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Ioan A Lina, Wataru Ishida, Jason A Liauw, Sheng-Fu L Lo, Benjamin D Elder, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Debebe Theodros, Timothy F Witham, Christina Holmes
PURPOSE: Bone marrow aspirate has been successfully used alongside a variety of grafting materials to clinically augment spinal fusion. However, little is known about the fate of these transplanted cells. Herein, we develop a novel murine model for the in vivo monitoring of implanted bone marrow cells (BMCs) following spinal fusion. METHODS: A clinical-grade scaffold was implanted into immune-intact mice undergoing spinal fusion with or without freshly isolated BMCs from either transgenic mice which constitutively express the firefly luciferase gene or syngeneic controls...
December 3, 2018: European Spine Journal
Feifei Jiang, Shengzhi Liu, Andy Chen, Bai-Yan Li, Alexander G Robling, Jie Chen, Hiroki Yokota
Breast cancer-associated bone metastasis induces bone loss, followed by an increased risk of bone fracture. To develop a strategy for preventing tumor growth and protecting bone, an understanding of the mechanical properties of bone under tumor burden is indispensable. Using a mouse model of mammary tumor, we conducted finite element analysis (FEA) of two bone samples from the distal femur. One sample was from a placebo-treated mouse, and the other was from a mouse treated with the investigational drug candidate, PD407824, an inhibitor of checkpoint kinases...
2018: International journal of orthopaedics
Luiza O Saad, Thomas Schwaha, Stephan Handschuh, Andreas Wanninger, José E A R Marian
Males from numerous animal taxa have evolved strategies for obstructing the female genitalia with copulatory plugs, reducing the risk of sperm competition and thus resulting in an advantage in sexual selection. Several lines of evidence suggest that sperm competition is a common feature in the complex squid mating systems, which include the evolution of alternative mating tactics (consort vs. sneaker). However, mating plugs have hitherto not been reported for the group. Investigating the female sperm-storage organ (i...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Ferran Jardí, Nari Kim, Michaël R Laurent, Rougin Khalil, Ludo Deboel, Dieter Schollaert, Harry van Lenthe, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
Androgens via the androgen receptor (AR) are required for optimal male bone health. The target cell(s) for the effects of androgens on cortical bone remain(s) incompletely understood. In females, estrogen receptor alpha in neurons is a negative regulator of cortical and trabecular bone. Whether neuronal AR regulates bone mass in males remains unexplored. Here, we inactivated AR in neurons using a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 under the control of the neuronal promoter Thy1. Tamoxifen induced a 70-80% reduction of AR mRNA levels in Thy1-CreERT2 positive brain regions cerebral cortex and brainstem as well as in the peripheral nervous tissue of male neuronal AR knockout (N-ARKO) mice...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Nolan Esplen, Eisa Alyaqoub, Magdalena Bazalova-Carter
PURPOSE: The goal of this work was to design a realistic mouse phantom as a useful tool for accurate dosimetry in radiobiology experiments. METHODS: A subcutaneous tumor-bearing mouse was scanned in a microCT scanner, its organs manually segmented and contoured. The resulting geometries were converted into a stereolithographic file format (STL) and sent to a multi-material 3D printer. The phantom was split into two parts to allow for lung excavation and 3D-printed with an acrylic-like material and consisted of the main body (mass density ρ=1...
November 29, 2018: Medical Physics
Nisha Sambamurthy, Cheng Zhou, Vu Nguyen, Ryan Smalley, Kurt D Hankenson, George R Dodge, Carla R Scanzello
OBJECTIVE: CD14 is a monocyte/macrophage pattern-recognition receptor that modulates innate inflammatory signaling. Soluble CD14 levels in knee OA synovial fluids are associated with symptoms and progression of disease. Here we investigate the role of this receptor in development of OA using a murine joint injury model of disease. METHODS: 10-week-old Male C57BL/6 (WT) and CD14-deficient (CD14-/-) mice underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery to induce OA...
2018: PloS One
Sadaoki Sakai, Hiromi Hongo, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tomoka Hasegawa, Satoshi Takeda, Hitoshi Saito, Koichi Endo, Kenji Yogo, Norio Amizuka
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs have a powerful anabolic effect on bone and are used in the treatment of patients with severe osteoporosis. However, there are limitations to how long they can be safely administered. Withdrawal of PTH results in the cancelation of its effects, necessitating subsequent treatment to maintain the bone quantity and quality. This study assessed the effects of Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active vitamin D3 derivative, after PTH in estrogen-deficient osteoporotic rats. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, and PTH administration was started 7 weeks later...
