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Chi Shu, Keren Chen, Maria Lynch, Jason R Maher, Hani A Awad, Andrew J Berger
Bone strength is a worldwide health concern. Although multiple techniques have been developed to evaluate bone quality, there are still gaps to be filled. Here we report a non-invasive approach for the prediction of bone strength in vivo using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired transcutaneously from the tibiae of mice from 4 to 23 weeks old and subsequently on the exposed bones. Partial least squares regression was applied to generate predictions of the areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric bone mineralization density (vBMD), and maximum torque (MT) of each tibia as quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT imaging, and biomechanical tests, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Anton du Plessis, Philip Sperling, Andre Beerlink, Lerato Tshabalala, Shaik Hoosain, Ntombi Mathe, Stephan G le Roux
MicroCT is best known for its ability to detect and quantify porosity or defects, and to visualize its 3D distribution. However, it is also possible to obtain accurate volumetric measurements from parts - this can be used in combination with the part mass to provide a good measure of its average density. The advantage of this density-measurement method is the ability to combine the density measurement with visualization and other microCT analyses of the same sample. These other analyses may include detailed porosity or void analysis (size and distribution) and roughness assessment, obtainable with the same scan data...
2018: MethodsX
Anton du Plessis, Philip Sperling, Andre Beerlink, Oelof Kruger, Lerato Tshabalala, Shaik Hoosain, Stephan G le Roux
The use of microCT of 10 mm coupon samples produced by AM has the potential to provide useful information of mean density and detailed porosity information of the interior of the samples. In addition, the same scan data can be used to provide surface roughness analysis of the as-built surfaces of the same coupon samples. This can be used to compare process parameters or new materials. While surface roughness is traditionally done using tactile probes or with non-contact interferometric techniques, the complex surfaces in AM are sometimes difficult to access and may be very rough, with undercuts and may be difficult to accurately measure using traditional techniques which are meant for smoother surfaces...
2018: MethodsX
Carolin Schwarz, Claus-Eric Ott, Dag Wulsten, Erik Brauer, Sophie Schreivogel, Ansgar Petersen, Kerstin Hassanein, Linda Roewer, Tanja Schmidt, Bettina M Willie, Georg N Duda
Successful fracture healing requires a tight interplay between mechanical and biological cues. In vitro studies illustrated that mechanical loading modulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, in the early phases of large bone defect regeneration in vivo, the underlying mechanisms leading to this mechanosensation remained unknown. We investigated the interaction of BMP2 stimulation and mechanical boundary conditions in a rat critical-sized femoral defect model (5 mm) stabilized with three distinctly different external fixator stiffness...
May 2018: JBMR Plus
Diarra K Williams, Sean G Parham, Eric Schryver, Nisreen S Akel, R Shane Shelton, Jessica Webber, Francis L Swain, Jami Schmidt, Larry J Suva, Dana Gaddy
Down syndrome (DS), characterized by trisomy of human chromosome 21, is associated with a variety of endocrine disorders as well as profound skeletal abnormalities. The low bone mass phenotype in DS is defined by low bone turnover due to decreased osteoclast and osteoblast activity, decreasing the utility of antiresorptive agents in people with DS. Sclerostin antibody (SclAb) is a therapeutic candidate currently being evaluated as a bone anabolic agent. Scl, the product of the sclerostin gene ( SOST ), inhibits bone formation through its inhibition of Wnt signaling...
January 2018: JBMR Plus
Zhuwei Huang, Jingjing Quan, Jia Liu, Wen Zhang, Xiaolei Zhang, Xiaoli Hu
Objective To evaluate the shaping ability of three thermally-treated rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems including ProTaper Next (PTN), HyFlex™ CM (HFCM) and HyFlex™ EDM (HFEDM) during root canal preparation in simulated root canals. Methods A total of 45 simulated root canals were divided into three groups ( n = 15) and prepared with PTN, HFCM or HFEDM files up to size 25. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) was used to scan the specimens before and after instrumentation. Volume and diameter changes, transportations and centring ratios at 11 levels of the simulated root canals were measured and compared...
October 3, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Anton du Plessis, Philip Sperling, Andre Beerlink, Lerato Tshabalala, Shaik Hoosain, Ntombi Mathe, Stephan G le Roux
MicroCT is a well-established technique that is used to analyze the interior of objects non-destructively, and it is especially useful for void or porosity analysis. Besides its widespread use, few standards exist and none for additive manufacturing as yet. This is due to the inherent differences in part design, sizes and geometries, which results in different scan resolutions and qualities. This makes direct comparison between different scans of additively manufactured parts almost impossible. In addition, different image analysis methodologies can produce different results...
