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development psychology

Natascha-Alexandra Weinberger, Anette Kersting, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Claudia Luck-Sikorski
OBJECTIVES: Identifying the underlying pathways between obesity and depression and which individuals with obesity are at risk for developing depressive symptoms is important for improving prevention and treatment efforts. The current study investigated appearance evaluation as a potential mediator of the relationship between obesity and depression. METHODS: A total of 1,000 participants with a self-reported BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 were interviewed about their experiences with an elevated body weight and completed measures on appearance evaluation and depression...
December 14, 2018: Obesity Facts
Sara Paulone, Artjoms Ivlevs
Despite the growth of alcohol consumption and international migration in many developing countries, the links between the two remain underexplored. We study the relationship between emigration of household members, receiving remittances (migrant monetary transfers), and alcohol consumption of migrant household members staying behind in Kyrgyzstan, a poor post-socialist country that has recently witnessed both large-scale emigration and a rise in alcohol-related health problems. Using a large longitudinal survey, we find that, among the ethnic majority (Kyrgyz), an increase in migrant remittances is associated with a higher likelihood and frequency of consuming alcohol, as well as an increase in the consumption of beer...
December 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Geqi Qi, Wei Guan
Situational discomfort awareness plays an important role in decision making among drivers and has rarely been discussed in detail in previous research. An instrumented vehicle was used to collect car-following data from multiple drivers, thereby quantitatively examining situational discomfort grading patterns using a new discomfort grading method and the latent Dirichlet allocation model. In this process, the gas pedal data and speed difference data are particularly involved in the computation for providing broader meaning to discomfort and building more comprehensive situations...
December 13, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Maria Dimoula, Grigorios Kotronoulas, Stylianos Katsaragakis, Maria Christou, Stavroula Sgourou, Elisabeth Patiraki
BACKGROUND: Ensuring adequate knowledge about palliative care and positive attitudes towards death and dying are crucial educational aspects when preparing undergraduate nursing students to respond effectively to the complexities of care for people affected by a progressive, life-limiting illness. In undergraduate nursing education in Greece, the level of students' attained knowledge and developed attitudes towards palliative and end-of-life care remain unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate undergraduate nursing students' knowledge about palliative care and attitudes towards death and end-of-life care, and explore demographic and academic factors as potential moderators of student knowledge and attitudes...
December 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Frank Larøi, Neil Thomas, André Aleman, Charles Fernyhough, Sam Wilkinson, Felicity Deamer, Simon McCarthy-Jones
Negative voice-content is the best sole predictor of whether the hearer of an auditory-verbal hallucination will experience distress/impairment necessitating contact with mental health services. Yet, what causes negative voice-content and how interventions may reduce it remains poorly understood. This paper offers definitions of negative voice content and considers what may cause negative voice-content. We propose a framework in which adverse life-events may underpin much negative voice-content, a relation which may be mediated by mechanisms including hypervigilance, reduced social rank, shame and self-blame, dissociation, and altered emotional processing...
November 14, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Riana E Anderson, Monique C McKenny, Howard C Stevenson
Researchers have illustrated the deleterious psychological effects that racial discrimination has exerted on Black Americans. The resulting racial stress and trauma (RST) from experiences with discrimination has been linked to negative wellness outcomes and trajectories for Black youth and families. Racial socialization (RS)-defined as the verbal and nonverbal messages that families use to communicate race to their children-can be a cultural strength and has been associated with positive outcomes in Black youth...
December 15, 2018: Family Process
Beth Fordham, Thavapriya Sugavanam, Sally Hopewell, Karla Hemming, Jeremy Howick, Shona Kirtley, Roshan das Nair, Julia Hamer-Hunt, Sarah E Lamb
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a psychological therapy that has been used to improve patient well-being across multiple mental and physical health problems. Its effectiveness has been examined in thousands of randomised control trials that have been synthesised into hundreds of systematic reviews. The aim of this overview is to map, synthesise and assess the reliability of evidence generated from these systematic reviews of the effectiveness of CBT across all health conditions, patient groups and settings...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Zorica Suica, Petra Platteau-Waldmeier, Szabina Koppel, Arno Schmidt-Trucksaess, Thierry Ettlin, Corina Schuster-Amft
INTRODUCTION: Motor imagery (MI) is a very popular and well-accepted technique in different disciplines. Originating from sport and psychology, MI is now also used in the field of medicine and education. Several studies confirmed the benefits of MI to facilitate motor learning and skill acquisition. The findings indicated that individual's MI ability might influence the effectiveness of MI interventions. Over the last two centuries, researchers have developed several assessments to evaluate MI's abstract construct...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Thompson E Davis, Thomas H Ollendick, Lars-Göran Öst
One-session treatment is a well-established evidence-based treatment for specific phobias in youths that incorporates reinforcement, cognitive challenges, participant modeling, psychoeducation, and skills training into a single, massed session of graduated exposure. This review begins by briefly examining the phenomenology, etiology, epidemiology, and assessment of specific phobias and then pivots to a description of One-Session Treatment. We examine the use of One-Session Treatment with children and adolescents, briefly discussing its components and application, and subsequently review almost two decades of research supporting its efficacy...
December 14, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Catrin Lewis, Neil P Roberts, Andrew Bethell, Lindsay Robertson, Jonathan I Bisson
BACKGROUND: Therapist-delivered trauma-focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first-line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence-base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Many barriers limit treatment uptake, such as the limited number of qualified therapists to deliver the interventions, cost, and compliance issues, such as time off work, childcare, and transportation, associated with the need to attend weekly appointments...
