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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346437/friction-forces-position-the-neural-anlage
#1
Michael Smutny, Zsuzsa Ákos, Silvia Grigolon, Shayan Shamipour, Verena Ruprecht, Daniel Čapek, Martin Behrndt, Ekaterina Papusheva, Masazumi Tada, Björn Hof, Tamás Vicsek, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
During embryonic development, mechanical forces are essential for cellular rearrangements driving tissue morphogenesis. Here, we show that in the early zebrafish embryo, friction forces are generated at the interface between anterior axial mesoderm (prechordal plate, ppl) progenitors migrating towards the animal pole and neurectoderm progenitors moving in the opposite direction towards the vegetal pole of the embryo. These friction forces lead to global rearrangement of cells within the neurectoderm and determine the position of the neural anlage...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344151/enhancing-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-transient-transcription-activation-via-dna-nanoparticle-mediated-transfection
#2
Xiaowei Li, Stephany Y Tzeng, Camila Gadens Zamboni, Vassilis E Koliatsos, Guo-Li Ming, Jordan J Green, Hai-Quan Mao
Current approaches to derive oligodendrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) need extended exposure of hPSCs to growth factors and small molecules, which limits their clinical application because of the lengthy culture time required and low generation efficiency of myelinating oligodendrocytes. Compared to extrinsic growth factors and molecules, oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation can be more effectively modulated by regulation of the cell transcription network. In the developing central nervous system (CNS), two basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, Olig1 and Olig2, are decisive in oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation...
March 23, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344005/mir-342-5p-regulates-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-downstream-to-notch-signaling-in-mice
#3
Fang Gao, Yu-Fei Zhang, Zheng-Ping Zhang, Luo-An Fu, Xiu-Li Cao, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Chen-Jun Guo, Xian-Chun Yan, Qin-Chuan Yang, Yi-Yang Hu, Xiang-Hui Zhao, Ya-Zhou Wang, Sheng-Xi Wu, Gong Ju, Min-Hua Zheng, Hua Han
Notch signaling is critically involved in neural development, but the downstream effectors remain incompletely understood. In this study, we cultured neurospheres from Nestin-Cre-mediated conditional Rbp-j knockout (Rbp-j cKO) and control embryos and compared their miRNA expression profiles using microarray. Among differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-342-5p showed upregulated expression as Notch signaling was genetically or pharmaceutically interrupted. Consistently, the promoter of the miR-342-5p host gene, the Ena-vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein-like (Evl), was negatively regulated by Notch signaling, probably through HES5...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344003/abnormal-neural-progenitor-cells-differentiated-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-partially-mimicked-development-of-tsc2-neurological-abnormalities
#4
Yaqin Li, Jiqing Cao, Menglong Chen, Jing Li, Yiming Sun, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhu, Liang Wang, Cheng Zhang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a disease featuring devastating and therapeutically challenging neurological abnormalities. However, there is a lack of specific neural progenitor cell models for TSC. Here, the pathology of TSC was studied using primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) from a patient presenting a c.1444-2A>C mutation in TSC2. We found that TSC2 pNSCs had higher proliferative activity and increased PAX6 expression compared with those of control pNSCs. Neurons differentiated from TSC2 pNSCs showed enlargement of the soma, perturbed neurite outgrowth, and abnormal connections among cells...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343864/diazepam-binding-inhibitor-promotes-stem-cell-expansion-controlling-environment-dependent-neurogenesis
#5
Ionut Dumitru, Angela Neitz, Julieta Alfonso, Hannah Monyer
Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis...
