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Nano immune

Zhen Zhang, Zheyi Li, Chengyao Zhang, Jiannan Liu, Yuxing Bai, Song Li, Chenping Zhang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of biomimetic intrafibrillar mineralized collagen (IMC) bone scaffold materials on bone regeneration and the underlying biological mechanisms. Materials and methods: A critical-sized bone defect in the rat femur was created; then IMC, extrafibrillar mineralized collagen, and nano-hydroxyapatite bone scaffold materials were grafted into the defect. Ten weeks after implantation, micro-computed tomography and histology were applied to evaluate the bone regeneration...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Tianqun Lang, Yiran Liu, Zhong Zheng, Wei Ran, Yihui Zhai, Qi Yin, Pengcheng Zhang, Yaping Li
Metastatic breast cancer may be resistant to chemo-immunotherapy due to the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC). And the control of particle size and drug release of a drug carrier for multidrug combination is a key issue influencing therapy effect. Here, a cocktail strategy is reported, in which chemotherapy against both bulk tumor cells and CSC and immune checkpoint blockade therapy are intergraded into one drug delivery system. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX), the anti-CSC agent thioridazine (THZ), and the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor HY19991 (HY) are all incorporated into an enzyme/pH dual-sensitive nanoparticle with a micelle-liposome double-layer structure...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
François Huaux
Fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmunity developing upon particle exposure have been exclusively linked with uncontrolled inflammatory processes. The critical role of inflammation is now challenged by several contradictory observations indicating that the emergence of these chronic disorders may result from non-inflammatory events. A growing number of studies reveals that micro- and nano-particles can cause exaggerated and persistent immunosuppression characterized by the release of potent anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β), and the recruitment of major regulatory immune cells (M2 macrophages, T and B regs, and MDSC)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Takashi Nakamura
The appearance of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been a major turning point in cancer therapy. The success of immune checkpoint therapy has revolutionized the field of cancer therapy, and immunotherapy has joined the cancer treatment ranks as a pillar. To induce effective anti-tumor immune responses, it is necessary both to enhance the activity of immune cells and to block immune suppression by tumor cells. Carrier type drug delivery systems based on nanobiotechnology (nano DDS) represent a potentially useful technology for efficiently achieving both: enhancement of the activity of immune cells and blocking immune suppression...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Haiyan Liu, Matt Kang, Julie Wang, Cherie Blenkiron, Arier Lee, Michelle Wise, Larry Chamley, Qi Chen
BACKGROUND: The human placenta extrudes a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the maternal blood daily. These vesicles may be crucial to the adaptation of the maternal cardiovascular and immune systems to pregnancy. Quantifying the EVs that are released in early gestation is important to our understanding of how placental EVs may contribute to the regulation of maternal physiology. METHODS: EVs were isolated from first trimester placental explants and separated into micro- and nano-vesicles by differential centrifugation...
December 2018: Placenta
Shu Pan, Yi Zhong, Yibo Shan, Xueying Liu, Yuanfan Xiao, Hongcan Shi
The influences of pore sizes and surface modifications on biomechanical properties and biocompatibility (BC) of porous tracheal scaffolds (PTSs) fabricated by polycaprolactone (PCL) using 3D printing technology. The porous grafts were surface-modified through hydrolysis, amination, and nanocrystallization treatment. The surface properties of the modified grafts were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The materials were cocultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Gang Li, Shuhao Qin, Xiaonan Liu, Daohai Zhang, Min He
Biodegradable polymers, because their degradation products are small molecules that do not cause immune system rejection, have been increasingly used by researchers to explore the preparation of scaffold with excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite and polybutylene succinate were mixed by solution-blending to prepare a porous scaffold that could be used in the biomedical industry. Based on the viewpoint of bionics, porous scaffold with well pore structure and uniform dispersion of nano-hydroxyapatite particles was prepared using ethanol as a porogen...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Jianqin Lu, Xiangsheng Liu, Yu-Pei Liao, Xiang Wang, Ayman Ahmed, Wen Jiang, Ying Ji, Huan Meng, Andre E Nel
Immunotherapy provides the best approach to reduce the high mortality of metastatic breast cancer (BC). We demonstrate a chemo-immunotherapy approach, which utilizes a liposomal carrier to simultaneously trigger immunogenic cell death (ICD) as well as interfere in the regionally overexpressed immunosuppressive effect of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) at the BC tumor site. The liposome was constructed by self-assembly of a phospholipid-conjugated prodrug, indoximod (IND), which inhibits the IDO-1 pathway, followed by the remote loading of the ICD-inducing chemo drug, doxorubicin (DOX)...
