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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30274199/ocular-manifestations-of-emerging-flaviviruses-and-the-blood-retinal-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Sneha Singh, Ashok Kumar
Despite flaviviruses remaining the leading cause of systemic human infections worldwide, ocular manifestations of these mosquito-transmitted viruses are considered relatively uncommon in part due to under-reporting. However, recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) implicated in causing multiple ocular abnormalities, such as conjunctivitis, retinal hemorrhages, chorioretinal atrophy, posterior uveitis, optic neuritis, and maculopathies, has rejuvenated a significant interest in understanding the pathogenesis of flaviviruses, including ZIKV, in the eye...
September 28, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239127/uveitis-causes-according-to-immune-status-of-patients
#2
Aniki Rothova, Anass Hajjaj, Joeri de Hoog, Alberta A H J Thiadens, Virgil A S H Dalm
PURPOSE: The advances in medicine have led to an increased number of people living with some form of immunodeficiency. Most ocular infections in immunocompromised patients may lead to irreversible blindness. We identify the causes of uveitis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1354 consecutive patients. All patients underwent a standard work-up for uveitis. RESULTS: An immunocompromised state was identified in 171/1354 patients (13%), of whom 40 had Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 52 received immunosuppressive medications, 28 had concurrent malignant disorder and 20 had other causes for their immunosuppression...
September 21, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212432/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-increases-the-risk-of-incident-uveitis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#3
Yung-Feng Yen, Jia-Yih Feng, Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Pei-Hung Chuang, Ming-Chung Ko, Chu-Chieh Chen, Yi-Jie Li, Sheng-Wei Pan, Wei-Juin Su
BACKGROUND: Case reports indicated that HIV itself may be a direct cause of uveitis. However, the association of HIV with incident uveitis has not been extensively studied. This nationwide cohort study determined the association of HIV with incident uveitis. METHODS: Since January 1, 2003, we identified adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance Database. A control cohort without HIV infection, matched for age and sex, was selected for comparison from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104765/clinical-manifestations-and-ophthalmic-outcomes-of-ocular-syphilis-at-a-time-of-re-emergence-of-the-systemic-infection
#4
João M Furtado, Tiago E Arantes, Heloisa Nascimento, Daniel V Vasconcelos-Santos, Natalia Nogueira, Rafael de Pinho Queiroz, Luana P Brandão, Thaís Bastos, Ricardo Martinelli, Rodrigo C Santana, Cristina Muccioli, Rubens Belfort, Justine R Smith
Recent reports from different world regions suggest ocular syphilis is re-emerging, in parallel with an increasing incidence of the systemic infection globally. We conducted a large observational study of 127 persons consecutively treated for ocular syphilis at public medical centers in Brazil over a 2.5-year period ending July 2015. Of 104 individuals serologically tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 34.6% were positive. Ophthalmological evaluations included measurement of Snellen visual acuity and intraocular pressure, and assessment of inflammation by slit lamp examination and dilated posterior eye examination...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096015/review-for-disease-of-the-year-treatment-of-viral-anterior-uveitis-a-perspective
#5
Souska Zandi, Bahram Bodaghi, Justus G Garweg
PURPOSE: To define a clinically tailored therapeutic strategy for the treatment of viral anterior uveitis (VAU). METHODS: A PubMed search spanning the past 5 years was conducted using the MesH-terms "viral anterior uveitis" and "therapy." RESULTS: The herpes simplex virus (HSV), the varicella zoster virus (VZV), and the cytomegalovirus (CMV) are the predominant pathogens in VAU. Other viruses, including rubella, chikungunya, and zika, have been linked with distinct forms of the disease...
2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075555/retinitis-associated-with-double-infection-of-epstein-barr-virus-and-varicella-zoster-virus-a-case-report
#6
Tomohito Sato, Riki Kitamura, Toshikatsu Kaburaki, Masaru Takeuchi
RATIONALE: Chronic uveitis with immunosuppressive agents could develop chronic herpetic retinitis with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) or herpes simplex virus (HSV). Ocular Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection develops uveitis and vitritis, but the clinical feature of EBV retinitis is not typical as a viral retinitis. EBV retinitis is rare, and only a few cases of EBV retinitis have been reported. Herein, we describe a case of retinitis with EBV and VZV which were the primary viruses verified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059636/bilateral-acute-retinal-necrosis-clinical-features-and-outcomes-in-a-multicenter-study
#7
Elisabetta Miserocchi, Lorenzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fogliato, Giulio Modorati, Cristobal Couto, Ariel Schlaen, Erika Hurtado, Victor Llorenç, Alfredo Adan, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To describe clinical features and outcome in bilateral acute retinal necrosis (BARN). METHODS: Observational retrospective longitudinal review of ocular findings. RESULTS: Thirty eyes of 15 patients (age 44.1 ± 15.8). Delay of involvement between eyes was 57.2 ± 105.2 months (median 3, range 0.5-360). Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 was the most frequent (20 eyes, 66.6%), followed by HSV-2 (five eyes, 16.7%) and varicella zoster virus (VZV, four eyes, 13...
