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Melissa Esther Rivera-Peña, Marco Antônio Húngaro Duarte, Murilo Priori Alcalde, Flaviana Bombarda DE Andrade, Rodrigo Ricci Vivan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a novel ultrasonic tip as an auxiliary method for removing filling material from flattened/oval-shaped canals. The null hypothesis tested was that this method does not influence removing the filling material in flattened/oval-shaped canals. Forty-five mandibular incisors were selected and randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15) according to different protocols for removing root canal filling material. Group R: Reciproc R25/.08, Group RC: Reciproc R25/...
August 13, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Rudolf Glueckert, Lejo Johnson Chacko, Dominik Schmidbauer, Thomas Potrusil, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Romed Hoermann, Erich Brenner, Alen Reka, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Stephan Handschuh
Design and implantation of bionic implants for restoring impaired hair cell function relies on accurate knowledge about the microanatomy and nerve fiber pathways of the human inner ear and its variation. Non-destructive isotropic imaging of soft tissues of the inner ear with lab-based microscopic X-ray computed tomography (microCT) offers high resolution but requires contrast enhancement using compounds with high X-ray attenuation. We evaluated different contrast enhancement techniques in mice, cat, and human temporal bones to differentially visualize the membranous labyrinth, sensory epithelia, and their innervating nerves together with the facial nerve and middle ear...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mario Pérez-Sayáns, Alejandro I Lorenzo-Pouso, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, Fernando Muñoz-Guzón, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra, Mónica López-Peña, Manuel Somoza-Martín, Mercedes Gallas-Torreira, Abel García-García
This study compared the in vivo behavior of two biomaterials, xenograft (Bio-Oss® ) and alloplastic tricalcium phosphate (Sil-Oss® ), vs a control (no biomaterial) in beagle dogs treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR). Six male adult beagle dogs were included. The third and fourth mandibular premolars and first mandibular molars (3P3, 4P4 and 1M1) on both sides were extracted. After 12 weeks of healing, Straumann implants (3.3 × 8 mm) were placed, performing standardized defects (3.3 × 6 mm) in the vestibular aspect of the alveolar bone...
August 9, 2018: Odontology
Fabio Salvatore Palumbo, Calogero Fiorica, Giovanna Pitarresi, Massimiliano Zingales, Emanuela Bologna, Gaetano Giammona
A hyaluronic acid derivative that is able to physically crosslink in a saline aqueous environment was employed for the production of fibers with a mean diameter of 50 μm using a microfluidic technique. The microfibers were collected in a tailored rotating collector and assembled to form multifibrillar bundles. The orientation of the microfibers on the collected bundles was evaluated by microCT analysis. The bundles were biofunctionalized by physical addition of fibronectin or chemical tethering of a cyRGDC peptide to achieve control of Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell (AoSMC) attachment, elongation and alignment...
August 9, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Yan Chen, Lian-Fang Huang, Jue-Xin Zhu, Shi-Ying Luo
Abstracts Objective This study investigated the characteristics of bone microstructure, metabolism, and biomechanics in rat's lumbar vertebra undergoing short-term glucocorticoid administration. Methods Forty 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either vehicle(Cont) or prednisone acetate(Pre) at 3.5 mg/kg/day respectively for periods of 7 days and 21 days. The lumbar vertebras were processed for MicroCT scan, histomorphometry analysis, mechanical compression test, in addition to Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, respectively...
August 8, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Stijn E Verleden, Olivier Gheysens, Karolien E Goffin, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Erik K Verbeken, Birgit Weynand, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of phenotypes of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains troublesome. We hypothesized that F-FDG PET/CT may help in differential diagnosis of CLAD phenotypes, as it showed promising results regarding diagnosis and prognosis in interstitial lung diseases. METHODS: A monocentric, retrospective study was performed including all lung transplant recipients suffering from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) or restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) who underwent F-FDG PET/CT scan, in comparison with stable lung transplant recipients...
August 6, 2018: Transplantation
Rosana López, Markus Nolf, Remko A Duursma, Eric Badel, Richard J Flavel, Hervé Cochard, Brendan Choat
Centrifuge-based techniques to assess xylem vulnerability to embolism are increasingly being used, although we are yet to reach a consensus on the nature and extent of artefactual embolism observed in some angiosperm species. In particular, there is disagreement over whether these artefacts influence both the spin (Cavitron) and static versions of the centrifuge technique equally. We tested two methods for inducing embolism: bench dehydration and centrifugation. We used three methods to measure the resulting loss of conductivity: gravimetric flow measured in bench-dehydrated and centrifuged samples (static centrifuge), in situ flow measured under tension during spinning in the centrifuge (Cavitron) and direct imaging using X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) observations in stems of two species of Hakea that differ in vessel length...
