Bin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Fear of progression (FoP) is a widespread problem among cancer patients and is considered to be one of the most distressing psychological consequences of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables to FoP in Chinese cancer patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, six hundred and thirty-six cancer patients were recruited. All participants were asked to complete a personal information sheet, the Chinese version of Fear of Progression Questionnaire-Short Form (FoP-Q-SF), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7)...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Ying-Chyi Chou, Van Thac Dang, Hsin-Yi Yen, Pi-Shan Hsu
According to the United Nations, males and females should be given equal treatment in physical and psychological services, and healthcare institutions should exert greater efforts to reduce the gap in gender equality. However, this issue has been largely ignored in previous literature on healthcare environments. Designing a hospital environment that focuses on gender differences is critical to academic researchers and practical managers in all healthcare institutions. Thus, as an exploratory effort, this study aims to develop a measurement to assess customer perceptions of gender-friendly hospital environments...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Huan Wang, Yingjie Geng, Weijian Zheng, Weiping Fang, Erwei Gu, Xuesheng Liu, Wenzhi Li
BACKGROUND: During regional anesthesia, including combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA), patients may develop a perceptual alteration of limb position known as phantom limb syndrome (PLS). We aimed to identify factors that influence the PLS onset, to explore whether PLS predisposes to other postoperative symptoms, and to document the relationship between PLS and sensorimotor impairment during recovery. METHODS: Psychological questionnaires for anxiety and depression were completed beforehand, then multimodal tests of sensory and motor function, especially tests of proprioception, were performed regularly afterward...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
David T Lardier, Robert J Reid, Pauline Garcia-Reid
Neighborhood sense of community (SOC) is a key construct in the community psychology literature. While the research on neighborhood SOC has progressed significantly, there is a need to further validate the Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS) among youth. A critical area of scholarship, therefore, is to examine the factor structure of the BSCS among a cohort of adolescents, particularly from the United States. This study tested the factor structure of the BSCS among a sample of urban youth of color (N = 383) using SPSS AMOS, a structural equation modeling software...
November 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Masoud Mahmoodzadeh, Gholam Hassan Khajavy
Why do some students frequently ask questions and actively seek out answers in the classroom, while others avoid this? Many language teachers might have commonly asked themselves this question. The present study is an empirical investigation of the concept of curiosity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). Using a mixed-methods design, we aim to conceptualize language learning curiosity (LLC) within the framework of interest/deprivation (I/D) model of curiosity (Litman and Jimerson in J Personal Assess 82(2): 147-157, 2004...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Shireen Mahtani, Penelope Hasking, Glenn A Melvin
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is particularly prevalent during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The salience of shame during these developmental periods suggests that shame may be inherently linked to NSSI, and at least partially explain the high rates of NSSI observed among youth. In this article, a theoretical developmental model relating shame and NSSI is proposed, and results from a preliminary test of a sub-set of cross-sectional relationships in this model is presented. In the model tested, it was hypothesized that adverse caregiving experiences in prior development (i...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Netta Van't Leven, Jacomine de Lange, Eva S van der Ploeg, Anne Margriet Pot
Background: People living with dementia (PWD) and their informal caregivers often report difficulties in maintaining their usual activities. Several dyadic, psychosocial, activating interventions were developed to create insight into how to cope with limitations in a practical way and to increase skills for maintaining personal activities. Effects of these interventions varied so far. More knowledge on the working mechanisms of activating interventions might help to increase their impact...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Katie L Togher, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Ali S Khashan, Gerard Clarke, Louise C Kenny
Prenatal distress is associated with adverse outcomes in affected offspring. Alterations in placental glucocorticoid signalling and subsequent foetal overexposure to glucocorticoids have been implicated as an underlying mechanism. Infant sex is emerging as an important factor in disease susceptibility. This study aimed to examine the effects of maternal distress across pregnancy on birth outcomes and placental glucocorticoid genes in a sex-dependent manner. Participants completed psychological distress questionnaires throughout pregnancy...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Becky Inkster, Gwyneth Zai, Gemma Lewis, Kamilla W Miskowiak
Mood disorders are associated with significant psychosocial and occupational disability. It is estimated that major depressive disorder (MDD) will become the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Existing pharmacological and psychological treatments are limited for targeting cognitive dysfunctions in mood disorders. However, growing evidence from human and animal studies has shown that treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) can improve cognitive function. A recent study involving EPO-treated patients with mood disorders showed that the neural basis for their cognitive improvements appeared to involve an increase in hippocampal volume...
