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Neural progenitors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107504/sox10-nano-lantern-reporter-human-ips-cells-a-versatile-tool-for-neural-crest-research
#1
Tomoko Horikiri, Hiromi Ohi, Mitsuaki Shibata, Makoto Ikeya, Morio Ueno, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Takahiko Sato
The neural crest is a source to produce multipotent neural crest stem cells that have a potential to differentiate into diverse cell types. The transcription factor SOX10 is expressed through early neural crest progenitors and stem cells in vertebrates. Here we report the generation of SOX10-Nano-lantern (NL) reporter human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) by using CRISPR/Cas9 systems, that are beneficial to investigate the generation and maintenance of neural crest progenitor cells. SOX10-NL positive cells are produced transiently from hiPS cells by treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB431542 and GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102850/japanese-encephalitis-virus-induces-human-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-death-by-elevating-grp78-phb-and-hnrnpc-through-er-stress
#2
Sriparna Mukherjee, Noopur Singh, Nabonita Sengupta, Mahar Fatima, Pankaj Seth, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Arindam Bhattacharyya, Anirban Basu
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is a causative agent of sporadic encephalitis, harbours itself inside the neural stem/progenitor cells. It is a well-known fact that JEV infects neural stem/progenitor cells and decreases their proliferation capacity. With mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic study, it is possible to reveal the impact of virus on the stem cells at protein level. Our aim was to perceive the stem cell proteomic response upon viral challenge. We performed a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic study of the human neural stem cells (hNS1 cell line) post JEV infection and found that 13 proteins were differentially expressed...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102842/zika-virus-elicits-p53-activation-and-genotoxic-stress-in-human-neural-progenitors-similar-to-mutations-involved-in-severe-forms-of-genetic-microcephaly-and-p53
#3
Vincent El Ghouzzi, Federico T Bianchi, Ivan Molineris, Bryan C Mounce, Gaia E Berto, Malgorzata Rak, Sophie Lebon, Laetitia Aubry, Chiara Tocco, Marta Gai, Alessandra Ma Chiotto, Francesco Sgrò, Gianmarco Pallavicini, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Sandrine Passemard, Marco Vignuzzi, Pierre Gressens, Ferdinando Di Cunto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100736/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#5
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: Methyl-CpG-binding domain 1 (MBD1) belongs to a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers" linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs) and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however, the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100662/zika-virus-causes-supernumerary-foci-with-centriolar-proteins-and-impaired-spindle-positioning
#6
Benita Wolf, Fodé Diop, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Coralie Busso, Dorothée Missé, Pierre Gönczy
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. Although ZIKV can impair cell cycle progression and provoke apoptosis, which probably contributes to disease aetiology through depletion of neural progenitor cells, additional cellular mechanisms may be important. Here, we investigated whether ZIKV infection alters centrosome number and spindle positioning, because such defects are thought to be at the root of inherited primary autosomal recessive microcephaly (MCPH). In addition to HeLa cells, in which centrosome number and spindle positioning can be well monitored, we analysed retinal epithelial cells (RPE-1), as well as brain-derived microglial (CHME-5) and neural progenitor (ReN) cells, using immunofluorescence...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099189/productive-infection-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-by-r5-tropic-hiv-1-opiate-co-exposure-heightens-infectivity-and-functional-vulnerability
#7
Joyce M Balinang, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Kurt F Hauser, Pamela E Knapp
OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of CNS complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Since reports that hNPCs are infectable remain controversial, we rigorously examined hNPC infection and ability to propagate infection, and determined whether HIV effects on hNPC function required infection...
January 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095779/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitors-activate-the-p53-signaling-pathway-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#8
Akiko Okuda, Suguru Kurokawa, Masanori Takehashi, Aika Maeda, Katsuya Fukuda, Yukari Kubo, Hyuma Nogusa, Tomoka Takatani-Nakase, Shujiro Okuda, Kunihiro Ueda, Seigo Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins by using NAD(+) as a substrate, plays a key role in several nuclear events, including DNA repair, replication, and transcription. Recently, PARP-1 was reported to participate in the somatic cell reprogramming process. Previously, we revealed a role for PARP-1 in the induction of neural apoptosis in a cellular model of cerebral ischemia and suggested the possible use of PARP inhibitors as a new therapeutic intervention...
