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Neural progenitors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777011/fox-proteins-are-modular-competency-factors-for-facial-cartilage-and-tooth-specification
#1
Pengfei Xu, Bartosz Balczerski, Amanda Ciozda, Kristin Louie, Veronika Oralova, Ann Huysseune, J Gage Crump
Facial form depends on the precise positioning of cartilage, bone, and tooth fields in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. How complex signaling information is integrated to specify these cell types remains a mystery. We find that modular expression of Forkhead-domain transcription factors (Fox) in the zebrafish face arises through integration of Hh, Fgf, Bmp, Edn1, and Jagged-Notch pathways. Whereas loss of C-class Fox proteins results in reduced upper facial cartilages, loss of F-class Fox proteins results in distal jaw truncations and absent midline cartilages and teeth...
May 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775730/an-integrated-biomanufacturing-platform-for-the-large-scale-expansion-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitor-cells
#2
Gayathri Srinivasan, Daylin Morgan, Divya Varun, Nicholas Brookhouser, David A Brafman
Human pluripotent stem cell derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have the unique properties of long-term in vitro expansion as well as differentiation into the various neurons and supporting cell types of the central nervous system (CNS). Because of these characteristics, hNPCs have tremendous potential in the modeling and treatment of various CNS diseases and disorders. However, expansion and neuronal differentiation of hNPCs in quantities necessary for these applications is not possible with current two dimensional (2-D) approaches...
May 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775723/a-scale-out-approach-towards-neural-induction-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-neurodevelopmental-toxicity-studies
#3
Cláudia C Miranda, Tiago G Fernandes, Sandra N Pinto, Manuel Prieto, M Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral
Stem cell's unique properties confer them a multitude of potential applications in the fields of cellular therapy, disease modelling and drug screening fields. In particular, the ability to differentiate neural progenitors (NP) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using chemically-defined conditions provides an opportunity to create a simple and straightforward culture platform for application in these fields. Here, we demonstrated that hiPSCs are capable of undergoing neural commitment inside microwells, forming characteristic neural structures resembling neural rosettes and further give rise to glial and neuronal cells...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774107/clinical-outcome-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-can-be-predicted-by-the-expression-of-hepatic-progenitor-cell-markers-and-serum-tumour-markers
#4
Satoshi Seino, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Yusuke Watanabe, Yuzo Kawata, Yuichi Kojima, Shunzo Ikarashi, Hiroyuki Yanai, Koji Nakamura, Daisuke Kumaki, Masaaki Hirano, Kazuhiro Funakoshi, Takashi Aono, Takeshi Sakai, Jun Sakata, Masaaki Takamura, Hirokazu Kawai, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Toshifumi Wakai, Shuji Terai
The high heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) complicates stratification of HCC patients for treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive panel of HCC biomarkers related to tumour behaviour and cancer prognosis. Resected HCCs from 251 patients were stained for hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) markers epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1), and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). Staining patterns were analysed for their prognostic association with relapse-free survival and overall survival...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772232/hypomyelination-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-lacking-cd133-prominin-1
#5
Mi-Hyun Choi, Ji Eun Na, Ye Ran Yoon, Im Joo Rhyu, Young-Gyu Ko, Ja-Hyun Baik
The CD133 antigen, also known as prominin-1, is a glycoprotein that specifically localizes to plasma membrane protrusions. The precise function of CD133 remains unknown, but it is expressed in various progenitor cells including those derived from the neural and hematopoietic system, as well as different tissues. In the adult mouse brain, CD133 is highly expressed in white matter. Here, we performed immunochemical staining and electron microscopy to demonstrate that mice lacking CD133 (CD133-/- ) exhibit decreased myelin in the corpus callosum, the largest white matter tract in the brain...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769391/infrared-laser-mediated-gene-induction-at-the-single-cell-level-in-the-regenerating-tail-of-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#6
Riho Hasugata, Shinichi Hayashi, Aiko Kawasumi-Kita, Joe Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Kamei, Hitoshi Yokoyama
We describe a precise and reproducible gene-induction method in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis Tetrapod amphibians are excellent models for studying the mechanisms of three-dimensional organ regeneration because they have an exceptionally high regenerative ability. However, spatial and temporal manipulation of gene expression has been difficult in amphibians, hindering studies on the molecular mechanisms of organ regeneration. Recently, however, development of a Xenopus transgenic system with a heat-shock-inducible gene has enabled the manipulation of specific genes...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769390/cell-transplantation-as-a-method-to-investigate-spinal-cord-regeneration-in-regenerative-and-nonregenerative-xenopus-stages