August 1, 2018: Tree Physiology
Dean T Odegard, Michael A Sonnenfelt, J Gary Bledsoe, Sarah W Keenan, Craig A Hill, Daniel E Warren
Western painted turtles ( Chrysemys picta bellii ) tolerate anoxic submergence longer than any other tetrapod, surviving more than 170 days at 3°C. This ability is due, in part, to the shell and skeleton simultaneously releasing calcium and magnesium carbonates, and sequestering lactate and H+ to prevent lethal decreases in body fluid pH. We evaluated the effects of anoxic submergence at 3°C on various material properties of painted turtle bone after 60, 130, and 167-170 days, and compared them to normoxic turtles held at the same temperature for the same time periods...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
R Nicole Howie, Emily Durham, Brayden Oakes, Zachary Grey, Jason Smith, Phil Campbell, Amanda LaRue, Martin Steed, Robin Muise-Helmericks, James Cray
Many variables serve to alter the process of bone remodeling and diminish regeneration including the size and nature of the wound bed and health status of the individual. To overcome these inhibitory factors, tissue engineered osteoconductive scaffolds paired with various growth factors have been utilized clinically. However, many limitations still remain, for example, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), can lead to rampant inflammation, ectopic bone formation, and graft failure. Here we studied the ability for a nanofiber scaffold (Talymed) to accelerate BMP2 growth factor induced bone healing compared to the traditional absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) delivery system...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
M Peña Fernández, A H Barber, G W Blunn, G Tozzi
A micromechanical characterization of biomaterials for bone tissue engineering is essential to understand the quality of the newly regenerated bone, enabling the improvement of tissue regeneration strategies. A combination of microcomputed tomography in conjunction with in situ mechanical testing and digital volume correlation (DVC) has become a powerful technique to investigate the internal deformation of bone structure at a range of dimensional scales. However, in order to obtain accurate three-dimensional strain measurement at tissue level, high-resolution images must be acquired, and displacement/strain measurement uncertainties evaluated...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Alessandra Giuliani, Serena Mazzoni, Carlo Mangano, Piero Antonio Zecca, Alberto Caprioglio, Nicolò Vercellini, Mario Raspanti, Francesco Mangano, Adriano Piattelli, Giovanna Iezzi, Rosamaria Fastuca
BACKGROUND: Personalized maxillary expansion procedure has been proposed to correct maxillary transversal deficiency; different protocols of stem cell activation have been suggested and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is the most commonly used among clinicians. The present study aimed to quantify in three-dimensions (3D) the osteo-regeneration of the midpalatal suture in children submitted to RME. METHODS: Three patients (mean age 8.3 ± 0.9 years) were enrolled in the study to preform biopsy of midpalatal suture...
July 25, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Nick Tovar, Lukasz Witek, Pablo Atria, Michael Sobieraj, Michelle Bowers, Christopher Lopez, Bruce Cronstein, Paulo G Coelho
STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: Injuries to the extremities often require resection of necrotic hard tissue. For large bone defects, autogenous bone grafting is ideal, but similar to all grafting procedures, is subject to limitations. Synthetic biomaterial driven engineered healing offers an alternative approach. This work focuses on three-dimensional (3D) printing technology of solid-free form fabrication (SFF), more specifically robocasting/direct write. The research hypothesizes that a bioactive calcium-phosphate scaffold may successfully regenerate extensive bony defects in vivo and that newly regenerated bone will demonstrate mechanical properties similar to native bone as healing time elapses...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Jeffrey Mason Earles, Guillaume Théroux-Rancourt, Adam B Roddy, Matthew E Gilbert, Andrew J McElrone, Craig Brodersen
The leaf intercellular airspace (IAS) is generally considered to have high conductance to CO2 diffusion relative to the liquid phase. While previous studies accounted for leaf-level variation in porosity and mesophyll thickness, they omitted 3D IAS traits that potentially influence IAS conductance (gIAS). Here we re-evaluated the standard equation for gIAS by incorporating tortuosity, lateral path lengthening, and IAS connectivity. We measured and spatially mapped these geometric IAS traits for 19 Bromeliaceae species with CAM or C3 photosynthetic pathways using X-ray microCT imaging and a novel computational approach...