March 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#6
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342892/comparison-of-three-cell-based-drug-screening-platforms-for-hsv-1-infection
#7
Leonardo D'Aiuto, Kelly Williamson, Peter Dimitrion, James McNulty, Carla E Brown, Chanti Babu Dokuburra, Alexander J Nielsen, Wen Jing Lin, Paolo Piazza, Mark E Schurdak, Joel Wood, Robert H Yolken, Paul R Kinchington, David C Bloom, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
Acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives have been highly effective for treating recurrent, lytic infections with Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 (HSV-1), but searches for additional antiviral drugs are motivated by recent reports of resistance to ACV, particularly among immunocompromised patients. In addition, the relative neurotoxicity of ACV and its inability to prevent neurological sequelae among HSV-1 encephalitis survivors compel searches for new drugs to treat HSV-1 infections of the central nervous system (CNS)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341829/usp9x-deubiquitylating-enzyme-maintains-raptor-protein-levels-mtorc1-signalling-and-proliferation-in-neural-progenitors
#8
Caitlin R Bridges, Men-Chee Tan, Susitha Premarathne, Devathri Nanayakkara, Bernadette Bellette, Dusan Zencak, Deepti Domingo, Jozef Gecz, Mariyam Murtaza, Lachlan A Jolly, Stephen A Wood
USP9X, is highly expressed in neural progenitors and, essential for neural development in mice. In humans, mutations in USP9X are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To understand USP9X's role in neural progenitors, we studied the effects of altering its expression in both the human neural progenitor cell line, ReNcell VM, as well as neural stem and progenitor cells derived from Nestin-cre conditionally deleted Usp9x mice. Decreasing USP9X resulted in ReNcell VM cells arresting in G0 cell cycle phase, with a concomitant decrease in mTORC1 signalling, a major regulator of G0/G1 cell cycle progression...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341812/parkinson-s-disease-associated-receptor-gpr37-is-an-er-chaperone-for-lrp6
#9
Birgit S Berger, Sergio P Acebron, Jessica Herbst, Stefan Koch, Christof Niehrs
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in embryonic development, stem cell biology, and neurogenesis. However, the mechanisms of Wnt signal transmission, notably how the receptors are regulated, remain incompletely understood. Here we describe that the Parkinson's disease-associated receptor GPR37 functions in the maturation of the N-terminal bulky β-propellers of the Wnt co-receptor LRP6. GPR37 is required for Wnt/β-catenin signaling and protects LRP6 from ER-associated degradation via CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) and the ATPase VCP GPR37 is highly expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) where it is required for Wnt-dependent neurogenesis...
March 24, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341582/sex-differences-in-microglial-phagocytosis-in-the-neonatal-hippocampus
#10
Lars H Nelson, Spencer Warden, Kathryn M Lenz
Microglia regulate brain development through many processes, such as promoting neurogenesis, supporting cell survival, and phagocytizing progenitor, newly-born, and dying cells. Many of these same developmental processes show robust sex differences, yet very few studies have assessed sex differences in microglia function during development. Hormonally-induced sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during the perinatal period, thus we examined sex differences in microglial morphology, phagocytosis, and proliferation in the hippocampus during the early postnatal period...
March 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340616/lacking-of-palladin-leads-to-multiple-cellular-events-changes-which-contribute-to-ntd
#11
Juan Tan, Xue-Jiao Chen, Chun-Ling Shen, Hong-Xin Zhang, Ling-Yun Tang, Shun-Yuan Lu, Wen-Ting Wu, Ying Kuang, Jian Fei, Zhu-Gang Wang
BACKGROUND: The actin cytoskeleton-associated protein palladin plays an important role in cell motility, morphogenesis and adhesion. In mice, Palladin deficient embryos are lethal before embryonic day (E) 15.5, and exhibit severe cranial neural tube and body wall closure defects. However, the mechanism how palladin regulates the process of cranial neural tube closure (NTC) remains unknown. METHODS: In this paper, we use gene knockout mouse to elucidate the function of palladin in the regulation of NTC process...
March 24, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339768/the-transcription-factor-olig2-is-important-for-the-biology-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas
#12
Jane L Anderson, Ranjithmenon Muraleedharan, Nicole Oatman, Amanda Klotter, Satarupa Sengupta, Ronald R Waclaw, Jianqiang Wu, Rachid Drissi, Lili Miles, Eric H Raabe, Matthew L Weirauch, Maryam Fouladi, Lionel M Chow, Lindsey Hoffman, Mariko DeWire, Biplab Dasgupta
Background.: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a high-grade brainstem glioma of children with dismal prognosis. There is no single unifying model about the cell of origin of DIPGs. Proliferating cells in the developing human and mouse pons, the site of DIPGs, express neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers, including Sox2, nestin, vimentin, Olig2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, in an overlapping and non-overlapping manner, suggesting progenitor cell heterogeneity in the pons...
