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Neural progenitors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330804/in-vivo-manipulation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-during-glioma-genesis
#1
Patricia D B Tiburcio, Séan B Lyne, L Eric Huang
Hypoxia has long been recognized as a driving force of tumor progression and therapeutic resistance, and the transcription factor HIF-1α is believed to play a crucial role in these processes. Here we describe an efficient RCAS/Nes-TVA system that allows for in vivo manipulation of HIF-1α expression in the mouse neural progenitor cells. Simple production of the recombinant avian virus RCAS enables quick delivery of gene of interest through injection into the neural progenitors of transgenic mice expressing the viral cognate receptor TVA under the nestin promoter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327725/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-principles-of-brain-retrotransposition-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
Jasmine Jacob-Hirsch, Eran Eyal, Binyamin A Knisbacher, Jonathan Roth, Karen Cesarkas, Chen Dor, Sarit Farage-Barhom, Vered Kunik, Amos J Simon, Moran Gal, Michal Yalon, Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Rick Tearle, Shlomi Constantini, Erez Y Levanon, Ninette Amariglio, Gideon Rechavi
Neural progenitor cells undergo somatic retrotransposition events, mainly involving L1 elements, which can be potentially deleterious. Here, we analyze the whole genomes of 20 brain samples and 80 non-brain samples, and characterized the retrotransposition landscape of patients affected by a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, ataxia-telangiectasia and autism. We report that the number of retrotranspositions in brain tissues is higher than that observed in non-brain samples and even higher in pathologic vs normal brains...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327429/in-vivo-migration-of-endogenous-brain-progenitor-cells-guided-by-an-injectable-peptide-amphiphile-biomaterial
#3
Reza Motalleb, Eric J Berns, Piyush Patel, Julie Gold, Samuel I Stupp, H Georg Kuhn
Biomaterials hold great promise in helping the adult brain regenerate and rebuild after trauma. Peptide amphiphiles (PA) are highly versatile biomaterials, gelling and forming macromolecular structures when exposed to physiological levels of electrolytes. We are here reporting on the first ever in vivo use of self-assembling peptide amphiphile carrying a Tenascin-C signal (E2 Ten-C PA) for the re-direction of endogenous neuroblasts in the rodent brain. The PA forms highly aligned nanofibers, displaying the migratory sequence of Tenascin-C glycoprotein as epitope...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#4
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323239/specific-phospholipids-regulate-the-acquisition-of-neuronal-and-astroglial-identities-in-post-mitotic-cells
#5
Aneley Montaner, Themis Taynah da Silva Santana, Timm Schroeder, Marcelo Einiker-Lamas, Javier Girardini, Marcos Romualdo Costa, Claudia Banchio
Hitherto, the known mechanisms underpinning cell-fate specification act on neural progenitors, affecting their commitment to generate neuron or glial cells. Here, we show that particular phospholipids supplemented in the culture media modify the commitment of post-mitotic neural cells in vitro. Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)-enriched media enhances neuronal differentiation at the expense of astroglial and unspecified cells. Conversely, phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) enhances astroglial differentiation and accelerates astrocyte maturation...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323152/unravelling-the-effects-of-mechanical-physiological-conditioning-on-cardiac-adipose-tissue-derived-progenitor-cells-in-vitro-and-in-silico
#6
Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Ramon Bragós, Carolina Soler-Botija, Santiago Roura, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Isaac Perea-Gil, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Mechanical conditioning is incompletely characterized for stimulating therapeutic cells within the physiological range. We sought to unravel the mechanism of action underlying mechanical conditioning of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (ATDPCs), both in vitro and in silico. Cardiac ATDPCs, grown on 3 different patterned surfaces, were mechanically stretched for 7 days at 1 Hz. A custom-designed, magnet-based, mechanical stimulator device was developed to apply ~10% mechanical stretching to monolayer cell cultures...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321139/bmp-smad-pathway-promotes-neurogenesis-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-and-in-human-induced-pluripotent-and-neural-stem-cells
#7
V M Jovanovic, A Salti, H Tilleman, K Zega, M M Jukic, H Zou, R H Friedel, N Prakash, S Blaess, F Edenhofer, C Brodski
The embryonic formation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in vivo provides critical guidelines for the in vitro differentiation of mDA neurons from stem cells, currently being developed for Parkinson's disease cell replacement therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD inhibition is routinely used during early steps of stem cell differentiation protocols, including for the generation of mDA neurons. However, the function of the BMP/SMAD pathway for in vivo specification of mammalian mDA neurons is virtually unknown...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318446/vitamin-d-improves-neurogenesis-and-cognition-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Maria Morello, Véréna Landel, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Kevin Baranger, Cedric Annweiler, François Féron, Pascal Millet
The impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is believed to support early cognitive decline. Converging studies sustain the idea that vitamin D might be linked to the pathophysiology of AD and to hippocampal neurogenesis. Nothing being known about the effects of vitamin D on hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, we assessed them in a mouse model of AD. In a previous study, we observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in female AD-like mice reduced cognitive decline only when delivered during the symptomatic phase...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317683/polyaniline-cryogels-biocompatibility-of-novel-conducting-macroporous-material
#9
Petr Humpolíček, Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Zdenka Capáková, Jiří Pacherník, Patrycja Bober, Věra Kašpárková, Petra Rejmontová, Marián Lehocký, Petr Ponížil, Jaroslav Stejskal
Polyaniline cryogel is a new unique form of polyaniline combining intrinsic electrical conductivity and the material properties of hydrogels. It is prepared by the polymerization of aniline in frozen poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions. The biocompatibility of macroporous polyaniline cryogel was demonstrated by testing its cytotoxicity on mouse embryonic fibroblasts and via the test of embryotoxicity based on the formation of beating foci within spontaneous differentiating embryonic stem cells. Good biocompatibility was related to low contents of low-molecular-weight impurities in polyaniline cryogel, which was confirmed by liquid chromatography...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317485/meis1-coordinates-cerebellar-granule-cell-development-by-regulating-pax6-transcription-bmp-signaling-and-atoh1-degradation
#10
Tomoo Owa, Shinichiro Taya, Satoshi Miyashita, Mariko Yamashita, Toma Adachi, Koyo Yamada, Miwa Yokoyama, Shogo Aida, Tomoki Nishioka, Yukiko U Inoue, Ryo Goitsuka, Takuro Nakamura, Takayoshi Inoue, Kozo Kaibuchi, Mikio Hoshino
Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and granule cells (GCs) represent good models to study neuronal development. Here we report that the transcription factor, Meis1, plays pivotal roles to regulate mouse GC development. We found that Meis1 is expressed in granule cell lineage cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum during development. Targeted disruption of the Meis1 gene specifically in the GC lineage resulted in smaller cerebella with disorganized lobules. Knockdown/knockout experiments for Meis1 as well as in vitro assays show that Meis1 binds to an upstream sequence of Pax6 to enhance its transcription in GCPs/GCs and further suggested that the Meis1-Pax6 cascade regulates morphology of GCPs/GCs during development...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314417/a-nestin-cdk5-drp1-axis-regulates-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-stemness-via-a-metabolic-shift
#11
Jiancheng Wang, Yinong Huang, Jianye Cai, Qiong Ke, Jiaqi Xiao, Weijun Huang, Hongyu Li, Yuan Qiu, Yi Wang, Bin Zhang, Haoxiang Wu, Yanan Zhang, Xin Sui, Adham Sameer A Bardeesi, Andy Peng Xiang
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) transplantation provides an alternative approach for various central nervous system (CNS) diseases treatment, while the difficulties in NSPC acquisition and expansion limit their further application. Unveiling the mechanism of NSPC stemness regulation may contribute to its further application. Nestin, generally recognized as a marker of NSPCs, plays a crucial role in the CNS development and NSPC stemness maintenance. Here, we report that Nestin loss triggers mitochondrial network remodeling and enhances oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in NSPCs treated with Nestin RNA interference (RNAi)...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312819/small-scale-screening-of-anticancer-drugs-acting-specifically-on-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-time-course-cytotoxicity-test
#12
Hayato Fukusumi, Yukako Handa, Tomoko Shofuda, Yonehiro Kanemura
Since the development of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), various types of hiPSC-derived cells have been established for regenerative medicine and drug development. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-NSPCs) have shown benefits for regenerative therapy of the central nervous system. However, owing to their intrinsic proliferative potential, therapies using transplanted hiPSC-NSPCs carry an inherent risk of undesired growth in vivo. Therefore, it is important to find cytotoxic drugs that can specifically target overproliferative transplanted hiPSC-NSPCs without damaging the intrinsic in vivo stem-cell system...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312600/mild-hypothermia-modulates-the-expression-of-nestin-and-caspase-3-in-the-sub-granular-zone-and-improves-neurological-outcomes-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke
#13
Dan Yu, Xueying Wang, Feng Zhou, Liang Wang, Guoshuai Yang, Wei Zhong, Ying Li, Zhiping Zhou, Aiyue Wang, Yanhui Zhou