2018: MethodsX
Beata Orman-Ligeza, Emily C Morris, Boris Parizot, Tristan Lavigne, Aurelie Babé, Aleksander Ligeza, Stephanie Klein, Craig Sturrock, Wei Xuan, Ondřey Novák, Karin Ljung, Maria A Fernandez, Pedro L Rodriguez, Ian C Dodd, Ive De Smet, Francois Chaumont, Henri Batoko, Claire Périlleux, Jonathan P Lynch, Malcolm J Bennett, Tom Beeckman, Xavier Draye
Efficient soil exploration by roots represents an important target for crop improvement and food security [1, 2]. Lateral root (LR) formation is a key trait for optimizing soil foraging for crucial resources such as water and nutrients. Here, we report an adaptive response termed xerobranching, exhibited by cereal roots, that represses branching when root tips are not in contact with wet soil. Non-invasive X-ray microCT imaging revealed that cereal roots rapidly repress LR formation as they enter an air space within a soil profile and are no longer in contact with water...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Adeline Blandinières, Thomas Gille, Jérémy Sadoine, Ivan Bièche, Lofti Slimani, Blandine Dizier, Pascale Gaussem, Catherine Chaussain, Carole Planes, Peter Dorfmüller, Dominique Israël-Biet, David M Smadja
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, destruction of pulmonary alveolar architecture and vascular remodeling. Apart pirfenidone or nintendanib that only slow down the fibrotic process, there is no curative treatment other than lung transplantation. Because cell therapy approaches have been proposed in IPF, we hypothesized that injection of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), the vasculogenic subtype of endothelial progenitor cells, could modulate fibrosis in a Nude mouse model of bleomycin induced-pulmonary fibrosis...
September 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Jannes Landschoff, Tomoyuki Komai, Anton du Plessis, Gavin Gouws, Charles L Griffiths
A new species of hermit crab, Pagurus fraserorum n. sp. (family Paguridae) is described from rocky subtidal reefs off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and illustrated using both conventional drawings and colour photographs, and via three-dimensional (3D) X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). Because of the limitation μCT has in detecting very fine and soft structures, a novel approach of manually drawing setation and spinulation onto the two-dimensional images of the 3D visualizations was used to illustrate the pereopods...
2018: PloS One
D Chappard, J-D Kün-Darbois, P Mercier, B Guillaume, E Aguado
The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is a sensitive branch of the trigeminal nerve. It has an intra-bone path in the mandible, inside the mandibular canal, where it is accompanied by lymph, venous and arterial vessels. We have studied the mandibular canal in human mandibles and in some laboratory animals (mice, rats, rabbits and cats). Microcomputed tomography evidenced that the walls of the canal are made with thin plates of trabecular bone with numerous fenestrations. This aspect is evidenced in dentate subjects and become more evident in edentulous subjects with atrophy of the alveolar bone...
September 20, 2018: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
Claire Conway, Gerard J Desany, Lynn R Bailey, John H Keating, Brian L Baker, Elazer R Edelman
OBJECTIVES: Drug-eluting stent (DES) strut fracture (SF) is associated with higher incidence of In-stent restenosis (ISR)-return of blockage in a diseased artery post stenting-than seen with bare metal stents (BMS). We hypothesize that concomitance of drug and SF leads to greater neointimal response. BACKGROUND: Controlled release of therapeutic agents, such as sirolimus and its analogs, or paclitaxel from has reduced tissue based DES failure modes compared to BMS...
September 23, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Jeffrey Sundblad, Mary Nixon, Nancy Jackson, Rahul Vaidya, David Markel
PURPOSE: To examine the role of polymerization temperature on the cement porosity and antibiotic elution to optimize antibiotic release from antibiotic-laden cement (ABLC). METHODS: Elution profiles of vancomycin and tobramycin from ABLC discs prepared with low- and high-dose antibiotic dosages, cured at 8, 21, and 37 °C, and placed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C were examined. Samples were collected at one, four, eight, 24, 72, 168, 336, and 1008 hours to calculate the quantity of antibiotic eluted...