July 24, 2018: Plant Physiology
Alanna C Green, Victoria Rudolph-Stringer, Lenny Straszkowski, Gavin Tjin, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Mannu Walia, T John Martin, Natalie A Sims, Louise E Purton
Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling regulates bone structure and hematopoiesis through intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. This study aimed to establish how early in the osteoblast lineage loss of RARγ (Rarg) disrupts the bone marrow microenvironment. Bone structure was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) in Rarg-/- mice and mice with Rarg conditional deletion in Osterix-Cre-targeted osteoblast progenitors or Prrx1-Cre-targeted mesenchymal stem cells. Rarg-/- tibias exhibited less trabecular and cortical bone and impaired longitudinal and radial growth...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Francesco Petruzzellis, Chiara Pagliarani, Tadeja Savi, Adriano Losso, Silvia Cavalletto, Giuliana Tromba, Christian Dullin, Andreas Bär, Andrea Ganthaler, Andrea Miotto, Stefan Mayr, Maciej A Zwieniecki, Andrea Nardini, Francesca Secchi
Synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (microCT) has emerged as a promising noninvasive technique for in vivo monitoring of xylem function, including embolism build-up under drought and hydraulic recovery following re-irrigation. Yet, the possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation on plant tissues have never been quantified. We specifically investigated the eventual damage suffered by stem living cells of three different species exposed to repeated microCT scans. Stem samples exposed to one, two or three scans were used to measure cell membrane and RNA integrity, and compared to controls never exposed to X-rays...
July 24, 2018: New Phytologist
Li Xiao, Kwangseok Hong, Charles Roberson, Mengmeng Ding, Andrew Fernandez, Francis Shen, Li Jin, Swapnil Sonkusare, Xudong Li
Current nonsurgical treatments of discogenic lumbar radiculopathy are neither effective nor safe. Our prior studies have suggested that hydroxylated fullerene (fullerol) nanomaterial could attenuate proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and primary neurons. Here, we aim to investigate the analgesic effect of fullerol in a clinically relevant lumbar radiculopathy mouse model and to understand its underlying molecular mechanism in mouse DRGs and neurons...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Aysha B Khalid, Alexandria V Slayden, Jerusha Kumpati, Chanel D Perry, Maria Angeles Lillo Osuna, Samantha R Arroyo, Gustavo A Miranda-Carboni, Susan A Krum
GATA4 is a zinc-finger transcription factor that is a pioneer factor in various tissues and regulates tissue-specific gene regulation. In vivo deletion of Gata4 using Cre-recombinase under the control of the Col1a1 2.3 kb promoter showed significantly reduced values for trabecular bone properties by microCT analysis of femur and tibia of 14-week-old male and female mice, suggesting GATA4 is necessary for maintaining normal adult bone phenotype. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher expression of Gata4 in trabecular bone compared with cortical bone, suggesting a role for GATA4 in maintaining normal trabecular bone mass...
March 2018: JBMR plus
Aysha B Khalid, Alexandria V Slayden, Jerusha Kumpati, Chanel D Perry, Stuart B Berryhill, Julie A Crawford, Iram Fatima, Marco Morselli, Matteo Pellegrini, Gustavo A Miranda-Carboni, Susan A Krum
GATA4 is a transcription factor that is responsible for tissue-specific gene regulation in many tissues, and more recent studies showed that it is necessary for osteoblast differentiation. Previously, we showed that in vivo deletion of Gata4 using Cre-recombinase under the control of the Col1a1 2.3 kb promoter, showed significantly reduced trabecular bone properties. To understand the role of GATA4 in more differentiated cells, GATA4fl/fl mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the osteocalcin promoter...
July 19, 2018: Bone
Sven A Holcombe, Eunjoo Hwang, Brian A Derstine, Stewart C Wang
This study assesses the ability to measure local cortical bone thickness, and to obtain mechanically relevant properties of rib cross-sections from clinical-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans of human ribs. The study utilized thirty-four sections of ribs published by Perz et al. (2015) in three modalities: standard clinical CT (clinCT), high-resolution clinical CT (HRclinCT), and microCT (µCT). Clinical-resolution images were processed using a Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) algorithm applied to cross-cortex signals resampled perpendicularly to an initial smooth periosteal border...
July 10, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Ziwen Fang, Allison N Ranslow, Patricia De Tomas, Allan Gunnarsson, Tusit Weerasooriya, Sikhanda Satapathy, Kimberly A Thompson, Reuben H Kraft
The development of a multi-axial failure criterion for trabecular skull bone has many clinical and biological implications. This failure criterion would allow for modeling of bone under daily loading scenarios that typically are multi-axial in nature. Some yield criteria have been developed to evaluate the failure of trabecular bone, but there is a little consensus among them. To help gain deeper understanding of multi-axial failure response of trabecular skull bone, we developed 30 microstructural finite element models of porous porcine skull bone and subjected them to multi-axial displacement loading simulations that spanned three-dimensional (3D) stress and strain space...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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