January 17, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094018/single-cell-analysis-reveals-a-close-relationship-between-differentiating-dopamine-and-subthalamic-nucleus-neuronal-lineages
#9
Nigel Kee, Nikolaos Volakakis, Agnete Kirkeby, Lina Dahl, Helena Storvall, Sara Nolbrant, Laura Lahti, Åsa K Björklund, Linda Gillberg, Eliza Joodmardi, Rickard Sandberg, Malin Parmar, Thomas Perlmann
Stem cell engineering and grafting of mesencephalic dopamine (mesDA) neurons is a promising strategy for brain repair in Parkinson's disease (PD). Refinement of differentiation protocols to optimize this approach will require deeper understanding of mesDA neuron development. Here, we studied this process using transcriptome-wide single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse neural progenitors expressing the mesDA neuron determinant Lmx1a. This approach resolved the differentiation of mesDA and neighboring neuronal lineages and revealed a remarkably close relationship between developing mesDA and subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, while also highlighting a distinct transcription factor set that can distinguish between them...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094016/a-single-cell-roadmap-of-lineage-bifurcation-in-human-esc-models-of-embryonic-brain-development
#10
Zizhen Yao, John K Mich, Sherman Ku, Vilas Menon, Anne-Rachel Krostag, Refugio A Martinez, Leon Furchtgott, Heather Mulholland, Susan Bort, Margaret A Fuqua, Ben W Gregor, Rebecca D Hodge, Anu Jayabalu, Ryan C May, Samuel Melton, Angelique M Nelson, N Kiet Ngo, Nadiya V Shapovalova, Soraya I Shehata, Michael W Smith, Leah J Tait, Carol L Thompson, Elliot R Thomsen, Chaoyang Ye, Ian A Glass, Ajamete Kaykas, Shuyuan Yao, John W Phillips, Joshua S Grimley, Boaz P Levi, Yanling Wang, Sharad Ramanathan
During human brain development, multiple signaling pathways generate diverse cell types with varied regional identities. Here, we integrate single-cell RNA sequencing and clonal analyses to reveal lineage trees and molecular signals underlying early forebrain and mid/hindbrain cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Clustering single-cell transcriptomic data identified 41 distinct populations of progenitor, neuronal, and non-neural cells across our differentiation time course. Comparisons with primary mouse and human gene expression data demonstrated rostral and caudal progenitor and neuronal identities from early brain development...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089669/exposure-to-gdnf-enhances-the-ability-of-enteric-neural-progenitors-to%C3%A2-generate-an-enteric-nervous-system
#11
Sonja J McKeown, Mitra Mohsenipour, Annette J Bergner, Heather M Young, Lincon A Stamp
Cell therapy is a promising approach to generate an enteric nervous system (ENS) and treat enteric neuropathies. However, for translation to the clinic, it is highly likely that enteric neural progenitors will require manipulation prior to transplantation to enhance their ability to migrate and generate an ENS. In this study, we examine the effects of exposure to several factors on the ability of ENS progenitors, grown as enteric neurospheres, to migrate and generate an ENS. Exposure to glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) resulted in a 14-fold increase in neurosphere volume and a 12-fold increase in cell number...