October 11, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shannon L Gillespie, Cindy M Anderson
RATIONALE: Psychological stress-induced cortisol elevations appear to contribute to preterm birth. Yet, some studies suggest that the biological ramifications of racial discrimination-associated stress are unique and may involve development of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity despite normalized cortisol levels. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the effects of racial discrimination on maternal cortisol output, leukocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity, and the degree of correspondence between cortisol levels and birth timing in an African American cohort...
November 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Andrew Gardner, Kate Filia, Eóin Killackey, Sue Cotton
BACKGROUND: Social inclusion involves objective participatory (e.g. education/employment) and subjective (e.g. sense of belonging/acceptance) elements across multiple domains. It has been associated with enhanced physical and mental wellbeing yet is a novel construct in the empirical literature (i.e. measures have not been sufficiently developed). AIMS: Young people with serious mental illness are reported to be socially excluded. It is unclear whether this is reflected in the social inclusion/exclusion literature...
October 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Andrada D Neacsiu, Bruce M Luber, Simon W Davis, Elisabeth Bernhardt, Timothy J Strauman, Sarah H Lisanby
OBJECTIVES: Despite the growing use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for unipolar depression, its typical effect sizes have been modest, and methodological and conceptual challenges remain regarding how to optimize its efficacy. Linking rTMS to a model of the neurocircuitry underlying depression and applying such a model to personalize the site of stimulation may improve the efficacy of rTMS. Recent developments in the psychology and neurobiology of self-regulation offer a conceptual framework for identifying mechanisms of action in rTMS for depression, as well as for developing guidelines for individualized rTMS treatment...
October 11, 2018: Journal of ECT
Hermioni L Amonoo, Margot E Barclay, Areej El-Jawahri, Lara N Traeger, Stephanie J Lee, Jeff C Huffman
Positive psychological constructs (e.g., optimism, positive affect) have been independently associated with superior health outcomes across many medical populations. However, there has been little synthesis of the literature examining these associations among patients with hematologic malignancies receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To address this gap, we completed a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines, of studies examining relationships between positive psychological constructs and health-related outcomes (e...
October 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jena Pauli, Angela Starkweather, Jo Lynne Robins
Objective: To identify and describe available instruments that can be used to screen patients with acute or subacute low back pain for a chronic low back pain trajectory. Design: Integrative literature review. Methods: An electronic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PsychINFO databases took place from May through July of 2014 using systematic search strategies to identify screening instruments developed to identify people at risk of chronic low back pain...
October 10, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Glenn Smith
The Clinical Neuropsychology Synarchy (CNS) interfaces with the American Psychological Association and affiliated organizations to address issues and advances in specialty training. The past several years have seen the development and dissemination of several initiatives pertinent to specialty training. Among these initiatives was the creation of a taxonomy for education and training in clinical neuropsychology. In additional there has been a movement towards competency-based education that has become codified in the APA's new Standards for Accreditation...
October 11, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Lisa C Carlesso, Neil A Segal, Laura Frey-Law, Yuqing Zhang, Na Lu, Michael Nevitt, Core E Lewis, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVES: Why some individuals develop pain with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is not clear. We sought to identify pain susceptibility phenotypes (PSPs) and their relation to incident persistent knee pain (PKP) 2 years later. METHODS: We identified individuals free of PKP from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a longitudinal cohort of older adults with or at risk of knee OA. Latent class analysis was used to determine PSPs that may contribute to development of PKP apart from structural pathology: widespread pain, poor sleep, psychological factors and quantitative sensory tests (QST) (i...
October 11, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Ming-Bing Xiao, Dan-Dan Jin, Yu-Jie Jiao, Wen-Kai Ni, Jin-Xia Liu, Li-Shuai Qu, Cui-Hua Lu, Run-Zhou Ni, Feng Jiang, Wei-Chang Chen
Psychological stress has been recognized as a well-documented risk factor associated with β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in the development of pancreatic cancer. Aldo-keto reductase 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) is a potential interacting partner of β2-AR, but the effect of their interaction on pancreatic cancer cells is not known at present. We found a positive correlation between AKR1B1 and β2-AR expression in pancreatic cancer tissue samples, and co-localization of these proteins in the human pancreatic cancer BXPC-3 cell line...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
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