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Nano immune

Jun-Pyo Choi, Seong Gyu Jeon, Yoon-Keun Kim, You Sook Cho
BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) is the major source of indoor allergens that cause airway disease. Recent evidence suggests that Gram-negative/positive bacteria produce nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing diverse components, including various immunostimulatory molecules. However, the association between bacteria-derived EVs and development of airway disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify and isolate HDM derived EVs and to evaluate their effect on the development of airway inflammation...
October 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Shiyu Yan, Kewei Xu, Li Li, Wenyi Gu, Barbara E Rolfe, Zhi P Xu
Nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively investigated as adjuvants in new generation vaccines, while how these NPs promote the immune responses has not been well understood. In this research, we have tried to elucidate the possible pathways for layered double hydroxide (LDH) NPs to provoke immune responses. As previously reported, LDH NPs efficiently deliver antigens to antigen presenting cells (APCs). In this research, we have found that these internalized LDH NPs are not released by these APCs within 8 h. We have for the first time found that macrophage cells exchange the internalized LDH NPs with other surrounding ones, which may promote immune responses in an additional way...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yaghob Azadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Hamed Hamishehkar, Ahmad Daryani, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Aleksandra Barac, Saba Rajabi, Paria Alizadeh, Mahbobeh Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Although almost 1/3 of the world's population are seropositive, there is no effective vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine for control of toxoplasmosis is one of major concerns in parasitology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nano-liposomal excretory-secretory antigens (NLESA) in BALB/c mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) was obtained from tachyzoites, encapsulated in the liposome and studied by scanning electron microscope...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Francesca L Maclean, Georgina M Ims, Malcolm K Horne, Richard J Williams, David R Nisbet
Immunology is the next frontier of nano/biomaterial science research, with the immune system determining the degree of tissue repair. However, the complexity of the inflammatory response represents a significant challenge that is essential to understand for the development of future therapies. Cell-instructive 3D culture environments are critical to improve our understanding of the link between the behavior and morphology of inflammatory cells and to remodel their response to injury. This study has taken two recent high-profile innovations-functional peptide-based hydrogels, and the inclusion of anti-inflammatory agents via coassembly-to make a programmed anti-inflammatory nanoscaffold (PAIN) with unusual and valuable properties that allows tissue-independent switching of the inflammatory cascade...
October 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
P A Francisco, M G Delboni, A R Lima, Y Xiao, W L Siqueira, B P F A Gomes
AIM: To characterize the proteome of 20 root canals in teeth with post-treatment endodontic disease using mass spectrometry and to correlate the identified proteins with clinical features. METHODOLOGY: Twenty patients with radiographic evidence of apical periodontitis and need for root canal re-treatment were selected. Samples from the root canal contents were collected and processed using two-dimensional capillary nano-flow liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry...
October 4, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Ulrike Rottensteiner-Brandl, Rainer Detsch, Bapi Sarker, Lara Lingens, Katrin Köhn, Ulrich Kneser, Anja K Bosserhoff, Raymund E Horch, Aldo R Boccaccini, Andreas Arkudas
Alginate dialdehyde (ADA), gelatin, and nano-scaled bioactive glass (nBG) particles are being currently investigated for their potential use as three-dimensional scaffolding materials for bone tissue engineering. ADA and gelatin provide a three-dimensional scaffold with properties supporting cell adhesion and proliferation. Combined with nanocristalline BG, this composition closely mimics the mineral phase of bone. In the present study, rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), commonly used as an osteogenic cell source, were evaluated after encapsulation into ADA-gelatin hydrogel with and without nBG...
October 1, 2018: Materials
Reshma J Nevagi, Zeinab G Khalil, Waleed M Hussein, Jessica Powell, Michael R Batzloff, Robert J Capon, Michael F Good, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Istvan Toth
Peptide-based vaccines have the potential to overcome the limitations of classical vaccines; however, their use is hampered by a lack of carriers and adjuvants suitable for human use. In this study, an efficient self-adjuvanting peptide vaccine delivery system was developed based on the ionic interactions between cationic trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and a peptide antigen coupled with synthetically defined anionic α-poly-(l-glutamic acid) (PGA). The antigen, possessing a conserved B-cell epitope derived from the group A streptococcus (GAS) pathogen and a universal T-helper epitope, was conjugated to PGA using cycloaddition reaction...
