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Neural progenitors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914133/age-of-donor-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-affects-structural-and-functional-recovery-after-cell-therapy-following-ischaemic-stroke
#1
Susumu Yamaguchi, Nobutaka Horie, Katsuya Satoh, Takeshi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Mori, Hajime Maeda, Yuhtaka Fukuda, Shunsuke Ishizaka, Takeshi Hiu, Yoichi Morofuji, Tsuyoshi Izumo, Noriyuki Nishida, Takayuki Matsuo
Cell transplantation therapy offers great potential to improve impairments after stroke. However, the importance of donor age on therapeutic efficacy is unclear. We investigated the regenerative capacity of transplanted cells focusing on donor age (young vs. old) for ischaemic stroke. The quantities of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) secreted brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro and of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 at day 7 in vivo were both significantly higher for young hMSC compared with old hMSC...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911867/population-dynamics-of-neural-progenitor-cells-during-aging-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#2
Yuka Okada, Koji Ohira
Recent studies indicate that adult neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of rodents. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have been found in the adult cerebral cortex. These cells are expected to be regulated by various stimuli, including environmental enrichment, exercise, learning, and stress. However, it is unclear what stimuli can regulate cortical NPCs. In this study, we examined whether aging has an impact on population dynamics of NPCs in the murine cerebral cortex, using immunohistological staining for NPCs...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904534/three-dimensional-organoid-system-transplantation-technologies-in-future-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#3
REVIEW
NaiLi Wei, ZiFang Quan, Hailiang Tang, JianHong Zhu
In recent years, scientists have made great achievements in understanding the development of human brain and elucidating critical elements of stepwise spatiotemporal control strategies in neural stem cell specification lineage, which facilitates successful induction of neural organoid in vitro including the cerebral cortex, cerebellar, neural tube, hippocampus cortex, pituitary, and optic cup. Besides, emerging researches on neural organogenesis promote the application of 3D organoid system transplantation in treating central nervous system (CNS) diseases...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#4
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903495/rna-seq-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-lead-pb-reveals-transcriptome-dynamics-splicing-alterations-and-disease-risk-associations
#5
Peng Jiang, Zhonggang Hou, Jennifer M Bolin, James A Thomson, Ron Stewart
Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxicant, especially for the developing nervous system, albeit the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we use time series RNA-seq to conduct a genome-wide survey of the transcriptome response of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells to lead treatment. Using a dynamic time warping algorithm coupled with statistical tests, we find that lead can either accelerate or decelerate the expression of specific genes during the time series. We further show that lead disrupts a neuron- and brain-specific splicing factor NOVA1 regulated splicing network...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900388/disc1-regulates-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-mouse-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-through-pax5-sox2-dll1-and-neurog2
#6
Qian Wu, Weiting Tang, Zhaohui Luo, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Zongwei Yue, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Background: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) regulates neurogenesis and is a genetic risk factor for major psychiatric disorders. However, how DISC1 dysfunction affects neurogenesis and cell cycle progression at the molecular level is still unknown. Here, we investigated the role of DISC1 in regulating proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (MNSPCs) in vitro. Methods: MNSPCs were isolated and cultured from mouse fetal hippocampi. Retroviral vectors or siRNAs were used to manipulate DISC1 expression in MNSPCs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900065/-establishment-and-maintenance-of-adult-neural-stem-cells
#7
Naoya Yuizumi, Yujin Harada
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian brain produce new neurons throughout life. Defects in adult neurogenesis can influence neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Hence, understanding long-term maintenance of adult NSCs is crucial. Cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors contribute to long-term maintenance of adult NSCs, and we have previously reported that NSCs produce their own niches that send a feedback signal for their own maintenance. In addition, we have identified a slowly dividing subpopulation of embryonic neural progenitor cells that is set aside during development, and later becomes a substantial fraction of NSCs in the adult subventricular zone...
