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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431266/reduced-abnormal-integration-of-adult-generated-granule-cells-does-not-attenuate-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-mice
#1
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Epileptic seizures lead to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, including increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs). Previous results from ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures have been controversial with regards to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). While ablation of hippocampal newborn cells was effective, a sufficient decrease of subsequent abnormal integrations in chronically epileptic hippocampus was not well-established in these studies...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430000/neuroprotective-and-regenerative-roles-of-intranasal-wnt-3a-administration-after-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#3
Zheng Zachory Wei, James Ya Zhang, Tammi M Taylor, Xiaohuan Gu, Yingying Zhao, Ling Wei
Wnt signaling is a conserved pathway involved in expansion of neural progenitors and lineage specification during development. However, the role of Wnt signaling in the post-stroke brain has not been well-elucidated. We hypothesized that Wnt-3a would play an important role for neurogenesis and brain repair. Adult male mice were subjected to a focal ischemic stroke targeting the sensorimotor cortex. Mice that received Wnt-3a (2 µg/kg/day, 1 h after stroke and once a day for the next 2 days, intranasal delivery) had reduced infarct volume compared to stroke controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425506/oncogenic-activity-of-sox1-in-glioblastoma
#4
Idoia Garcia, Juncal Aldaregia, Jelena Marjanovic Vicentic, Paula Aldaz, Leire Moreno-Cugnon, Sergio Torres-Bayona, Estefania Carrasco-Garcia, Laura Garros-Regulez, Larraitz Egaña, Angel Rubio, Steven Pollard, Milena Stevanovic, Nicolas Sampron, Ander Matheu
Glioblastoma remains the most common and deadliest type of brain tumor and contains a population of self-renewing, highly tumorigenic glioma stem cells (GSCs), which contributes to tumor initiation and treatment resistance. Developmental programs participating in tissue development and homeostasis re-emerge in GSCs, supporting the development and progression of glioblastoma. SOX1 plays an important role in neural development and neural progenitor pool maintenance. Its impact on glioblastoma remains largely unknown...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423639/m2-microglia-promotes-neurogenesis-and-oligodendrogenesis-from-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#5
Jichao Yuan, Hongfei Ge, Wei Liu, Haitao Zhu, Yaxing Chen, Xuan Zhang, Yang Yang, Yi Yin, Weixiang Chen, Wanjiang Wu, Yunfeng Yang, Jiangkai Lin
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are an important source of cells for cell replacement therapy after nerve injury. How to induce NSPCs differentiation towards neurons and oligodendrocytes is a challenging issue in neuroscience research. In the present study, we polarized microglia into M1 and M2 phenotype, used their supernatants to induce NSPCs differentiation, and investigated the effects of different microglia phenotypes on NSPCs differentiation and their mechanisms. We discovered that, after exposure to M1 phenotype supernatant, NSPCs differentiated into fewer Tuj-1+ and Olig2+ cells, but more GFAP+ cells...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416807/a-simplified-protocol-for-differentiation-of-electrophysiologically-mature-neuronal-networks-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
N Gunhanlar, G Shpak, M van der Kroeg, L A Gouty-Colomer, S T Munshi, B Lendemeijer, M Ghazvini, C Dupont, W J G Hoogendijk, J Gribnau, F M S de Vrij, S A Kushner
Progress in elucidating the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders has been hindered by the limited availability of living human brain tissue. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has offered a unique alternative strategy using patient-derived functional neuronal networks. However, methods for reliably generating iPSC-derived neurons with mature electrophysiological characteristics have been difficult to develop. Here, we report a simplified differentiation protocol that yields electrophysiologically mature iPSC-derived cortical lineage neuronal networks without the need for astrocyte co-culture or specialized media...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415661/specific-amplifications-and-copy-number-decreases-during-human-neural-stem-cells-differentiation-towards-astrocytes-neurons-and-oligodendrocytes
#7
Ulrike Fischer, Ella Kim, Andreas Keller, Eckart Meese
There is growing evidence that gene amplifications are an attribute of normal cells during development and differentiation. During neural progenitor cell differentiation half of the genome is involved in amplification process. To answer the question how specific amplifications occur at different stages and in different lineages of differentiation we analyzed the genes CDK4, MDM2, EGFR, GINS2, GFAP, TP53, DDB1 and MDM4 in human neural stem cells that were induced to differentiate towards astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413817/dataset-in-support-of-the-generation-of-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-patient-specific-ips-cell-lines-carrying-the-novel-npc1-mutation-c-1180t-c-or-the-prevalent-c-3182t-c-mutation-analysis-of-pluripotency-and-neuronal-differentiation
#8
Franziska Peter, Michaela Trilck, Michael Rabenstein, Arndt Rolfs, Moritz J Frech
Data presented in this article demonstrate the generation and characterization of two novel Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 (NPC1) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, related to the research article Trilck et al. (Diversity of Glycosphingolipid GM2 and Cholesterol Accumulation in NPC1 Patient-Specific iPSC-Derived Neurons; Brain Res.; 2017; 1657:52-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.11.031). For reprogramming fibroblasts, carrying the novel homozygous mutation c.1180T>C and the prevalent homozygous mutation c...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409314/regulation-of-asymmetric-cell-division-in-mammalian-neural-stem-and-cancer-precursor-cells
