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development psychology

Kevin Glisenti, Esben Strodl, Robert King
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for binge-eating disorder (BED). METHODS: We used a single-subject design in which 12 weeks of individual EFT were applied nonconcurrently to six female adult participants with BED, following three weekly baseline sessions. Participants were assessed for binge-eating psychopathology and emotion regulation difficulties on a weekly basis during baseline and treatment...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Mafalda Andrea, Mario Andrea, Maria Luísa Figueira
PURPOSE: Functional voice disorders (FVD) are multifactorial and may have a significant impact on the patients' quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the relationship between the VHI scores, psychological variables, and objective voice measurements, and to develop a psychological and/or vocal acoustic model for the overall self-perceived evaluation of quality of life for three different types of FVD. METHODS: After ENT examination, 83 women were classified into three groups: psychogenic voice disorder (PVD = 39), primary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD1 = 16), and secondary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD2 = 28)...
August 16, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Arnold N Onyango
Insulin resistance (IR), a key component of the metabolic syndrome, precedes the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Its etiological pathways are not well defined, although many contributory mechanisms have been established. This article summarizes such mechanisms into the hypothesis that factors like nutrient overload, physical inactivity, hypoxia, psychological stress, and environmental pollutants induce a network of cellular stresses, stress responses, and stress response dysregulations that jointly inhibit insulin signaling in insulin target cells including endothelial cells, hepatocytes, myocytes, hypothalamic neurons, and adipocytes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Elliot Klein, Elizabeth Helzner, Michelle Shayowitz, Stephan Kohlhoff, Tamar A Smith-Norowitz
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a procedure performed on women in developing countries and is underreported; it involves cutting or altering the female genitalia. The health consequences of FGM include bacterial and viral infections, obstetrical complications, and psychological problems. In this study, we report FGM societal importance, ramifications, classifications, cultural significance, prevalence, complications, implications, and treatment. Although efforts have been made to eradicate FGM, the dynamics that perpetuate the practice have societal roots...
2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Mustikasari, Anggi Pratiwi, Achir Yani Syuhaimie Hamid, Harif Fadhillah
OBJECTIVE: The study to assess the effectiveness of psychological adaptation model of mental health nursing for nurse survivors experiencing post-earthquake post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). METHOD: This study used a quasi-experimental pre- post-test without control group method. Respondents amounted to 42 people who have been screened for PTSS. Research took place in a district in West Java. Research instrument consisted of: 1) questionnaire for respondent's characteristics and the skills of nurses, and 2) psychological adaptation model of mental health nursing intervention in the form of modules...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Christopher M Celano, Taylor A Gianangelo, Rachel A Millstein, Wei-Jean Chung, Deborah J Wexler, Elyse R Park, Jeff C Huffman
Objective Eighteen million Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not follow recommended guidelines for physical activity. Motivational interviewing (MI) has had modest effects on activity and related behaviors in T2D. Positive psychological attributes (e.g., optimism) are associated with superior medical outcomes in T2D, and positive psychology (PP) interventions promote such attributes. There had been no study in T2D of a combined PP-MI intervention to promote well-being and health behavior adherence. We developed a novel, telephone-delivered, 16-week PP-MI intervention and explored its feasibility and impact in T2D patients in a single-arm, proof-of-concept trial...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Lauren H Hampton, Philip R Curtis, Megan Y Roberts
Borrowing from a clinical psychology observational methodology, thin-slice observations were used to assess autism characteristics in toddlers. Thin-slices are short observations taken from a longer behavior stream which are assigned ratings by multiple raters using a 5-point scale. The raters' observations are averaged together to assign a "thin-slice" value for each observation. In this study, a total of 60 toddlers were selected from a video archive: 20 children with typical development, 20 children with developmental language disorder, and 20 children with autism...
August 16, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Marcus Roll, Lara Canham, Paul Salamh, Kyle Covington, Corey Simon, Chad Cook
Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to establish a non-cognitive trait survey addressing one's emotional intelligence, interpersonal skills, social intelligence, psychological flexibility and grit. Development of such a tool would provide beneficial information for continued development of admissions standards and how to better capture the full breadth of experience and capabilities of applicants applying to doctor of physical therapy (DPT) programs. Methods: This study was a cross sectional, survey study involving learners at three academic institutions' DPT programs in the United States...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Tessel Bazelmans, Emily J H Jones, Sheila Ghods, Sarah Corrigan, Karen Toth, Tony Charman, Sara J Webb
Interest in autonomic arousal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing; however, reliability of these measures in ASD is unknown, and previously reported associations with social and cognitive abilities are inconsistent. This study assesses heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in preschoolers with ASD or typical development (TD) while they passively watched naturalistic videos. Measurement reliability, group differences, and the relationship with social and cognitive abilities were evaluated. Seventy one ASD and 66 TD children (2-4 years) provided cardiac data from two sessions...
August 16, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Mari Salminen-Tuomaala, Riitta Mikkola, Eija Paavilainen, Päivi Leikkola
BACKGROUND: Not much research has been conducted on emergency patients' and family members' experiences of encountering care providers and receiving care in nonconveyance situations. This knowledge is required to develop the quality and safety of emergency care. AIM: The aim of the study was to describe patients' and family members' experiences concerning encounters with emergency care providers and the patient's care in nonconveyance situations. METHODS: The study is a descriptive, cross-sectional survey carried out using quantitative methods...