January 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088670/fibrin-hydrogels-induce-mixed-dorsal-ventral-spinal-neuron-identities-during-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Stephanie M Willerth
: We hypothesized that generating spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural aggregates (NAs) using a chemically-defined differentiation protocol would be more effective inside of 3D fibrin hydrogels compared to 2D poly-L-ornithine(PLO)/laminin-coated tissue culture plastic surfaces. We performed targeted RNA-Seq using next generation sequencing to determine the substrate-specific differences in gene expression that regulate cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088524/possible-roles-of-the-transcription-factor-nrf1-nfe2l1-in-neural-homeostasis-by-regulating-the-gene-expression-of-deubiquitinating-enzymes
#13
Hiroaki Taniguchi, Shota Okamuro, Misaki Kohji, Tsuyoshi Waku, Kaori Kubo, Atsushi Hatanaka, Yimeng Sun, A M Masudul Azad Chowdhury, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Akira Kobayashi
The transcription factor Nrf1 (NFE2L1) maintains protein homeostasis (proteostasis) by regulating the gene expression of proteasome subunits in response to proteasome inhibition. The deletion of the Nrf1 gene in neural stem/progenitor cells causes severe neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in Purkinje cells and motor neurons (Nrf1 NKO mice). However, the molecular mechanisms governing this neurodegenerative process remain unclear. We demonstrate herein that the loss of Nrf1 leads to the reduced gene expression of the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) but not proteasome subunits in Nrf1 NKO mice between P7 and P18...
January 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#14
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#15
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077779/embryonic-exposure-to-tcdd-impacts-osteogenesis-of-the-axial-skeleton-in-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#16
AtLee T D Watson, Antonio Planchart, Carolyn J Mattingly, Christoph Winkler, David M Reif, Seth W Kullman
Recent studies from mammalian, fish, and in vitro models have identified bone and cartilage development as sensitive targets for dioxins and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. In this study, we assess how embryonic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure impacts axial osteogenesis in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), a vertebrate model of human bone development. Embryos from inbred wild-type Orange-red Hd-dR and 3 transgenic medaka lines (twist:EGFP, osx/sp7:mCherry, col10a1:nlGFP) were exposed to 0...
November 15, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076758/polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-promote-cognitive-function-and%C3%A2-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Shichao Huang, Jianxin Mao, Kan Ding, Yue Zhou, Xianglu Zeng, Wenjuan Yang, Peipei Wang, Cun Zhao, Jian Yao, Peng Xia, Gang Pei
Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075486/highly-expandable-human-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitor-cells-npc-and-neurons-for-central-nervous-system-disease-modeling-and-high-throughput-screening
#18
Chialin Cheng, Daniel M Fass, Kat Folz-Donahue, Marcy E MacDonald, Stephen J Haggarty
Reprogramming of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has greatly expanded the set of research tools available to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Realizing the promise of iPS cell technology for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and for high-throughput drug screening requires implementation of methods for the large-scale production of defined CNS cell types. Here we describe a protocol for generating stable, highly expandable, iPS cell-derived CNS neural progenitor cells (NPC) using multi-dimensional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify NPC defined by cell surface markers...
January 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074532/pathogenesis-of-developmental-anomalies-of-the-central-nervous-system-induced-by-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Hideya Kawasaki, Isao Kosugi, Shiori Meguro, Toshihide Iwashita
In humans, the herpes virus family member cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent mediator of intrauterine infection-induced congenital defect. Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is a distinguishing symptom of CMV infection, and characterized by ventriculoencephalitis and microglial nodular encephalitis. Reports on the initial distribution of CMV particles and its receptors on the blood brain barrier (BBB) are rare. Nevertheless, several factors are suggested to affect CMV etiology. Viral particle size is the primary factor in determining the pattern of CNS infections, followed by the expression of integrin β1 in endothelial cells, pericytes, meninges, choroid plexus, and neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), which are the primary targets of CMV infection...
January 10, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073086/human-neural-progenitors-derived-from-integration-free-ipscs-for-sci-therapy
#20
Ying Liu, Yiyan Zheng, Shenglan Li, Haipeng Xue, Karl Schmitt, Georgene W Hergenroeder, Jiaqian Wu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dong H Kim, Qilin Cao
As a potentially unlimited autologous cell source, patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide great capability for tissue regeneration, particularly in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, despite significant progress made in translation of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to clinical settings, a few hurdles remain. Among them, non-invasive approach to obtain source cells in a timely manner, safer integration-free delivery of reprogramming factors, and purification of NPCs before transplantation are top priorities to overcome...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
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