November 22, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Andrew W Mathers, Christopher Hepworth, Alice L Baillie, Jen Sloan, Hannah Jones, Marjorie Lundgren, Andrew J Fleming, Sacha J Mooney, Craig J Sturrock
Background: Leaf cellular architecture plays an important role in setting limits for carbon assimilation and, thus, photosynthetic performance. However, the low density, fine structure, and sensitivity to desiccation of plant tissue has presented challenges to its quantification. Classical methods of tissue fixation and embedding prior to 2D microscopy of sections is both laborious and susceptible to artefacts that can skew the values obtained. Here we report an image analysis pipeline that provides quantitative descriptors of plant leaf intercellular airspace using lab-based X-ray computed tomography (microCT)...
2018: Plant Methods
S Ghods, S Murcia, E A Ossa, D Arola
Natural dermal armors are serving as a source of inspiration in the pursuit of "next-generation" structural materials. Although the dynamic strain response of these materials is arguably the most relevant to their performance as armors, limited work has been performed in this area. Here, uniaxial tension and transverse puncture tests were performed on specimens obtained from the scales of Asian carp over strain rates spanning seven decades, from 10-4 to 103 s-1 . The importance of anatomical variations was explored by comparing the performance of scales from the head, middle and tail regions...
November 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Matthew J Sanseverino, Toni L Speacht, Henry J Donahue, Anthony G Lau
Astronauts and patients on bedrest are subject to a combination of bone strength losses and muscle atrophy due to microgravity and unloading. In this study, mice were subject to both hind limb suspension and cast mediated immobilization. Pre-treatment and post-treatment microCT scans were utilized to create finite element models. Both pre-treatment and posttreatment scans were then cropped, rotated and threedimensional image registration was performed to eliminate inconsistency in alignment. A hexahedral finite element mesh was then generated from this 3D data...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Wei Cai, Lianglong Chen, Linlin Zhang, Sheng Tu, Lin Fan, Zhaoyang Chen, Yukun Luo, Xingchun Zheng
The optimal side-branch (SB) ostium treatment after provisional side-branch scaffolding remains a subject of debate in bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) era. In this study, we evaluated a novel optimized provisional T-stenting technique (OPT) and assessed its feasibility by comparison with T and small protrusion technique (TAP).Two provisional SB scaffolding techniques (OPT, n = 5; TAP, n = 5) were performed using polymeric BVS in a bifurcated phantom. The sequential intermediate snuggling balloon dilation, also called ostial optimal technique, was added to OPT but not TAP to dilate the side-branch ostium while the final snuggling balloon dilation applied for both procedures...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anton du Plessis, Philip Sperling, Andre Beerlink, Willie B du Preez, Stephan G le Roux
X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) can be applied to analyse powder feedstock used in additive manufacturing. In this paper, we demonstrate a dedicated workflow for this analysis method, specifically for Ti6Al4V powder typically used in commercial powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) systems. The methodology presented includes sample size requirements, scan conditions and settings, reconstruction and image analysis procedures. We envisage this method will support standardization in powder analysis in the additive manufacturing community...
2018: MethodsX
Fernanda Vieira Ribeiro, Suzana Peres Pimentel, Monica Grazieli Corrêa, João Paulo Bortoli, Michel Reis Messora, Marcio Zaffalon Casati
OBJECTIVES: Innovative approaches capable to improve peri-implant bone repair are relevant in the presence of smoking, a risk factor for healing around implants. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol (RESV) on peri-implant repair and its influence on bone-related markers in rats submitted to cigarette smoking inhalation (CSI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One titanium implant was inserted in each tibiae of rats assigned to: CSI+RESV(n:18); CSI+ placebo(n:18); Non-CSI(n:18)...
