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Pre-clinical studies

İpek Özmen, Elif Yıldırım, Murat Öztürk, Birsen Ocaklı, Reyhan Yıldız, Rüya Aydın, Meral Karakış, Özgür Yılmaz, Emine Aksoy
OBJECTIVES: Chronic respiratory diseases exert a global health burden with high health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on emergency admission and hospitalization rates of patients with chronic respiratory disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, hospitalization rates and emergency admissions of patients before (December 2014-December 2015) and after PR (January 2015-December 2016) were investigated...
September 13, 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Ismail Shaik, Shekhar Yeshwant Bhojraj, Gautam Prasad, Premik Bhupendra Nagad, Priyank Mangaldas Patel, Aaditya Dattatreya Kashikar, Nishant Kumar
Study Design: This retrospective study was conducted including 18 patients who underwent posterior-only stabilization and fusion procedure for pseudoarthrosis in the ankylosed spine from October 2007 to May 2015. Purpose: This study aimed to describe the treatment outcomes in 18 patients with Andersson lesion (AL) who were managed using the posterior-only approach. Literature Review: AL is an unstable, localized, vertebral, or discovertebral lesion of the spine...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Rima Obeid, Andreas Hahn, Pawel Pludowski, Christian Trummer, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Faustino R Pérez-López, Spyridon N Karras, Winfried März
Vitamin D deficiency is common and there exists a huge gap between recommended dietary vitamin D intakes and the poor vitamin D supply in the general population. While vitamin D is important for musculoskeletal health, there are accumulating data suggesting that vitamin D may also be important for fertility, pregnancy outcomes and lactation. Significant changes in vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy such as increased production of the "active vitamin D hormone" calcitriol support the important role of vitamin D in this setting...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ossama Elshazly, Amr Farouk Abdel Rahman, Hesham Fahmy, Mohamed H Sobhy, Wael Abdelhadi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare scarf osteotomy and long chevron osteotomy in treatment of hallux valgus deformity regarding operative time, power of correction and complications. DESIGN: A prospective randomized controlled comparative trial. METHODS: 48 cases with hallux valgus were divided randomly in 2 groups (21 treated by scarf and 22 treated by long chevron osteotomy and 5 were missed during follow up), average age 36 years, follow up time was average of 25...
March 7, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Simone Riganti, Valentino Coppa, Luigi Aurelio Nasto, Mauro Di Stadio, Maria Grazia Calevo, Antonio Pompilio Gigante, Silvio Boero
BACKGROUND: Treatment of complex foot deformities in growing children and young adult patients is challenging. The traditional approach consists of extensive soft tissues releases, osteotomies and/or arthrodesis. More recently, distraction osteogenesis has been proposed as an alternative strategy. The aim of this study was to describe our treatment strategy and report clinical outcomes of the patients affected from complex foot deformities treated by distraction osteogenesis and hexapod external fixator...
July 9, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Matthew P McCusker, Daniela Alves Ferreira, Donal Cooney, Bruno Martins Alves, Seámus Fanning, Jean-Marie Pagès, Marta Martins, Anne Davin-Regli
PURPOSE: The main focus of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a selected number of human clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes and explore the effects of selected chemosensitisers on the reversal of the resistant phenotype of these isolates. METHODOLOGY: This study design was accomplished by: (i) characterising several multidrug resistant (MDR) E. aerogenes clinical isolates; (ii) evaluating the contribution of target gene mutations to the resistance phenotype focusing on fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol only; (iii) evaluating the contribution of membrane permeability and efflux to the MDR phenotype; (iv) assessing the combined action of selected antimicrobials and chemosensitisers (to identify combinations with synergistic effects and able to reduce the MIC); (v) understand how these combinations can modulate the permeability or efflux on these isolates...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Chompunoot Wangboon, Chanika Worasith, Raynoo Thanan, Chatanun Eamudomkarn, Anchalee Techasen, Jiraporn Sithithaworn, Watcharin Loilome, Nittaya Chamadol, Somchai Pinlaor, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Puangrat Yongvanit, Narong Khuntikeo, Jeffrey M Bethony, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Inflammation of the hepatobiliary system in chronic opisthorchiasis is associated with an elevated level of urinary 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) during active as well as past exposure to Opisthorchis viverrini infection. In this study, we evaluated the short-term effect of praziquantel treatment on hepatobiliary disease (HBD) using urinary 8-oxodG as an inflammatory marker in a cohort of residents in endemic areas of opisthorchiasis in Khon Kaen, Thailand. The HBD status in terms of periductal fibrosis (PDF) was determined by abdominal ultrasonography and O...