September 25, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Alice Pinheiro, Andreia M Silva, José H Teixeira, Raquel M Gonçalves, Maria I Almeida, Mário A Barbosa, Susana G Santos
Extracellular vesicles (EV), in particular exosomes, have been the object of intense research, due to their potential to mediate intercellular communication, modulating the phenotype of target cells. The natural properties and functions of EV are being exploited as biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis, and as nano-bio-carriers for the development of new therapeutic strategies. EV have been particularly examined in the field of cancer, but are also increasingly investigated in other areas, like immune-related diseases and regenerative medicine...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Limei Shen, Jingjing Li, Qi Liu, Wantong Song, Xueqiong Zhang, Karthik Tiruthani, Haiyang Hu, Manisit Das, Tyler Jay Goodwin, Rihe Liu, Leaf Huang
In many cancers, the tumor microenvironment (TME) is largely immune suppressive, blocking the antitumor immunity and resulting in immunotherapy resistance. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a major player controlling the immunosuppressive TME in different murine tumor models. Increased IL-10 production suppresses intratumoral dendritic cell production of interleukin 12, thereby limiting antitumor cytotoxic T-cell responses and activation of NK cells during therapy. We engineered, formulated, and delivered genes encoding an IL-10 protein trap to change immunosuppressive TME, which could enhance antitumor immunity...
September 28, 2018: ACS Nano
Santhosh Kalash Rajendrakumar, Vishnu Revuri, Manikandan Samidurai, Adityanarayan Mohapatra, Jae Hyuk Lee, Palanivel Ganesan, Jihoon Jo, Yong-Kyu Lee, In-Kyu Park
Oxidative stress during sepsis pathogenesis remains the most-important factor creating imbalance and dysregulation in immune-cell function, usually observed following initial infection. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), a potentially toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), is excessively produced by pro-inflammatory immune cells during the initial phases of sepsis and plays a dominant role in regulating the pathways associated with systemic inflammatory immune activation. In the present study, we constructed a peroxide scavenger mannosylated polymeric albumin manganese dioxide (mSPAM) nanoassembly to catalyze the decomposition of H2 O2 responsible for the hyper-activation of pro-inflammatory immune cells...
September 27, 2018: Nano Letters
V Sokolova, K Loza, T Knuschke, J Heinen-Weiler, H Jastrow, M Hasenberg, J Buer, A M Westendorf, M Gunzer, M Epple
Nanoparticles can act as transporters for synthetic molecules and biomolecules into cells, also in immunology. Antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells are important targets for immunotherapy in nanomedicine. Therefore, we have used primary murine bone marrow-derived phagocytosing cells (bmPCs), i.e. dendritic cells and macrophages, to study their interaction with spherical barium sulphate particles of different size (40 nm, 420 nm, and 1 µm) and to follow their uptake pathway. Barium sulphate is chemically and biologically inert (no dissolution, no catalytic effects), i...
September 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jun Zhao, Zhilan Xiao, Tingting Li, Huiqin Chen, Ying Yuan, Y Alan Wang, Cheng-Hui Hsiao, Diana S-L Chow, Willem W Overwijk, Chun Li
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat. It is refractory to most existing therapies, including immunotherapies, due to the presence of an excessive desmoplastic stroma, which restricts penetration of drugs and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Stromal modulation has shown promising results in the enhancement of immune checkpoint blockade treatment in PDAC. We demonstrate here effective stromal modulation by a polymeric micelle-based nanoformulation to codeliver a sonic hedgehog inhibitor (cyclopamine, abbreviated as CPA) and a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug (paclitaxel, abbreviated as PTX)...