August 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Juan Chen
In recent years, various levels of the Chinese government have undertaken the task of developing new models of community-based mental health services. Greater availability and higher quality will not result in substantial improvements if those suffering from mental illnesses do not use the services. This article examines not only people's cultural perception of mental health and help-seeking but also their practical concerns and preferences about mental health service provision in urban China. The study analyzes qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 50 respondents who belong to the most psychologically distressed subgroup (with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) score ≥ 25) identified in a household survey in Beijing...
August 16, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
April Mazzuca, Dawood Nagarchi, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, T Raghavendra, Prakash Javalkar, Sarojini Rotti, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Shajy Isac, Alex Cohen, Tara Beattie
Adolescent girls vulnerable to early marriage and school dropout in rural India may be at elevated risk of psychosocial problems. However, few screening instruments have been culturally adapted and validated to measure this risk. This paper describes the process by which the Primary Health Questionnaire PHQ-9, a screening instrument for depression, was tested for cultural validity as part of the Samata evaluation - an intervention to support low caste adolescent girls in rural south India to attend and complete secondary school and to delay marriage until adulthood...
August 16, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Obrey Alexis, Aaron James Worsley
Studies suggest that gay and bisexual men are affected by the psychological aspects of prostate cancer treatment differently than that of heterosexual men; however the data have not yet been synthesized. The focus of this meta-synthesis is to explore gay and bisexual men's experiences of prostate cancer posttreatment. Empirical research published in peer reviewed journals between January 1990 and January 2018 were identified in six databases: CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were checked by two reviewers...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
O Bamidele, B M Lagan, H McGarvey, D Wittmann, E McCaughan
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that partners of men with prostate cancer (CaP) experience greater psychosocial distress compared with men themselves. However, the experiences of partners of high-risk (1 in 4) Black African (BA) and Black Caribbean (BC) men with CaP remain poorly understood as existing research has predominantly focused on Caucasian populations. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring partners' experience and support needs as influenced both by the specific impacts of CaP, treatment side effects and socio-cultural context...
August 15, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Leonidas Panagiotakopoulos
Puberty suppression is the reversible first step of endocrine medical treatment in transgender youth, and allows for two very important aspects of transgender management. Firstly, it buys the patient, family and their medical team time to fully evaluate the presence and persistence of gender dysphoria. Secondly, it successfully prevents the development of cis-gender unwanted secondary sexual characteristics. The latter, when present, almost certainly increase the burden of psychological co-morbidity for any transgender person...
August 15, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Zahra Mostafavian, Zahra Abbasi Shaye, Arezou Farajpour
Background: The responsibility of breaking bad news (BBN) to patients is one of the most difficult tasks of a medical profession. Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the preferences of mothers of children with cancer about BBN. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study was conducted in Mashhad during years of 2016, 62 mothers of children with cancer at Dr-Sheikh hospital were recruited by convenience sampling and completed a questionnaire including demographic data and 20 questions about the mothers' preferences to BBN...
May 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Marie Mandai, Misato Kaso, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Takeo Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Loneliness in mothers raising children can adversely impact the health of their children and lead to child abuse, depression, and deterioration of mothers' health. Few studies to date have specifically assessed the association between loneliness and social factors, including the use of social network sites (SNSs), and personal factors. This study aimed to identify predictors of loneliness in mothers raising children, with special reference to SNS use. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved an anonymous self-reported questionnaire survey of mothers participating in the health check-ups for their children in Nagahama City, Japan, from July 28 to September 29, 2014...
August 16, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Hiran Thabrew, Karolina Stasiak, Sarah E Hetrick, Stephen Wong, Jessica H Huss, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Long-term physical conditions affect 10% to 12% of children and adolescents worldwide; these individuals are at greater risk of developing psychological problems, particularly anxiety and depression. Access to face-to-face treatment for such problems is often limited, and available interventions usually have not been tested with this population. As technology improves, e-health interventions (delivered via digital means, such as computers and smart phones and ranging from simple text-based programmes through to multimedia and interactive programmes, serious games, virtual reality and biofeedback programmes) offer a potential solution to address the psychological needs of this group of young people...
August 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jutta Heckhausen, Carsten Wrosch, Richard Schulz
This review addresses conceptual and empirical research about how individual agency and motivation influences development during adulthood and old age. The major life-span approaches to individual agency and developmental regulation are discussed, with a focus on the motivational theory of life-span development. Developmental agency unfolds through action cycles of pursuing long-term goals for optimal development. Individuals differ in their capacity to regulate their goal engagements effectively within the age-graded structure of opportunities and constraints in their life courses...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Gregory A Fabiano, Abigail Caserta
Fathers make important and unique contributions to positive child development. In spite of these findings, the research literature has lagged in the study of the role and impact of fathers on child development and in the development of effective approaches and interventions for fathers. Parameters for additional study include the inclusion of fathers in treatment outcome studies, the engagement of fathers within studies once included, the retention of fathers in interventions and studies once engaged, and the appropriate measurement of father-related outcomes...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
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