October 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Archana Viswanath, Daniel Oreadi, Matthew Finkelman, Gustavo Klein, Maria Papageorge
PURPOSE: Pre-emptive analgesia is known to reduce postoperative pain after third molar removal. The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative pain in patients receiving either preoperative intravenous (IV) ibuprofen or preoperative IV acetaminophen for third molar surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was a randomized, single-blinded clinical study conducted in patients undergoing surgical extraction of 2 or more impacted third molars under deep sedation...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jessica A Slade, Jennifer V Hall, Jennifer Kintner, Robert V Schoborg
Chlamydia trachomatis/HSV-2 vaginal co-infections are seen clinically, suggesting that these sexually transmitted pathogens may interact. We previously established an intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum/HSV-2 super-infection model and observed that chlamydial pre-infection protects mice from a subsequent lethal HSV-2 challenge. However, the mechanism of protection remains unknown. The type I interferon, IFN-β, binds to the type I interferon receptor (IFNR), elicits a host cellular antiviral response, and inhibits HSV replication in vitro and in vivo...
October 15, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Anne Derache, Collins C Iwuji, Kathy Baisley, Siva Danaviah, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Vincent Calvez, Tulio de Oliveira, François Dabis, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay
Background: Previous studies in HIV-positive individuals on thymidine analogue backbone antiretroviral therapy (ART) with either nevirapine or efavirenz have suggested poorer virological outcomes in the presence of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR). We assessed the impact of PDR on virological suppression (VS) [<50copies/mL] in individuals prescribed primarily tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz in rural KwaZulu-Natal within a Treatment as Prevention trial. Methods: Among 1,557 HIV-positive individuals reporting no prior ART at study entry and provided plasma samples, 1,328 individuals with entry viral load (VL) >1,000 copies/mL had next generation sequencing (NGS) of the HIV pol gene with MiSeq technology...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Valeria Pecce, Marialuisa Sponziello, Giuseppe Damante, Francesca Rosignolo, Cosimo Durante, Livia Lamartina, Giorgio Grani, Diego Russo, Cira Rosaria di Gioia, Sebastiano Filetti, Antonella Verrienti
Synonymous mutations continue to be filtered out from most large-scale cancer genome studies, but several lines of evidence suggest they can play driver roles in neoplastic disease. We investigated a case of an aggressive, apparently sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) harboring a somatic RET p.Cys634Arg mutation (a known MTC driver). A germ-line RET substitution (p.Cys630=) had also been found but was considered clinically irrelevant because of its synonymous nature. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of the tumor tissues revealed that the RET mutations were in cis...
October 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Adam B Raff, Carina N Thomas, Gary S Chuang, Mathew M Avram, Monica H Le, R Rox Anderson, Martin Purschke
OBJECTIVE: Lidocaine acts as a local anesthetic by blocking transmembrane sodium channel permeability, but also induces the synthesis of heat shock proteins and sensitizes cells to hyperthermia. A previous study reported two cases of deep focal skin ulceration at points corresponding to depot local lidocaine injection sites after treatment with non-ablative fractional resurfacing and it was hypothesized that lidocaine had focally sensitized keratinocytes to the thermal damage of laser treatment...