July 30, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048405/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-findings-in-acute-retinal-necrosis
#8
Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Luiz G Marchesi Mello, Gabriela C Martines, André Maia
PURPOSE: To report clinical features of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) using optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: A 59-year-old female patient presented with blurred vision in the left eye for 1 day. The patient presented posterior uveitis with multiple peripheral areas of retinal pallor with presumed acute retinal necrosis. Herpes simplex virus Type 1 infection was confirmed after serologic tests, and the polymerase chain reaction analysis of the aqueous humor tested positive...
July 25, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006272/autoantibody-profiling-in-intraocular-fluid-of-patients-with-uveitis
#9
Josianne C Ten Berge, Marco Wj Schreurs, Joost van Rosmalen, Aniki Rothova
A high prevalence of serum antiretinal antibodies (ARAs) in patients with uveitis has been previously described, though their clinical role remains elusive. Assessment of intraocular ARAs may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of diverse uveitis entities. In this study we investigate the prevalence of multiple specific anti-ocular antibodies (AOcAs), including ARAs, in intraocular fluid of patients with uveitis. Autoantibody profiling with 188 different ocular antigens was performed by a multiplex immunoassay with intraocular fluid samples of 76 patients with uveitis...
July 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993303/clinical-manifestations-and-pathogenesis-of-uveitis-in-ebola-virus-disease-survivors
#10
Steven Yeh, Jessica G Shantha, Brent Hayek, Ian Crozier, Justine R Smith
In the wake of the international Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak from 2014 to 2016, thousands of EVD survivors are at-risk of ophthalmic manifestations, as well as systemic sequelae including arthralgias, abdominal pain, psychosocial stressors, and risk of viral persistence in immune-privileged organs. Ophthalmic manifestations in EVD survivors include a spectrum of disease ranging from anterior uveitis to panuveitis, which confers a high risk of vision impairment and blindness, particularly given the access and resource limitations for ophthalmic subspecialty care in West Africa...
2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978138/a-case-of-primary-extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-in-the-orbit-and-intraocular-tissues-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-involvement
#11
Arisa Okada, Yosuke Harada, Tomoko Inoue, Yoshiko Okikawa, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Yoshiaki Kiuchi
Purpose: To report a rare case of primary orbital natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma without nasal lesions but with cerebrospinal fluid involvement. Observations: A 73-year-old woman was referred to the uveitis clinic with suspected unilateral acute uveitis in her right eye and a right orbital tumor. Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in the aqueous humor in her right eye, and orbital biopsy revealed the presence of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type...
September 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969370/virus-induced-anterior-uveitis-viau-in-immunocompromised-patients
#12
REVIEW
Alejandra de-la-Torre
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of VIAU in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A critical review of literature was performed. RESULTS: Diagnosis and treatment of VIAU in immunocompromised patients may be a challenge due to atypical clinical-courses, severe presentations, and more frequent recurrences. A conclusive diagnosis can be made by aqueous-humour PCR-analysis. Visual prognosis depends on early diagnosis and prompt treatment...
2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968553/case-report-orbital-tumor-revealing-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-associated-with-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1
#13
Selim Farès, Rabih Hage, Jean Pegliasco, Samy Chraibi, Harold Merle
Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) is a sight- and life-threatening complication of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Ophthalmic manifestations include uveitis, optic nerve oedema, retinal vasculitis, and lymphomatous infiltration. Orbital lesions are rare. We report the case of an orbital tumor revealing systemic ATLL in a 45-year-old Dominican patient who died despite treatment. Apart from late-grade cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, ATLL is the only T-lymphoma to develop in the orbit...