November 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Yong Li, Xiaosong Li, Feifan Zhou, Austin Doughty, Ashley R Hoover, Robert E Nordquist, Wei R Chen
Phototherapy is a non-invasive or minimally invasive therapeutic strategy. Immunotherapy uses different immunological approaches, such as antibodies, vaccines, immunoadjuvants, and cytokines to stimulate the host immune system to fight against diseases. In cancer treatment, phototherapy not only destroys tumor cells, but also induces immunogenic tumor cell death to initiate a systemic anti-tumor immune response. When combined with immunotherapy, the effectiveness of phototherapy can be enhanced. Because of their special physical, chemical, and sometimes immunological properties, nanomaterials have also been used to enhance phototherapy...
November 23, 2018: Cancer Letters
Jelena Tosic, Zeljka Stanojevic, Sasenka Vidicevic, Aleksandra Isakovic, Darko Ciric, Tamara Martinovic, Tamara Kravic-Stevovic, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Verica Paunovic, Svetlana Jovanovic, Biljana Todorovic-Markovic, Zoran Markovic, Martin Danko, Matej Micusik, Zdenko Spitalsky, Vladimir Trajkovic
We investigated the therapeutic capacity of nano-sized graphene sheets, called graphene quantum dots (GQD), in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) damage. Intraperitoneally administered GQD (10 mg/kg/day) accumulated in the lymph node and CNS cells of Dark Agouti rats in which EAE was induced by immunization with spinal cord homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant. GQD significantly reduced clinical signs of EAE when applied throughout the course of the disease (day 0-32), while the protection was less pronounced if the treatment was limited to the induction (day 0-7 post-immunization) or effector (from day 8 onwards) phase of the disease...
November 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ana-Maria Zagrean, Dirk M Hermann, Ioan Opris, Leon Zagrean, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Restorative strategies after stroke are focused on the remodeling of cerebral endothelial cells and brain parenchymal cells. The latter, i.e., neurons, neural precursor cells and glial cells, synergistically interact with endothelial cells in the ischemic brain, providing a neurovascular unit (NVU) remodeling that can be used as target for stroke therapies. Intercellular communication and signaling within the NVU, the multicellular brain-vessel-blood interface, including its highly selective blood-brain barrier, are fundamental to the central nervous system homeostasis and function...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Joan Salas-Leiva, Andressa Teles, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez
BACKGROUND:  This research aimed to observe the effect of homeopathic treatments prepared from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus (H1) and commercial homeopathic medication Phosphoricum acidum and Silicea terra (H2) on the immune and antioxidant response in Seriola rivoliana juveniles under usual culture conditions and challenged with V. parahaemolyticus . METHODS:  Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to study changes in the expression of key genes related to immune response, cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β]), adapter protein for cytokine release (MyD88) and piscidin and spectrophotometric techniques to analyze the activity of antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes in Seriola rivoliana juveniles at 30 (weaning stage [WS]) and 60 (early juveniles [EJ]) days post-hatching...
November 20, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Ramia Safar, Rémi Houlgatte, Alain Le Faou, Carole Ronzani, Wen Wu, Luc Ferrari, Hélène Dubois-Pot-Schneider, Bertrand H Rihn, Olivier Joubert
OBJECTIVE: S-nitrosogluthatione (GSNO), a S-nitrosothiol, is a commonly used as nitric oxide (NO• ) donor. However, its half-life is too short for a direct therapeutic use. To protect and ensure a sustained release of NO• , the encapsulation of GSNO into nanoparticles may be an interesting option. METHODS: In this work, we have investigated the early (4 h) and late (24 h) transcriptomic response of THP-1 human monocytes cells to two doses (1.4 and 6 µM) of either free or Eudragit® nano-encapsulated GSNO using RNA microarray...