October 15, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Sean C Rose, Keith O Yeates, Darren R Fuerst, Patrick M Ercole, Joseph T Nguyen, Natalie M Pizzimenti
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of repetitive subconcussive head impacts with functional outcomes in primary and high school tackle football players. SETTING: Youth football fields and an outpatient sports neurology clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 112 primary school (n = 55, age 9-12 years) and high school (n = 57, age 15-18 years) football players. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. MAIN MEASURES: Helmet-based sensors were used to record head impacts during practices and games during the 2016 football season...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
David Bellocq, Pascal Roy, Laurent Kodjikian, Thibaud Mathis, Anh-Minh Nguyen, Joël Herault, Michel Rivoire, Sylvie Négrier, Juliette Thariat, Jean-Daniel Grange
The aim of this study was to evaluate metastatic latency and survival after the occurrence of metastases in patients with choroidal/ciliary body melanoma treated with proton therapy. This was a retrospective cohort study. All consecutive patients with choroidal/ciliary body melanoma treated with proton therapy between 1991 and 2010 were included. Overall survival, specific survival (SS), local recurrence-free interval, and metastasis-free interval (MFI) were calculated. There were 508 patients. The mean follow-up was 239...
October 12, 2018: Melanoma Research
Gaetano Facchini, Carla Cavaliere, Carmine D'Aniello, Gelsomina Iovane, Sabrina Rossetti
In the pre-chemotherapy (CT) and post-CT settings of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) significantly extended median overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) compared with prednisone alone. Yet, few data are available on therapy efficacy in the subgroup with visceral metastases, who represent a small population with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical experience of AAP in patients with mCRPC with liver and/or lung metastases in real-world setting...
October 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
M Ahmed, S Lutze, M Tembulatow, G Daeschlein, M Jünger, A Arnold
BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disease (CVD) is extremely common worldwide. The prevalence is increasing with age and is associated with a reduced quality of life, particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. Symptomatic chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) with venous ulcer at its' endpoint, indicates interventional surgery to cure venous reflux therewith promoting wound healing and preventing recurrence. To our knowledge up to now no coherent study has been undertaken in patients with CVI who underwent an open venous surgery concerning complications, venous hemodynamics and perioperative symptomology in one study population...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
A M Feyissa, T F Hasan, J F Meschia
Stroke is the cause of about 10% of all epilepsy and 55% of newly diagnosed seizures among the elderly. Although recent advances in acute stroke therapy have improved longevity, there has been a consequent rise in the prevalence of stroke-related epilepsy (STRE). Many clinical studies make a distinction between early (within 7 days of onset of stroke) and late (beyond 7 days of onset of stroke) seizures based on presumed pathophysiological differences. Although early seizures are thought to be the consequence of local metabolic disturbances without altered neuronal networks, late seizures are thought to occur when the brain has acquired a predisposition for seizures...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Steven P Dehmer, Michael V Maciosek, Nicole K Trower, Stephen E Asche, Anna R Bergdall, Rachel A Nyboer, Patrick J O'Connor, Pamela A Pawloski, JoAnn M Sperl-Hillen, Beverly B Green, Karen L Margolis
Background: Pharmacist-managed (team-based) care for hypertension with home blood pressure monitoring support interventions have been widely studied and shown to be effective in improving rates of hypertension control and lowering blood pressure; however, few studies have evaluated the economic considerations related to bringing these programs into usual practice. Objective: To analyze the economic outcomes of the Blood Pressure Telemonitoring and Pharmacist Management on Blood Pressure (Hyperlink) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial which used home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist case management to achieve better blood pressure control in patients with uncontrolled hypertension...
October 2018: J Am Coll Clin Pharm
K Huseynova, R Sutradhar, G L Booth, A Huang, J G Ray
Background: Lower limb amputation (LLA) is a complication of lower limb atherosclerosis, infection and tissue gangrene. Following ipsilateral LLA, the risk of major amputation of the contralateral limb or of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of a contralateral major LLA, comparing those with a non-malignant/non-traumatic ipsilateral major vs. ipsilateral minor LLA. Methods: We used pre-existing linked administrative health databases for the study...
October 2018: Heliyon
Nathanael Matei, Richard Camara, John H Zhang
Clinical and pre-clinical studies have reported a broad range of applications for hydrogen gas therapy. Classically, conventional antioxidant therapy is limited because it neutralizes both the detrimental and protective effects of reactive oxygen species. As a weak reducing agent, hydrogen gas avoids this paradox by reacting with strong oxidants while leaving other beneficial oxidants reactive. This review gathers a promising list of hydrogen gas applications that merit further mechanistic investigation and additional therapeutic trials...
July 2018: Medical Gas Research
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