November 2018: International Orthopaedics
James F Hainfeld, Sharif M Ridwan, Yaroslav Stanishevskiy, Nathaniel R Smilowitz, James Davis, Henry M Smilowitz
Standard clinical X-ray contrast agents are small iodine-containing molecules that are rapidly cleared by the kidneys and provide robust imaging for only a few seconds, thereby limiting more extensive vascular and tissue biodistribution imaging as well as optimal tumor uptake. They are also not generally useful for preclinical microCT imaging where longer scan times are required for high resolution image acquisition. We here describe a new iodine nanoparticle contrast agent that has a unique combination of properties: 20 nm hydrodynamic diameter, covalent PEG coating, 40 hour blood half-life, 50% liver clearance after six months, accumulation in tumors, and well-tolerated to at least 4 g iodine/kg body weight after intravenous administration in mice...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xinping Zhang
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in skeletal repair and regeneration. Our understanding of the intricate relationship between osteogenesis and angiogenesis at a repair site has been hindered by the lack of an effective approach that allows tracking of bone healing and neovascularization simultaneously at a high spatiotemporal resolution in living animals. To overcome this barrier, we have recently established a cranial bone defect window chamber model in mice that enables high-resolution, four-dimensional imaging analyses of bone defect healing using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
M Klepsch, Y Zhang, M M Kotowska, L J Lamarque, M Nolf, B Schuldt, J M Torres-Ruiz, D-W Qin, B Choat, S Delzon, C Scoffoni, K-F Cao, S Jansen
According to the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis, leaves are more vulnerable to decline of hydraulic conductivity than branches, but whether stem xylem is more embolism resistant than leaves remains unclear.Drought-induced embolism resistance of leaf xylem was investigated based on X-ray computed tomography (microCT) for Betula pendula, Laurus nobilis, and Liriodendron tulipifera, excluding outside-xylem, and compared to hydraulic vulnerability curves for branch xylem. Moreover, bordered pit characters related to embolism resistance were investigated for both organs...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hak-Jae Kim, Kyeong-Hun Park, Dong-Hwi Kim, Han-Jung Chae, Gi-Ho Sung, Young-Ock Kim
Recent research has confirmed that Panax ginseng ( P. ginseng ) has effect on cultured osteoblast of the mouse. In this study we aim to validate the usefulness of tibia quantification by correlating micro-computed tomographic (microCT) images with histology analysis in the aged male rats. A total of thirty - old male WISTAR rats were used and divided into ten 8 weeks rats and ten 112 weeks aged rats with vehicle and ten 112 weeks aged rats with P. ginseng (300 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of P...
September 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Marta Peña Fernández, Silvia Cipiccia, Enrico Dall'Ara, Andrew J Bodey, Rachna Parwani, Martino Pani, Gordon W Blunn, Asa H Barber, Gianluca Tozzi
The use of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-microCT) is becoming increasingly popular for studying the relationship between microstructure and bone mechanics subjected to in situ mechanical testing. However, it is well known that the effect of SR X-ray radiation can considerably alter the mechanical properties of bone tissue. Digital volume correlation (DVC) has been extensively used to compute full-field strain distributions in bone specimens subjected to step-wise mechanical loading, but tissue damage from sequential SR-microCT scans has not been previously addressed...
August 16, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Gili R S Naveh, Jonathan E Foster, Tomas M Silva Santisteban, Xianrui Yang, Bjorn R Olsen
Ligaments serve as compliant connectors between hard tissues. In that role, they function under various load regimes and directions. The 3D structure of ligaments is considered to form as a uniform entity that changes due to function. The periodontal ligament (PDL) connects the tooth to the bone and sustains different types of loads in various directions. Using the PDL as a model, employing a fabricated motorized setup in a microCT, we demonstrate that the fibrous network structure within the PDL is not uniform, even before the tooth becomes functional...
September 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ming Zhao, Seon-Yle Ko, I Ross Garrett, Gregory R Mundy, Gloria E Gutierrez, James R Edwards
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) exists in high quantities in certain foods (e.g. grapes and nuts). However, the capacity of RSV to confer physiological health benefits and a biological mechanism through which this might occur remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Aged, RSV-treated (300 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) and genetically modified [endothelial NOS (eNOS-/- )] female mice were assessed using histomorphometric and μCT analysis. Alongside in vivo analysis, molecular siRNA knockdown and pharmacological manipulation of eNOS, BMP2 and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and functional cellular assays in an osteoblast cell line panel, explored the mechanism through which RSV might impact overall bone volume...
August 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
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