#7
Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Juan Larraín
Mammals are not capable of regenerating their central nervous system (CNS); anamniotes, however, can regenerate in response to injury. The mechanisms that explain the different regenerative capabilities include: (i) extrinsic mechanisms that consider the cellular environment and extracellular matrix composition, (ii) intrinsic factors implicating the presence or absence of genetic programs that promote axon regeneration, and (iii) the presence or absence of neural stem and progenitors cells (NSPCs) that allow neurogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765861/mitochondrial-metabolism-mediated-regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765860/the-role-of-lipid-metabolism-for-neural-stem-cell-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Marlen Knobloch
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) give rise to billions of cells during development and are critical for proper brain formation. The finding that NSPCs persist throughout adulthood has challenged the view that the brain has poor regenerative abilities and raised hope for stem cell-based regenerative therapies. For decades there has been a strong movement towards understanding the requirements of NSPCs and their regulation, resulting in the discovery of many transcription factors and signaling pathways that can influence NSPC behavior and neurogenesis...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765859/mirna-mediated-regulation-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-implications-for-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Pascal Bielefeld, Catherine Mooney, David C Henshall, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) proliferate and differentiate to generate new neurons across the life span of most mammals, including humans. This process takes place within a characteristic local microenvironment where NSPCs interact with a variety of other cell types and encounter systemic regulatory factors. Within this microenvironment, cell intrinsic gene expression programs are modulated by cell extrinsic signals through complex interactions, in many cases involving short non-coding RNA molecules, such as miRNAs...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765417/zinc-promotes-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-towards-a-neuronal-fate
#11
Mi-Young Moon, Hyun Jung Kim, Bo Young Choi, Min Sohn, Tae Nyoung Chung, Sang Won Suh
Zinc is an essential element required for cell division, migration, and proliferation. Under zinc-deficient conditions, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors are significantly impaired. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on AD-MSC proliferation and differentiation. We initially examined the effect of zinc on stem cell proliferation at the undifferentiated stage...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764857/lineage-guided-notch-dependent-gliogenesis-by-drosophila-multi-potent-progenitors
#12
Qingzhong Ren, Takeshi Awasaki, Yu-Chun Wang, Yu-Fen Huang, Tzumin Lee
Macroglial cells in the central nervous system exhibit regional specialization and carry out region-specific functions. Diverse glial cells arise from specific progenitors in specific spatiotemporal patterns. This raises an interesting possibility that there exist glial precursors with distinct developmental fates, which govern region-specific gliogenesis. Here we mapped the glial progeny produced by the Drosophila type II neuroblasts, which, like vertebrate radial glia cells, yield both neurons and glia via intermediate neural progenitors (INPs)...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764313/2-5-hexanedione-increases-the-percentage-of-proliferative-sox2-cells-in-rat-hippocampus
#13
Longjuan Wang, Shuang Liu, Dan Su, Feng Chen, Tengteng Lei, Haibo Chen, Wei Dong, Yue Jiang, Xiance Sun, Wenchang Sun
n-Hexane is an organic solvent widely used in industry. 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD), the major neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane, decreases the levels of neurofilaments (NFs) in neurons. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of two major brain areas showing neurogenesis in adulthood. In the current study, rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline solution or 2,5-HD five times per week for five continuous weeks. 2,5-HD was administered to the low-dose and high-dose groups at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763775/glycosaminoglycan-based-hybrid-hydrogel-encapsulated-with-polyelectrolyte-complex-nanoparticles-for-endogenous-stem-cell-regulation-in-central-nervous-system-regeneration
#14
Wei-Hong Jian, Huan-Chih Wang, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Ming-Hong Chen, Hsi-Chin Wu, Jui-Sheng Sun, Tzu-Wei Wang
The poor regenerative capability of stem cell transplantation in the central nervous system limits their therapeutic efficacy in brain injuries. The sustained inflammatory response, lack of structural support, and trophic factors deficiency restrain the integration and long-term survival of stem cells. Instead of exogenous stem cell therapy, here we described the synthesis of nanohybrid hydrogel containing sulfated glycosaminoglycan-based polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PCN) to mimic the brain extracellular matrix and control the delivery of stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and basic fibroblast factor (bFGF) in response to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) for recruiting endogenous neural stem cells (NSC) and regulating their cellular fate...