September 21, 2018: ACS Nano
Richa Gupta, Giorgia Radicioni, Sabri Abdelwahab, Hong Dang, Jerome Carpenter, Michael Chua, Piotr A Mieczkowski, John Sheridan, Scott H Randell, Mehmet Kesimer
Airway epithelium structure/function can be altered by local inflammatory/immune signals, and this process is called epithelial remodeling. The mechanism by which this innate response is regulated, which causes mucin/mucus overproduction, is largely unknown. Exosomes are nano-vesicles that can be secreted and internalized by cells to transport cellular cargo, such as proteins, lipids, and miRNA. The objective of this study was to understand the role exosomes play in airway remodeling through cell-cell communication...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Cole J Batty, Pamela Tiet, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie
Cancer cells are able to avoid immune surveillance and exploit the immune system to grow and metastasize. With the development of nano- and micro-particles, there has been a growing number of immunotherapy delivery systems developed to elicit innate and adaptive immune responses to eradicate cancer cells. This can be accomplished by training resident immune cells to recognize and eliminate cells with tumor-associated antigens or by providing external stimuli to enhance tumor cell apoptosis in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME)...
September 18, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Michael W Graner
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano- to micro-scale membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released from presumably all cell types. Tumor cells and immune cells are prodigious generators of EVs often with competing phenotypes in terms of immune suppression versus immune stimulation. Purinergic receptors, proteins that bind diverse purine nucleotides and nucleosides (ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine), are widely expressed across tissues and cell types, and are prominent players in immune and tumor cell nucleotide metabolism...
September 12, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Yuefei Shen, Jessica L Cohen, Sarah M Nicoloro, Mark Kelly, Batuhan Yenilmez, Felipe Henriques, Emmanouela Tsagkaraki, Yvonne J K Edwards, Xiaodi Hu, Randall H Friedline, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
RNA-guided, engineered nucleases derived from the prokaryotic adaptive immune system CRISPR-Cas represent a powerful platform for gene deletion and editing. When used as a therapeutic approach, direct delivery of Cas9 protein and single-guide (sg)RNA could circumvent the safety issues associated with plasmid delivery and therefore represents an attractive tool for precision genome engineering. Gene deletion or editing in adipose tissue to enhance its energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation, and secretion of bioactive factors through a "browning" process presents a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate metabolic disease...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuan Zeng, Xing Ping Hu, Guanqun Cao, Sang-Jin Suh
When the subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes is fed heat-killed methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the termite produces proteins with antibacterial activity against the inducer pathogen in its hemolymph. We used a proteomic approach to characterize the alterations in protein profiles caused by the inducer bacterium in the hemolymph of the termite. Nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 221 proteins and approximately 70% of these proteins could be associated with biological processes and molecular functions...
September 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carine K Souza, Daniela S Rajão, Matthew R Sandbulte, Sara Lopes, Nicola S Lewis, Crystal L Loving, Phillip C Gauger, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes a disease burden in the swine industry in the US and is a challenge to prevent due to substantial genetic and antigenic diversity of IAV that circulate in pig populations. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines formulated with oil-in-water (OW) adjuvant are commonly used in swine. However, WIV-OW are associated with vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) when the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of the vaccine strain are mismatched with the challenge virus. Here, we assessed if different types of adjuvant in WIV vaccine formulations impacted VAERD outcome...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
Yongguang Guan, Chen-Yu Tsao, David N Quan, Ying Li, Lei Mei, Jinglin Zhang, Boce Zhang, Yi Liu, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne, Qin Wang
Quorum sensing (QS) enables intercellular communication after bacterial cells sense the autoinducers have reached or exceeded a critical concentration. Selectively amplifying specific bacterial "quorum" activity at a lower cell density is still a challenge. Here, we propose a novel platform of immune magnetic nano-assembly to amplify specific bacterial QS signaling via improving the bioavailability of autoinducers-2 (AI-2, furanosyl borate) from sender (wide-type, WT cells) to receiver (reporter cells)...
August 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Minori Kawai, Takashi Nakamura, Naoya Miura, Mio Maeta, Hiroki Tanaka, Keisuke Ueda, Kenjirou Higashi, Kunikazu Moribe, Kota Tange, Yuta Nakai, Hiroki Yoshioka, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hidetaka Akita
Cytoplasmic DNA triggers cellular immunity via activating the stimulator of interferon genes pathway. Since DNA is degradable and membrane impermeable, delivery system would permit cytoplasmic delivery by destabilizing the endosomal membrane for the use as an adjuvant. Herein, we report on the development of a plasmid DNA (pDNA)-encapsulating lipid nanoparticle (LNP). The structural components include an SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like material that mounts vitamin E as a hydrophobic scaffold, and dual sensing motifs that are responsive to the intracellular environment (ssPalmE)...
August 29, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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