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Nano immune

Manohar Prasad Koduri, Venkanagouda S Goudar, Yu-Wei Shao, John A Hunt, James Henstock, Judith Curran, Fan-Gang Tseng
Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems have recently been proposed as a solution for treating stage I diabetes by reproducing the function of the pancreas. However, there are many unresolved issues associated with their development, including monitoring and controlling oxygen, immune responses and the optimization of glucose. All of which need to be monitored and controlled to produce an efficient and viable artificial organ, that can become integrated in the patient and maintain homeostasis. This research focused on monitoring oxygen concentration, specifically achieving this kinetically as the oxygen gradient in an artificial pancreas made of alginate spheres containing islet cells...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yun Hu, Zongmin Zhao, Theresa Harmon, Paul R Pentel, Marion Ehrich, Chenming Zhang
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has long been used in nanoparticle-based drug or vaccine delivery platforms. In this study, nano-nicotine vaccines (NanoNicVac) were PEGylated to different degrees to investigate the impact of PEG on the immunological efficacy of the vaccine. Hybrid nanoparticles with various degrees of PEGylation (2.5%-30%) were assembled. It was found that 30% PEGylation resulted in a hybrid nanoparticle of a compromised core-shell structure. A higher concentration of PEG also led to a slower cellular uptake of hybrid nanoparticles by dendritic cells...
August 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Guangsheng Du, Laura Woythe, Koen van der Maaden, Mara Leone, Stefan Romeijn, Alexander Kros, Gideon Kersten, Wim Jiskoot, Joke A Bouwstra
PURPOSE: To examine the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid (DT) loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) after coated and hollow microneedle-mediated intradermal immunization in mice. METHODS: DT was loaded into MSNs and the nanoparticle surface was coated with a lipid bilayer (LB-MSN-DT). To prepare coated microneedles, alternating layers of negatively charged LB-MSN-DT and positively charged N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) were coated onto pH-sensitive microneedle arrays via a layer-by-layer approach...
August 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Lingtong Meng, Yali Cheng, Xiaoning Tong, Shaoju Gan, Yawen Ding, Yu Zhang, Chao Wang, Lei Xu, Yishen Zhu, Jinhui Wu, Yiqiao Hu, Ahu Yuan
Hypoxia, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), can induce tumor resistance to radiation therapy. To overcome hypoxia-induced radiation resistance, recent studies have described nano-systems to improve tumor oxygenation for immobilizing DNA damage and simultaneously initiate oxygen-dependent HIF-1α degradation. However, HIF-1α degradation is incomplete during tumor oxygenation treatment alone. Therefore, tumor oxygenation combined with residual HIF-1 functional inhibition is crucial to optimizing therapeutic outcomes of radiotherapy...
August 13, 2018: ACS Nano
Elif Eren, Norman R Watts, Altaira D Dearborn, Ira W Palmer, Joshua D Kaufman, Alasdair C Steven, Paul T Wingfield
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide. While an adequate vaccine is available, current treatment options are limited, not highly effective, and associated with adverse effects, encouraging the development of alternative therapeutics. The HBV core gene encodes two different proteins: core, which forms the viral nucleocapsid, and pre-core, which serves as an immune modulator with multiple points of action. The two proteins mostly have the same sequence, although they differ at their N and C termini and in their dimeric arrangements...
July 17, 2018: Structure
A R Rafieerad, A R Bushroa, Ahmad Amiri, K Kalaiselvam, K M Vellasamy, J Vadivelu
Antibacterial ability is vital in biological approaches as well as functional biomaterials. Besides, cytocompatibility aspect of biologic media, tissue and organs is always concern for appropriate synthesis. From the past, metallic/oxide phases of silver (Ag) material in various macro, micro or nano configurations have been widely used for antibacterial targets. While, background of Ag toxicity within particle, film and composites is posing gradual ion release affected by molecular bounding. Recent researches conducted to control, optimize and neutralize Ag limitations finding the benefits of ideal (∼ 100%) mediation against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Joanna M Sadowska, Fei Wei, Jia Guo, Jordi Guillem-Marti, Maria-Pau Ginebra, Yin Xiao
Immune cells are sensitive to the microstructural and textural properties of materials. Tuning the structural features of synthetic bone grafts could be a valuable strategy to regulate the specific response of the immune system, which in turn modulates the activity of bone cells. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the structural characteristics of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) on the innate immune response of macrophages and the subsequent impact on osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis...