We assessed neurological outcomes, infarct volume, and the expression of nestin and caspase-3 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion, with mild hypothermia (MH) treatment at the onset of ischemia in a MCAO rat model. Reperfusion began 2 hours after the MCAO model was set-up. MH treatment began at the onset of ischemia and was maintained for 4 hours. We evaluated neurological deficit score, brain infarct volumes, along with the immunohistochemical staining of nestin and caspase-3 in the sub-granular zone of the injured hemisphere on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after the onset of ischemia...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311593/neogenin-a-regulator-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-prevents-depressive-like-behavior
#14
Dong Sun, Xiang-Dong Sun, Lu Zhao, Dae-Hoon Lee, Jin-Xia Hu, Fu-Lei Tang, Jin-Xiu Pan, Lin Mei, Xiao-Juan Zhu, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311559/injured-adult-motor-and-sensory-axons-regenerate-into-appropriate-organotypic-domains-of-neural-progenitor-grafts
#15
Jennifer N Dulin, Andrew F Adler, Hiromi Kumamaru, Gunnar H D Poplawski, Corinne Lee-Kubli, Hans Strobl, Daniel Gibbs, Ken Kadoya, James W Fawcett, Paul Lu, Mark H Tuszynski
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation has high therapeutic potential in neurological disorders. Functional restoration may depend on the formation of reciprocal connections between host and graft. While it has been reported that axons extending out of neural grafts in the brain form contacts onto phenotypically appropriate host target regions, it is not known whether adult, injured host axons regenerating into NPC grafts also form appropriate connections. We report that spinal cord NPCs grafted into the injured adult rat spinal cord self-assemble organotypic, dorsal horn-like domains...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306978/vascular-pattern-of-the-dentate-gyrus-is-regulated-by-neural-progenitors
#16
Ana Pombero, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Alicia Estirado, Salvador Martinez
Neurogenesis is a vital process that begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood, though in the latter case, it is restricted to the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, the DG's neurogenic properties are structurally and functionally unique, which may be related to its singular vascular pattern. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share molecular signals and act synergistically, supporting the concept of a neurogenic niche as a functional unit between neural precursors cells and their environment, in which the blood vessels play an important role...
January 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305858/identification-of-a-candidate-enhancer-for-dmrt3-involved-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy-pathogenesis
#17
Naoto Kubota, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Mikita Suyama
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a major neuronal disease and the most common movement disorder in children. Although environmental factors leading to CP have been greatly investigated, the genetic mechanism underlying CP is not well understood. Here we focused on two clinical reports that characterized a deletion involving the KANK1 gene locus in the 9p24.3 region. One report shows spastic CP and the other shows no spastic CP phenotype. Based on the epigenetic status and evolutionary conservation, we first found a functional genomic element at the noncoding region that was deleted only in patients with spastic CP...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305158/tbr2-antagonizes-retinoic-acid-dependent-neuronal-differentiation-by-repressing-zfp423-during-corticogenesis
#18
Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa
During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2...
January 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303112/biomimetic-hydrogels-direct-spinal-progenitor-cell-differentiation-and-promote-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Sydney A Geissler, Alexandra L Sabin, Rachel R Besser, Olivia M Gooden, Bryce D Shirk, Quan M Nguyen, Zin Z Khaing, Christine E Schmidt
Demyelination that results from disease or traumatic injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), can have a devastating effect on neural function and recovery. Many researchers are examining treatments to minimize demyelination by improving oligodendrocyte availability in vivo. Transplantation of stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is a promising option, however, trials are plagued by undirected differentiation [1]. Here we introduce a biomaterial that has been optimized to direct the differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward oligodendrocytes as a cell delivery vehicle after SCI...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302702/furin-promotes-dendritic-morphogenesis-and-learning-and-memory-in-transgenic-mice
#20
Binglin Zhu, Lige Zhao, Dong Luo, Demei Xu, Tao Tan, Zhifang Dong, Ying Tang, Zhuo Min, Xiaojuan Deng, Fei Sun, Zhen Yan, Guojun Chen
Furin is a proprotein convertase implicated in a variety of pathological processes including neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of furin in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that in brain-specific furin transgenic (Furin-Tg) mice, the dendritic spine density and proliferation of neural progenitor cells were significantly increased. These mice exhibited enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning and memory performance, without alterations of miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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