#9
Mathieu Daynac, Claudia K Petritsch
Stem and progenitor cells are characterized by their abilities to self-renew and produce differentiated progeny. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is achieved through control of cell division mode, which can be either asymmetric or symmetric. Failure to properly control cell division mode may result in premature depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool or abnormal growth and impaired differentiation. In many tissues, including the brain, stem cells and progenitor cells undergo asymmetric cell division through the establishment of cell polarity...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408934/sdf-1-cxcr4-signaling-maintains-stemness-signature-in-mouse-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#10
Shih-Yin Ho, Thai-Yen Ling, Hsing-Yu Lin, Jeffrey Tsai-Jui Liou, Fei-Chih Liu, I-Chun Chen, Sue-Wei Lee, Yu Hsu, Dar-Ming Lai, Horng-Huei Liou
SDF-1 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, are highly expressed in the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) and play a crucial role in brain architecture. Loss of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling causes abnormal development of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and cortex. However, the mechanism of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in NSCs/NPCs regulation remains unknown. In this study, we found that elimination of SDF-1/CXCR4 transduction caused NSCs/NPCs to lose their stemness characteristics and to encounter neurogenic differentiation...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406573/robo1-regulates-the-migration-of-human-subventricular-zone-neural-progenitor-cells-during-development
#11
Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Emily Lavell, Linda Chen, Paula Schiapparelli, Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez, Gabrielle Drummond, Anna Christina Clements, Liron Noiman, Katrina Thaler, Anne Burke, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
Human neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ganglionic eminence is an active process throughout early brain development. The migration of human NPCs from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb during fetal stages resembles what occurs in adult rodents. As the human brain develops during infancy, this migratory stream is drastically reduced in cell number and becomes barely evident in adults. The mechanisms regulating human NPC migration are unknown. The Slit-Robo signaling pathway has been defined as a chemorepulsive cue involved in axon guidance and neuroblast migration in rodents...
April 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403821/defining-the-transcriptomic-landscape-of-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-cellular-environment
#12
Sweta Roy-Carson, Kevin Natukunda, Hsien-Chao Chou, Narinder Pal, Caitlin Farris, Stephan Q Schneider, Julie A Kuhlman
BACKGROUND: Motility and the coordination of moving food through the gastrointestinal tract rely on a complex network of neurons known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Despite its critical function, many of the molecular mechanisms that direct the development of the ENS and the elaboration of neural network connections remain unknown. The goal of this study was to transcriptionally identify molecular pathways and candidate genes that drive specification, differentiation and the neural circuitry of specific neural progenitors, the phox2b expressing ENS cell lineage, during normal enteric nervous system development...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403137/topological-defects-control-collective-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cell-cultures
#13
Kyogo Kawaguchi, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Masaki Sano
Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remain largely qualitative. Here we report the collective motion of cultured neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system[1]. At low densities, NPCs moved in an amoeba-like fashion and with random motion...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402857/the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-is-a-notch-signaling-niche-in-the-mouse-retina
#14
Taejeong Ha, Kyeong Hwan Moon, Le Dai, Jun Hatakeyama, Keejung Yoon, Hee-Sae Park, Young-Yoon Kong, Kenji Shimamura, Jin Woo Kim
Notch signaling in neural progenitor cell is triggered by ligands expressed in adjacent cells. To identify the sources of active Notch ligands in the mouse retina, we negatively regulated Notch ligand activity in various neighbors of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) by eliminating mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (Mib1). Mib1-deficient retinal cells failed to induce Notch activation in intra-lineage RPCs, which prematurely differentiated into neurons; however, Mib1 in post-mitotic retinal ganglion cells was not important...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398641/time-lapse-imaging-and-cell-tracking-of-migrating-cells-in-slices-and-flattened-telencephalic-vesicles
#15
Verónica Murcia-Belmonte, Giovanna Expósito, Eloísa Herrera
Neuronal migration is a vital process needed for subsequent assembly and function of neural circuitry during embryonic development. The vast majority of neural progenitors are generated far from their final destination and need to migrate considerable distances to reach their specific cortical layer. Innovations in cell culture techniques and fluorescence microscopy now facilitate the direct visualization of cell movements during cortical development. Here, a detailed protocol to record and analyze a particular type of early migrating neurons, the Cajal Retzius Cells, during the development of the telencephalic vesicles in mammals is described...