May 8, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763708/pcdh19-regulation-of-neural-progenitor-cell-differentiation-suggests-asynchrony-of-neurogenesis-as-a-mechanism-contributing-to-pcdh19-girls-clustering-epilepsy
#15
Claire C Homan, Stephen Pederson, Thu-Hien To, Chuan Tan, Sandra Piltz, Mark Corbett, Ernst Wolvetang, Paul Thomas, Lachlan A Jolly, Jozef Gecz
PCDH19-Girls Clustering Epilepsy (PCDH19-GCE) is a childhood epileptic encephalopathy characterised by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental problems. PCDH19-GCE is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the X-chromosome gene, Protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) encoding a cell-cell adhesion molecule. Intriguingly, hemizygous males are generally unaffected. As PCDH19 is subjected to random X-inactivation, heterozygous females are comprised of a mosaic of cells expressing either the normal or mutant allele, which is thought to drive pathology...
May 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761600/loss-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-exacerbates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-promoting-bone-marrow-dysfunction
#16
Yaqian Duan, Eleni Beli, Sergio Li Calzi, Judith L Quigley, Rehae C Miller, Leni Moldovan, Dongni Feng, Tatiana E Salazar, Sugata Hazra, Jude Al-Sabah, Kakarla V Chalam, Thao Le Phuong Trinh, Marya Meroueh, Troy A Markel, Matthew C Murray, Ruchi J Vyas, Michael E Boulton, Patricia Parsons-Wingerter, Gavin Y Oudit, Alexander G Obukhov, Maria B Grant
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary enzyme of the vasoprotective axis of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). We tested the hypothesis that loss of ACE2 would exacerbate diabetic retinopathy by promoting bone marrow dysfunction. ACE2-/y were crossed with Akita mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. When comparing the bone marrow of the ACE2-/y -Akita mice to that of Akita mice, we observed a reduction of both short-term and long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells, a shift of hematopoiesis towards myelopoiesis, and an impairment of lineage- c-kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) migration and proliferation...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761490/distinct-timing-of-neurogenesis-of-ipsilateral-and-contralateral-retinal-ganglion-cells
#17
Florencia Marcucci, Célia A Soares, Carol Mason
In higher vertebrates, the circuit formed by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) projecting ipsilaterally (iRGCs) or contralaterally (cRGCs) to the brain permits binocular vision and depth perception. iRGCs and cRGCs differ in their position within the retina and in expression of transcription, guidance and activity-related factors. To parse whether these two populations also differ in the timing of their genesis, a feature of distinct neural subtypes and associated projections, we used newer birthdating methods and cell subtype specific markers to determine birthdate and cell cycle exit more precisely than previously...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761021/human-inpc-therapy-leads-to-improvement-in-functional-neurologic-outcomes-in-a-pig-ischemic-stroke-model
#18
Vivian W Lau, Simon R Platt, Harrison E Grace, Emily W Baker, Franklin D West
Introduction: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States but current therapies are limited with no regenerative potential. Previous translational failures have highlighted the need for large animal models of ischemic stroke and for improved assessments of functional outcomes. The aims of this study were first, to create a post-stroke functional outcome assessment scale in a porcine model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and second, to use this scale to determine the effect of human-induced-pluripotent-cell-derived neural progenitor cells (iNPCs) on functional outcome in this large animal stroke model...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760646/dgcr8-promotes-neural-progenitor-expansion-and-represses-neurogenesis-in-the-mouse-embryonic-neocortex
#19
Nadin Hoffmann, Stefan C Weise, Federica Marinaro, Tanja Vogel, Davide De Pietri Tonelli
DGCR8 and DROSHA are the minimal functional core of the Microprocessor complex essential for biogenesis of canonical microRNAs and for the processing of other RNAs. Conditional deletion of Dgcr8 and Drosha in the murine telencephalon indicated that these proteins exert crucial functions in corticogenesis. The identification of mechanisms of DGCR8- or DROSHA-dependent regulation of gene expression in conditional knockout mice are often complicated by massive apoptosis. Here, to investigate DGCR8 functions on amplification/differentiation of neural progenitors cells (NPCs) in corticogenesis, we overexpress Dgcr8 in the mouse telencephalon, by in utero electroporation ( IU Ep)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759978/the-developmental-origin-of-brain-tumours-a-cellular-and-molecular-framework
#20
REVIEW
Roberta Azzarelli, Benjamin D Simons, Anna Philpott
The development of the nervous system relies on the coordinated regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. The discovery that brain tumours contain a subpopulation of cells with stem/progenitor characteristics that are capable of sustaining tumour growth has emphasized the importance of understanding the cellular dynamics and the molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell behaviour. By focusing on recent work on glioma and medulloblastoma, we review how lineage tracing contributed to dissecting the embryonic origin of brain tumours and how lineage-specific mechanisms that regulate stem cell behaviour in the embryo may be subverted in cancer to achieve uncontrolled proliferation and suppression of differentiation...
May 14, 2018: Development
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