September 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899760/chronic-atypical-antipsychotics-but-not-haloperidol-increase-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-mouse
#8
Koji Chikama, Hidetaka Yamada, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Kosuke Kajitani, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Naohisa Uchimura
It is suggested that altered neuroplasticity contributes to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and antipsychotics may exhibit some of their therapeutic efficacies by improving neurogenesis and/or proliferation of neural progenitors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether chronic antipsychotics treatment affect neurogenesis in adult mouse hippocampus. Animals were administered olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, or haloperidol via the osmotic minipump for 21 days and then injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899668/the-sp7-gene-is-required-for-maturation-of-osteoblast-linage-cells-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes-vertebral-column-development
#9
Yuki Azetsu, Keiji Inohaya, Yoshiro Takano, Masato Kinoshita, Mai Tasaki, Akira Kudo
Sp7 is a zinc finger transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation in mammals. To verify the characteristic features of osteoblast-lineage cells in teleosts, we established medaka sp7 mutants using a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) genome editing system. These mutants showed severe defects in the formation of skeletal structures. In particular, the neural and the hemal arches were not formed, although the chordal centra were formed. Analysis of the transgenic medaka revealed that sp7 mutant had normal distribution of type X collagen a1 a (col10a1a)-positive osteoblast-like cells around the centrum and at the proximal region of the vertebral arch...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899667/bhlh-o-proteins-balance-the-self-renewal-and-differentiation-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells-by-regulating-earmuff-expression
#10
Xiaosu Li, Rui Chen, Sijun Zhu
Balancing self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells requires differential expression of self-renewing factors in two daughter cells generated from the asymmetric division of the stem cells. In Drosophila type II neural stem cell (or neuroblast, NB) lineages, the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix-Orange (bHLH-O) family proteins, including Deadpan (Dpn) and E(spl) proteins, is required for maintaining the self-renewal and identity of type II NBs, whereas the absence of these self-renewing factors is essential for the differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) generated from type II NBs...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899597/playing-well-with-others-extrinsic-cues-regulate-neural-progenitor-temporal-identity-to-generate-neuronal-diversity
#11
REVIEW
Mubarak Hussain Syed, Brandon Mark, Chris Q Doe
During neurogenesis, vertebrate and Drosophila progenitors change over time as they generate a diverse population of neurons and glia. Vertebrate neural progenitors have long been known to use both progenitor-intrinsic and progenitor-extrinsic cues to regulate temporal patterning. In contrast, virtually all temporal patterning mechanisms discovered in Drosophila neural progenitors (neuroblasts) involve progenitor-intrinsic temporal transcription factor cascades. Recent results, however, have revealed several extrinsic pathways that regulate Drosophila neuroblast temporal patterning: nutritional cues regulate the timing of neuroblast proliferation/quiescence and a steroid hormone cue that is required for temporal transcription factor expression...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898253/engineering-human-cell-spheroids-to-model-embryonic-tissue-fusion-in-vitro
#12
David G Belair, Cynthia J Wolf, Carmen Wood, Hongzu Ren, Rachel Grindstaff, William Padgett, Adam Swank, Denise MacMillan, Anna Fisher, Witold Winnik, Barbara D Abbott
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions drive embryonic fusion events during development, and perturbations of these interactions can result in birth defects. Cleft palate and neural tube defects can result from genetic defects or environmental exposures during development, yet very little is known about the effect of chemical exposures on fusion events during human development because of a lack of relevant and robust human in vitro assays of developmental fusion behavior. Given the etiology and prevalence of cleft palate and the relatively simple architecture and composition of the embryonic palate, we sought to develop a three-dimensional culture system that mimics the embryonic palate and could be used to study fusion behavior in vitro using human cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893946/a-radial-axis-defined-by-semaphorin-to-neuropilin-signaling-controls-pancreatic-islet-morphogenesis
#13
Philip T Pauerstein, Krissie Tellez, Kirk B Willmarth, Keon Min Park, Brian Hsueh, H Efsun Arda, Xueying Gu, Haig Aghajanian, Karl Deisseroth, Jonathan A Epstein, Seung K Kim
The islets of Langerhans are endocrine organs characteristically dispersed throughout the pancreas. During development, endocrine progenitors delaminate, migrate radially, and cluster to form islets. Despite the distinctive distribution of islets, spatially localized signals that control islet morphogenesis have not been discovered. Here we identify a radial signaling axis that instructs developing islet cells to disperse throughout the pancreas. A screen of pancreatic extracellular signals identified factors that stimulated islet cell development...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893945/zfp423-znf423-regulates-cell-cycle-progression-the-mode-of-cell-division-and-the-dna-damage-response-in-purkinje-neuron-progenitors
#14
Filippo Casoni, Laura Croci, Camilla Bosone, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Aurora Badaloni, Davide Gaudesi, Valeria Barili, Justyna R Sarna, Lino Tessarollo, Ottavio Cremona, Richard Hawkes, Søren Warming, G Giacomo Consalez