November 6, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Marta Peña Fernández, Enrico Dall'Ara, Alexander P Kao, Andrew J Bodey, Aikaterina Karali, Gordon W Blunn, Asa H Barber, Gianluca Tozzi
Digital volume correlation (DVC), combined with in situ synchrotron microcomputed tomography (SR-microCT) mechanics, allows for 3D full-field strain measurement in bone at the tissue level. However, long exposures to SR radiation are known to induce bone damage, and reliable experimental protocols able to preserve tissue properties are still lacking. This study aims to propose a proof-of-concept methodology to retain bone tissue integrity, based on residual strain determination using DVC, by decreasing the environmental temperature during in situ SR-microCT testing...
November 1, 2018: Materials
Reilly F Hayes, Selena Y Smith, Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros, Gerardo Álvarez-Reyes, René Hernandez-Rivera, David E Fastovsky
Premise of the Study Cretaceous Cornales provide a crucial record of the early history of asterids. Most lineages of the order are well represented in the fossil record, but South African families of Curtisiaceae and Grubbiaceae remain poorly understood. Seventy-three specimens of a fossil infructescence belonging to the genus Operculifructus Estrada-Ruiz & Cevallos-Ferriz emend. Hayes & Smith from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) El Gallo Formation, Baja California, Mexico bear previously undescribed characters that suggest a relationship to Grubbiaceae...
November 2018: American Journal of Botany
Shuye Yang, Kai Zhang, Jianhao Jiang, Bonface James, Shang-You Yang
This study investigated the interactive behavior of the particulate and ion forms of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy challenged preosteoblasts during the process of prosthetic implant loosening. Preosteoblasts were challenged with Co-Cr particles or Co(II) ions for 72 h, followed by the proliferation and PCR assays. For in vivo test, a titanium pin was implanted into proximal tibia of SCID mice to mimic knee replacement. Co-Cr particles or Co(II) ion challenged preosteoblasts (5 × 105 ) were intra-articularly injected into the implanted knee...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Magnus Bernhardsson, Per Aspenberg
Background and purpose - Teriparatide accelerates fracture healing in animals and probably in man. Abaloparatide is a new drug with similar although not identical effects on the teriparatide receptor. Given at 4 times the teriparatide dose in a human osteoporosis trial, abaloparatide increased bone density more than teriparatide, and both reduced fracture risk. We investigated in mice whether abaloparatide stimulates fracture healing, and if it does so with the suggested dose effect relation (4:1). Patients and methods - In a validated mouse model for metaphyseal healing (burr hole with screw pull-out), 96 mice were randomly allocated to 11 groups: control (saline), teriparatide or abaloparatide, where teriparatide and abaloparatide were given at 5 different doses each...
October 18, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
Chi Shu, Keren Chen, Maria Lynch, Jason R Maher, Hani A Awad, Andrew J Berger
Bone strength is a worldwide health concern. Although multiple techniques have been developed to evaluate bone quality, there are still gaps to be filled. Here we report a non-invasive approach for the prediction of bone strength in vivo using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired transcutaneously from the tibiae of mice from 4 to 23 weeks old and subsequently on the exposed bones. Partial least squares regression was applied to generate predictions of the areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric bone mineralization density (vBMD), and maximum torque (MT) of each tibia as quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT imaging, and biomechanical tests, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Anton du Plessis, Philip Sperling, Andre Beerlink, Lerato Tshabalala, Shaik Hoosain, Ntombi Mathe, Stephan G le Roux
MicroCT is best known for its ability to detect and quantify porosity or defects, and to visualize its 3D distribution. However, it is also possible to obtain accurate volumetric measurements from parts - this can be used in combination with the part mass to provide a good measure of its average density. The advantage of this density-measurement method is the ability to combine the density measurement with visualization and other microCT analyses of the same sample. These other analyses may include detailed porosity or void analysis (size and distribution) and roughness assessment, obtainable with the same scan data...
2018: MethodsX
Anton du Plessis, Philip Sperling, Andre Beerlink, Oelof Kruger, Lerato Tshabalala, Shaik Hoosain, Stephan G le Roux
The use of microCT of 10 mm coupon samples produced by AM has the potential to provide useful information of mean density and detailed porosity information of the interior of the samples. In addition, the same scan data can be used to provide surface roughness analysis of the as-built surfaces of the same coupon samples. This can be used to compare process parameters or new materials. While surface roughness is traditionally done using tactile probes or with non-contact interferometric techniques, the complex surfaces in AM are sometimes difficult to access and may be very rough, with undercuts and may be difficult to accurately measure using traditional techniques which are meant for smoother surfaces...
2018: MethodsX
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