November 17, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Dominika Hobernik, Matthias Bros
Two decades ago successful transfection of antigen presenting cells (APC) in vivo was demonstrated which resulted in the induction of primary adaptive immune responses. Due to the good biocompatibility of plasmid DNA, their cost-efficient production and long shelf life, many researchers aimed to develop DNA vaccine-based immunotherapeutic strategies for treatment of infections and cancer, but also autoimmune diseases and allergies. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the course of action of DNA vaccines, and which factors are responsible for the poor immunogenicity in human so far...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ives Charlie-Silva, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo
In recent years, artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have highlighted according to their effects on highly aggressive cancers, as well as treatment of malaria and leishmaniasis, besides presenting anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. It has also been shown that ART compounds have the ability to modulate the immune response by regulating cell proliferation and cytokine release. These effects may be beneficial and improve the treatment of cancer and parasitic diseases by increasing therapeutic success, but it has some pharmacological limitations such as low bioavailability, short half-life and limited tissue access...
November 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yu-Chang Li, Yi Hu, Xiao-Yan Wu, Nai-Fan Huo, Jing Li, Sen Zhang, Tao Jiang, Xiao-Ping Kang
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause fever, headache, neurological disorders, and/or peripheral flaccid paralysis; therefore, it is a major threat to public health. A rapid, sensitive, and simple method for detecting anti-TBEV antibodies is needed urgently to determine infection and for vaccine evaluation. Here, a luciferase-based immunocomplex assay system (Luc-IC) was developed to detect TBEV antibodies. The system is based on a reporter Nano luciferase (NLuc) that is co-expressed as a fusion protein with viral envelope domain III (ED3) in COS7 cells...
November 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xueyi Guo, Weijia Wang, Xiuhong Yuan, Ying Yang, Qinghua Tian, Yang Xiang, Yan Sun, Zhiming Bai
Magnetic nano capture agent (MNCA)-based magnetic separation is considered as a promising approach to rapidly isolate heavy metals from blood. Limited removal efficiency and potential biosafety risks are the major challenges for the clinical use of MNCA-based magnetic separation. Here, we report a highly-efficient MNCA-based magnetic separation of heavy metals from blood in continuous multi-stage adsorption mode. The interactions between MNCA and blood components (e.g. blood cells and plasma proteins) and the MNCA-induced cellular immune responses are studied in detail...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mona Saleh, Gokhlesh Kumar, Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Mohamed A Dkhil, Mansour El-Matbouli, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite, causes ichthyophthiriasis and leads to considerable economic losses to the aquaculture industry. Understanding the fish immune response and host-parasite interactions could support developing novel strategies for better disease management and control. Fish skin mucus is the first line of defence against infections through the epidermis. Yet, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, protein-based defence strategies against infection with I. multifiliis at this barrier remain elusive...
October 29, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Dandan Jiang, Weiwei Mu, Xiuping Pang, Yongjun Liu, Na Zhang, Yunmei Song, Sanjay Garg
Enhancing cytosol delivery of exogenous antigens in antigen presenting cells can improve cross-presentation and CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response. The antigen cytosol delivery speed, which has great importance on the rate of MHC class I molecules (MHC I) antigen presentation pathway and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induction, has not been well studied. We hypothesized that micelle-tailored vaccine with multiple cascaded lysosomal responsive capabilities could accelerate lysosomal escape and enhance cancer immunotherapy...
October 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Naresh Kasoju, Julian George, Hua Ye, Zhanfeng Cui
Electrospinning uses an electric field to produce fine fibers of nano and micron scale diameters from polymer solutions. Despite innovation in jet initiation, jet path control and fiber collection, it is common to only fabricate planar and tubular-shaped electrospun products. For applications that encapsulate cells and tissues inside a porous container, it is useful to develop biocompatible hollow core-containing devices. To this end, by introducing a 3D-printed framework containing a sodium chloride pellet (sacrificial core) as the collector and through post-electrospinning dissolution of the sacrificial core, we demonstrate that hollow core containing polyamide 66 (nylon 66) devices can be easily fabricated for use as cell encapsulation systems...
October 21, 2018: Nanomaterials
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