December 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Giulia Casu
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To develop and initially validate the Positive Sexuality Scale (PSS) to assess adult female positive sexuality. BACKGROUND: While traditional approaches focus on negative sexual experiences and sexual dysfunctions, within the positive psychology framework positive sexuality is a subjective experience of happiness and fulfillment with one's sexual expression, which contributes to well-being. No measure exists that specifically measures adult female positive sexuality and can be confidently used with women of any fertility/childlessness status...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Catherine C Peterson, Jessica Riggs, Katherine Guyon-Harris, Lauren Harrison, Alissa Huth-Bocks
OBJECTIVE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) can adversely affect children's cognitive development, but links between IPV exposure and language development in the earliest years of life remain unknown. The present study examined the effects of IPV and the quality of the home environment on children's language development at age 3 years. METHODS: In a prospective, 5-panel, longitudinal study of 79 mother-child dyads assessed prenatally to age 3 years, we examined standardized measures of receptive and expressive language development at age 3 years...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wisdom, bias, and balance: Toward a process-sensitive measurement of wisdom-related cognition" by Justin P. Brienza, Franki Y. H. Kung, Henri C. Santos, D. Ramona Bobocel and Igor Grossmann ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Sep 21, 2017, np). In the article, the original supplemental material has been revised to include a clarifying note to the Tests of model fit over larger sample (Samples C-G) section and post-peer review analyses added to the Post-peer review Factor Analytic Tests section...
December 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jacob L Mackey
A common view among ancient historians about Roman attentiveness to children's psychological development needs reconsideration. The view holds that Romans ignored children's cognitive ontogeny, perceiving early childhood as a largely undifferentiated life stage. A separate but related issue is the problematic claim that Roman childhood was entirely a matter of social construction. I present evidence from over four hundred years of Roman writing to make three points against Roman neglect of children and radical social construction...
December 13, 2018: History of Psychology
Eleonora Campana, Elisabetta Rebecchi, Luciana Verni, Massimo Del Bianco
OBJECTIVES: The Occupational Physician in accordance with the Prevention and Protection of AUSL Romagna (Rimini) has enabled for some years, a Clinic for the psychological job environmental discomfort addressed to employment, with expressions of the psychophysical disorders, caused by work related stress. Health is defined by the current legislation as a state of psychophysical and social wellbeing. METHODS: The main purpose of Clinic for the psychological distress in working environment is to provide listening space and psychological support for employees...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Gian Piero Sancipriano, Marinella Buttafarro
Health care workers need artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is a set of studies and techniques that tend to the realization of machines, which solve complex problems automatically, simulating or emulating human intelligence activities. Human intelligence is innate, creative, emotional, sporting, social in the collective and connected future. Knowledge is the faculty, act, mode, effect of taking possession, intellectually or psychologically, with systematic activity of any certain aspect of reality...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Athanasia Skriapa Manta, Monica Olsson, Ulla Ek, Ronny Wickström, Kristina Teär Fahnehjelm
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to report prevalence, ocular outcome, neurological characteristics, cognitive and behavioural problems in children with optic disc coloboma (ODC). METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 31 children between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ODC. The children were part of a larger cohort of 184 children with congenital optic disc malformations. Clinical ophthalmological examinations, neurological assessments, behavioural and developmental screening were performed...
December 13, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Giulia Menin, Gabriele Roveron, Maria Barbierato, Angela Peghetti, Renzo Zanotti
Many people in Italy undergo ostomy because of illness, and this can have negative psychological and physical effects. It is estimated that 15%-43% of ostomates suffer from skin complications in the peristomal area. During their life, many ostomates experience at least one peristomal lesion, and they turn to stomal therapy centres where trained nurses provide patient care and manage skin complications. To ensure a good quality of life for patients, and to take prompt action for the prevention and treatment of stomal lesions, it is essential to use appropriate assessment tools...
December 13, 2018: International Wound Journal
Elena Rogante, Salvatore Sarubbi, Dorian A Lamis, Valeria Canzonetta, Alice Sparagna, Valerio De Angelis, Denise Erbuto, Paolo Martelletti, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migraine headache is the seventh leading cause of disability worldwide causing adverse outcomes in many aspects of an individual's life. Many psychological aspects affect chronic migraine (CM): illness perception, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and job satisfaction. This observational study aimed to examine the association among illness perception, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and job satisfaction, connected to migraine and its features. METHODS: Ninety-eight individuals with CM treated with OnabotulinumtoxinA were recruited from the Regional Referral Headache Centre of Sant'Andrea Hospital in Rome...
December 13, 2018: Headache
Frederick Aardema, Shiu F Wong, Jean-Sebastien Audet, Gabriele Melli, Louis-Philippe Baraby
OBJECTIVE: The potential causal and maintaining role of vulnerable self-themes and beliefs about the self in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have received increasing attention from cognitive-behavioural theorists. This interest was translated into the development of a self-report measurement of the feared self (the fear of who one might be or become), a construct theoretically and empirically pertinent to unwanted thoughts and impulses in OCD (i.e., repugnant obsessions). METHOD: The current study aimed to provide converging evidence on the relevance of the feared self in OCD, by examining whether improvements in symptoms associated with repugnant obsessions (measured on the Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory [VOCI] obsessions subscale) would be predicted by reduced feared self-perceptions (measured on the Fear-of-Self Questionnaire [FSQ]) in a sample of 93 patients receiving psychotherapy for OCD...
December 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
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