The Zfp423/ZNF423 gene encodes a 30-Zn-finger transcription factor involved in key developmental pathways. While null Zfp423 mutants develop cerebellar malformations, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. ZNF423 mutations have been associated to Joubert Syndrome, a ciliopathy causing cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and ataxia. ZNF423 participates in the DNA damage response, raising questions regarding its role as a regulator of neural progenitor cell cycle progression in cerebellar development. To characterize in vivo the function of ZFP423 in neurogenesis, we analyzed allelic murine mutants in which distinct functional domains are deleted...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891097/ventral-neural-patterning-in-the-absence-of-a-shh-activity-gradient-from-the-floorplate
#15
Angelo Iulianella, Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kurosaka, Paul Trainor
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate spinal cord development requires Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the floorplate and notochord, where it is thought to act in concentration dependent manner to pattern distinct cell identities along the ventral-to-dorsal axis. While in vitro experiments demonstrate naïve neural tissues are sensitive to small changes in Shh levels, genetic studies illustrate that some degree of ventral patterning can occur despite significant perturbations in Shh signaling. Consequently, the mechanistic relationship between Shh morphogen levels and acquisition of distinct cell identities remains unclear...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888421/neural-crest-and-cancer-divergent-travelers-on-similar-paths
#16
REVIEW
Kristin L Gallik, Randall W Treffy, Lynne M Nacke, Kamil Ahsan, Manuel Rocha, Abigail Green-Saxena, Ankur Saxena
Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitors that dynamically interpret diverse microenvironments to migrate significant distances as a loosely associated collective and contribute to many tissues in the developing vertebrate embryo. Uncovering details of neural crest migration has helped to inform a general understanding of collective cell migration, including that which occurs during cancer metastasis. Here, we discuss several commonalities and differences of neural crest and cancer cell migration and behavior...
September 6, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887094/salvianolic-acids-for-injection-safi-promotes-functional-recovery-and-neurogenesis-via-sonic-hedgehog-pathway-after-stroke-in-mice
#17
Ye Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Lili Cui, Rong Chen, Cong Zhang, Yaoru Li, Tingting He, Xingyuan Zhu, Zuyuan Shen, Lipeng Dong, Jingru Zhao, Ya Wen, Xiufen Zheng, Pan Li
There is a pressing need of developing approaches for delayed post-stroke therapy for patients who fail to receive thrombolysis within the narrow time window. Neuroprotection of Salvianolic Acids for Injection (SAFI) for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute phase has been well documented. The current study was to determine the influence of SAFI at the subacute phase after stroke in mice, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (dMCAO), followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of SAFI 24 h after stroke for 14 days...
September 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887084/tethered-growth-factors-on-biocompatible-scaffolds-improve-stemness-of-cultured-rat-and-human-neural-stem-cells-and-growth-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#18
Lisamarie Moore, Nolan B Skop, Deborah E Rothbard, Lucas R Corrubia, Steven W Levison
Currently, there is no widely accepted technique to efficiently and reproducibly grow stem and progenitor cells in vitro. Stem cells require contact with extracellular matrices as well as signals from growth factors to proliferate and to retain their stemness. We have developed a novel tissue culture platform (StemTrix cultureware) that transforms standard tissue culture plasticware into a multi-functional chitosan-based scaffold that supports the expansion of neural stem cells. The StemTrix scaffold is comprised of chitosan with immobilized heparin which in turn tethers heparin-binding growth factors...
September 5, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884727/-disturbance-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-schizophrenia-in-relation-to-main-hypothesis-of-the-disease
#19
N S Kolomeets
Increasing evidence coming from neuroimaging, molecular genetic and post-mortem studies have implicated oligodendrocyte abnormalities and compromised myelin integrity in schizophrenia. Activity-dependent myelination in adult brain is considered to be an important mechanism of neural circuit's plasticity due to the presence of a large population of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) in the adult CNS. Growing evidence for impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation has been reported in the brain of schizophrenia subjects...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884684/inhibition-of-dyrk1a-disrupts-neural-lineage-specification-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Stephanie F Bellmaine, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, David T Manallack, Claire E Cuddy, Andrew G Elefanty, Edouard G Stanley, Ernst J Wolvetang, Spencer J Williams, Martin Pera
Genetic analysis has revealed that the dual specificity protein kinase DYRK1A has multiple roles in the development of the central nervous system. Increased DYRK1A gene dosage, such as occurs in Down syndrome, affects neural progenitor cell differentiation, while haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A is associated with severe microcephaly. Using a set of known and newly synthesized DYRK1A inhibitors, along with CRISPR-mediated gene activation and shRNA knockdown of DYRK1A, we show that chemical inhibition or genetic knockdown of DYRK1A interferes with neural specification of human pluripotent stem cells, a process equating to the earliest stage of human brain development...
September 8, 2017: ELife
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