August 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944680/different-composition-of-intraocular-immune-mediators-in-posner-schlossman-syndrome-and-fuchs-uveitis
#14
Dominika Pohlmann, Stephan Schlickeiser, Sylvia Metzner, Matthias Lenglinger, Sibylle Winterhalter, Uwe Pleyer
Posner-Schlossman-Syndrome (PSS) is clinically characterized by acute, recurrent, mild, unilateral uveitis anterior accompanied by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Fuchs´ Uveitis (FU) is a chronic, low-grade-inflammatory disorder, involving anterior uvea and vitreous. The clinical findings show remarkable similarities as well as differences. In our study, we determine the composition of immune mediators in aqueous humor of patients with PSS and FU and evaluate if immune mediators play a crucial role in specific viral intraocular inflammation and IOP rises...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896405/optic-neuropathy-and-congenital-glaucoma-associated-with-probable-zika-virus-infection-in-venezuelan-patients
#15
C Gustavo De Moraes, Michele Pettito, Juan B Yepez, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Mussaret B Zaidi, Matthieu Prot, Claude Ruffie, Susan S Kim, Rando Allikmets, Joseph D Terwilliger, Joseph H Lee, Gladys E Maestre
Introduction: Although the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is a major public health concern, most reports have focused on congenital ZIKV syndrome, its most devastating manifestation. Severe ocular complications associated with ZIKV infections and possible pathogenetic factors are rarely described. Here, we describe three Venezuelan patients who developed severe ocular manifestations following ZIKV infections. We also analyse their serological response to ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV)...
May 2018: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869892/differential-diagnosis-of-viral-induced-anterior-uveitis
#16
REVIEW
Lia Judice Relvas, Laure Caspers, Soon-Phaik Chee, Manfred Zierhut, François Willermain
Diagnosis of uveitis is often challenging, but can be easy in typical viral-induced anterior uveitis (VIAU). Associated symptoms and signs are an important source of information. Certain classical clinical features such as keratic precipitates (KPs) distribution, iris atrophy, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and unilaterality are commonly used to support the diagnosis of VIAU. However, many etiologies of anterior uveitis may to a certain extent mimic VIAU, especially the ones with unilateral granulomatous KPs and elevated IOP...
2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847196/the-etiology-of-intraocular-inflammation-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-adults-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-cape-town-south-africa
#17
Derrick P Smit, Tonya M Esterhuizen, David Meyer, Joke H de Boer, Jolanda D F de Groot-Mijnes
PURPOSE: To describe the patterns of uveitis in South Africa. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients were enrolled and 37.7% had human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) infection. Anterior and panuveitis occurred most frequently. Infectious, non-infectious and idiopathic uveitis were diagnosed in 66.0%, 17.0% and 17.0% of all cases, respectively. Eighty percent of HIV+ cases had infectious uveitis. Overall, intraocular tuberculosis (IOTB), herpetic and syphilitic uveitis were the commonest infectious causes...
May 30, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802245/zika-virus-infection-causes-persistent-chorioretinal-lesions
#18
Mohanraj Manangeeswaran, Jennifer L Kielczewski, H Nida Sen, Biying C Xu, Derek D C Ireland, Ian L McWilliams, Chi-Chao Chan, Rachel R Caspi, Daniela Verthelyi
Zika-infected patients can have eye involvement ranging from mild conjunctivitis to severe chorioretinal lesions, however the possible long-term sequelae of infection and timeline to recovery remain unknown. Here we describe the partial recovery of chorioretinal lesions in an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with bilateral posterior uveitis associated with Zika infection and show that some lesions resolved with focal atrophy evident as pigmentary changes on funduscopy. To better understand the progression of the lesions and correlate the changes in fundus imaging with local viral load, immune responses, and retinal damage, we developed a symptomatic mouse model of ocular Zika virus infection...
May 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670780/syphilis-related-eye-disease-presenting-as-bilateral-papilledema-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-hemorrhage-and-anterior-uveitis-in-a-penicillin-allergic-patient
#19
Jamie Dietze, Shane Havens
Purpose . Treponema pallidum is known as the "great masquerader" for its many presentations and ocular findings in patients who are infected and develop secondary and tertiary stage of syphilis. Syphilitic ocular manifestations include uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinitis, vasculitis, vitritis, and panuveitis all with or without decreased visual acuity. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to expedite the progression of syphilis when patients are coinfected, thus compounding the potential ophthalmic presentations...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663152/a-glimpse-into-uveitis-in-the-aging-eye-pathophysiology-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-considerations
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth Akinsoji, Raquel Goldhardt, Anat Galor
Uveitis describes a group of inflammatory conditions of the eye that have various underlying causes and clinical presentations. Susceptibilities to uveitis in the elderly may be attributed to age-related risk factors such as immunosenescence, increased immunological inflammatory mediators, and autoimmunity. Overall, anterior uveitis is more common than posterior and panuveitis in the general population and also in the elderly. Some causes of uveitis in the elderly are herpes simplex virus, ocular ischemic syndrome, sarcoidosis, and central nervous system lymphoma, and these will be discussed in detail herein...
May 2018: Drugs & Aging
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