April 10, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397247/isogenic-blood-brain-barrier-models-based-on-patient-derived-stem-cells-display-inter-individual-differences-in-cell-maturation-and-functionality
#16
Ronak Patel, Shyanne Page, Abraham Jacob Al-Ahmad
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes an important component of the neurovascular unit formed by specialized brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) surrounded by astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. Recently, isogenic in vitro models of the BBB based on human pluripotent stem cells have been documented, yet the impact of inter-individual variability on the yield and phenotype of such models remains to be documented. In this study, we investigated the impact of inter-individual variability on the yield and phenotype of isogenic models of the BBB, using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396626/pattern-of-neurogenesis-and-identification-of-neuronal-progenitor-subtypes-during-pallial-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#17
Nerea Moreno, Agustín González
The complexity of the pallium during evolution has increased dramatically in many different respects. The highest level of complexity is found in mammals, where most of the pallium (cortex) shows a layered organization and neurons are generated during development following an inside-out order, a sequence not observed in other amniotes (birds and reptiles). Species-differences may be related to major neurogenetic events, from the neural progenitors that divide and produce all pallial cells. In mammals, two main types of precursors have been described, primary precursor cells in the ventricular zone (vz; also called radial glial cells or apical progenitors) and secondary precursor cells (called basal or intermediate progenitors) separated from the ventricle surface...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396520/cytosine-modifications-modulate-the-chromatin-architecture-of-transcriptional-enhancers
#18
Elise A Mahé, Thierry Madigou, Aurélien A Sérandour, Maud Bizot, Stéphane Avner, Frédéric Chalmel, Gaëlle Palierne, Raphaël Métivier, Gilles Salbert
Epigenetic mechanisms are believed to play key roles in the establishment of cell-specific transcription programs. Accordingly, the modified bases 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) have been observed in DNA of genomic regulatory regions such as enhancers, and oxidation of 5mC into 5hmC by Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins correlates with enhancer activation. However, the functional relationship between cytosine modifications and the chromatin architecture of enhancers remains elusive...
April 10, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394252/steroid-hormone-induction-of-temporal-gene-expression-in-drosophila-brain-neuroblasts-generates-neuronal-and-glial-diversity
#19
Mubarak Hussain Syed, Brandon Mark, Chris Q Doe
An important question in neuroscience is how stem cells generate neuronal diversity. During Drosophila embryonic development, neural stem cells (neuroblasts) sequentially express transcription factors that generate neuronal diversity; regulation of the embryonic temporal transcription factor cascade is lineage-intrinsic. In contrast, larval neuroblasts generate longer ~50 division lineages, and currently only one mid-larval molecular transition is known: Chinmo/Imp/Lin-28+ neuroblasts transition to Syncrip+ neuroblasts...
April 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392108/anterior-posterior-gradient-in-neural-stem-and-daughter-cell-proliferation-governed-by-spatial-and-temporal-hox-control
#20
Ignacio Monedero Cobeta, Behzad Yaghmaeian Salmani, Stefan Thor
A readily evident feature of animal central nervous systems (CNSs), apparent in all vertebrates and many invertebrates alike, is its "wedge-like" appearance, with more cells generated in anterior than posterior regions. This wedge could conceivably be established by an antero-posterior (A-P) gradient in the number of neural progenitor cells, their proliferation behaviors, and/or programmed cell death (PCD). However, the contribution of each of these mechanisms, and the underlying genetic programs, are not well understood...
March 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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