February 23, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337978/microrna-filters-hox-temporal-transcription-noise-to-confer-boundary-formation-in-the-spinal-cord
#13
Chung-Jung Li, Tian Hong, Ying-Tsen Tung, Ya-Ping Yen, Ho-Chiang Hsu, Ya-Lin Lu, Mien Chang, Qing Nie, Jun-An Chen
The initial rostrocaudal patterning of the neural tube leads to differential expression of Hox genes that contribute to the specification of motor neuron (MN) subtype identity. Although several 3' Hox mRNAs are expressed in progenitors in a noisy manner, these Hox proteins are not expressed in the progenitors and only become detectable in postmitotic MNs. MicroRNA biogenesis impairment leads to precocious expression and propagates the noise of Hoxa5 at the protein level, resulting in an imprecise Hoxa5-Hoxc8 boundary...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337288/which-has-more-stem-cell-characteristics-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-or-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-derived-from-in-vivo-culture-in-neurospheres
#14
Hong-Pei Ji, Yu Xiong, En-Dong Zhang, Wei-Tao Song, Zhao-Lin Gao, Fei Yao, Hong Sun, Rong-Rong Zhou, Xiao-Bo Xia
OBJECTIVE: Müller cells can be acquired from in vitro culture or a neurosphere culture system. Both culture methods yield cells with progenitor-cell characteristics that can differentiate into mature nervous cells. We compared the progenitor-cell traits of Müller cells acquired from each method. METHODS: Primary murine Müller cells were isolated in serum culture media and used to generate Müller cells derived from neurospheres in serum-free culture conditions...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336567/sox9-is-an-astrocyte-specific-nuclear-marker-in-the-adult-brain-outside-the-neurogenic-regions
#15
Wei Sun, Adam Cornwell, Jiashu Li, Sisi Peng, M Joana Osorio, Nadia Aalling Su Wanga, Abdellatif Benraiss, Nanhong Lou, Steven A Goldman, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes have in recent years become the focus of intense experimental interest, yet markers for their definitive identification remain both scarce and imperfect. Astrocytes may be recognized as such by their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)quaporin-4 (AQP4)ldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1)nd other proteins. Yet these proteins may all be regulated both developmentally and functionally, restricting their utility...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#16
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333692/application-of-olfactory-tissue-and-its-neural-progenitors-to-schizophrenia-and-psychiatric-research
#17
Joëlle Lavoie, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review article is to introduce olfactory epithelium-derived cell/tissue models as a promising surrogate system to study the molecular mechanisms implicated in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we particularly focus on the utility of their neural progenitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent investigations of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia using olfactory epithelium-derived tissue/cell models have provided insights about schizophrenia-associated alterations in neurodevelopment, stress response, and gene/protein expression regulatory pathways...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333144/aberrant-ipsc-derived-human-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
V C Jones, R Atkinson-Dell, A Verkhratsky, L Mohamet
The pathological potential of human astroglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was analysed in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we report development of a human iPSC-derived astrocyte model created from healthy individuals and patients with either early-onset familial AD (FAD) or the late-onset sporadic form of AD (SAD). Our chemically defined and highly efficient model provides >95% homogeneous populations of human astrocytes within 30 days of differentiation from cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333139/inhibition-of-autophagy-prevents-irradiation-induced-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cell-death-in-the-juvenile-mouse-brain
#19
Yafeng Wang, Kai Zhou, Tao Li, Yiran Xu, Cuicui Xie, Yanyan Sun, Yaodong Zhang, Juan Rodriguez, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Radiotherapy is an effective tool in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. However, damage to brain stem and progenitor cells constitutes a major problem and is associated with long-term side effects. Autophagy has been shown to be involved in cell death, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autophagy inhibition on neural stem and progenitor cell death in the juvenile brain. Ten-day-old selective Atg7 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a single 6Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332553/mir-18a-counteracts-akt-and-erk-activation-to-inhibit-the-proliferation-of-pancreatic-progenitor-cells
#20
Xuyan Li, Zhenwu Zhang, Yunchao Li, Yicheng Zhao, Wenjun Zhai, Lin Yang, Delin Kong, Chunyan Wu, Zhenbao Chen, Chun-Bo Teng
Activation of endogenous stem/progenitor cells to repair injured tissues is an ideal option for disease treatment. However, adult pancreatic progenitor cells remain in a quiescent state in vivo. Thus, it is difficult to stimulate proliferation and differentiation in these progenitor cells, and the cause remains elusive. miR-17-92 cluster miRNAs are highly conserved in mammals and are expressed in multiple tissue stem/progenitor cells, but their role in pancreatic progenitor cells are less well known. In the present study, we demonstrate that miR-18a, but not the other members of the miR-17-92 gene cluster, inhibits the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells in vitro and ex vivo...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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