July 31, 2018: Biomaterials
Xun Pei, Zhiping Xiao, Lujie Liu, Geng Wang, Wenjing Tao, Minqi Wang, Junbiao Zou, Dongbi Leng
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) on growth performance, zinc status, intestinal morphology, microflora population, and immune response in weaned piglets. A total of 150 weaned piglets (9.37 ± 0.48 kg) were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments and fed with basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with nano-ZnOs at 150, 300, or 450 mg kg-1 , and 3,000 mg kg-1 ZnO for 21 days. After feeding trial, six pigs from the control, 450 mg kg-1 nano-ZnOs and 3,000 mg kg-1 ZnO were slaughtered...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Lin Hou, Qi Liu, Limei Shen, Yun Liu, Xueqiong Zhang, Fengqian Chen, Leaf Huang
Rationale: Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) play a critical role in the suppressive immune tumor microenvironment (TME), compromising the efficacy of immunotherapy. To overcome this therapeutic hurdle, we developed a nanoemulsion (NE) formulation to deliver fraxinellone (Frax), an anti-fibrotic medicine, to TAFs, as an approach to reverse immunosuppressive TME of desmoplastic melanoma. Methods: Frax NE was prepared by an ultrasonic emulsification method. The tumor inhibition effect was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining, masson trichrome staining and western blot analysis...
2018: Theranostics
Binghua Wang, Jingyi An, Huifang Zhang, Shudong Zhang, Huijuan Zhang, Lei Wang, Hongling Zhang, Zhenzhong Zhang
While immunotherapy has a tremendous clinical potential to combat cancer, immune responses generated by conventional cancer immunotherapy remain not enough to completely eliminate tumors, mainly due to the tumor's immunosuppressive microenvironment and heterogeneity of tumor immunogenicity. To improve antitumor immune responses and realize personalized immunotherapy, in this report, endogenous tumor antigens (ETAs) that dynamically present on tumor cells are transported to lymph nodes (LNs). Based on the hypothesis that nano Fe3 O4 (≈10 nm) could serve as the nanocarrier for transporting ETAs from the tumor to LNs, we wondrously find that Fe3 O4 has a tremendous potential to improve cancer immunotherapy, because of its excellent protein-captured efficiency and LNs-targeted ability...
August 6, 2018: Small
Xiao-Ke Shang, Mei Liu, Hong-Jun Li, Rong Lu, Shan-Shan Ding, Bin Wang, Nian-Guo Dong, Shu Chen
Nitinol alloy occluders are widely used in the transcatheter intervention treatment of congenital heart diseases like patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). However, nitinol alloy contains high levels of nickel, which can lead to toxic effects in the immune and hematopoietic systems if released in sufficient quantities. A new type of single-rivet occluder coated with nano-film has been developed to limit the release of nickel. In total, 23 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=12) with the new nano-film single-rivet occluders or the control group (n=11) with the traditional occluders...
February 2018: Current medical science
Beini Sun, Shuang Yu, Dongying Zhao, Sihan Guo, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Adjuvant is a substance added to vaccine to improve the immunogenicity of antigens, and it can induce stronger immune responses and reduce the dosage and production cost of vaccine in populations responding poorly to vaccination. Adjuvants in development or in use mainly include aluminum salts, oil emulsions, saponins, immune-stimulating complexes, liposomes, microparticles, nonionic block copolymers, polysaccharides, cytokines and bacterial derivatives. Polysaccharide adjuvants have attracted much attention in the preparation of nano vaccines and nano drugs because natural polysaccharides have the characteristics of intrinsic immunomodulating, biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and safety...
August 23, 2018: Vaccine
Guangyang Xu, Xueping Tang, Xueyi Shang, Yan Li, Jing Wang, Junjie Yue, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is an emerging global multiple-drug-resistant organism. It becomes increasingly challenging to treat S. maltophilia infection effectively. Novel therapeutic and preventive approaches targeting S. maltophilia infection are still lacking. This study aims to isolate outer membrane proteins (Omps) from S. maltophilia and use immunoproteomic technology to identify potential vaccine candidates of Omps against S. maltophilia infections...
July 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mrigendra K S Rajput, Siddharth S Kesharwani, Sunny Kumar, Pratik Muley, Susmitha Narisetty, Hemachand Tummala
Targeting dendritic cells (DCs), either ex vivo (Ex. Sipuleucel-T) or in vivo, for stimulating cellular immunity has been a leading approach for cancer vaccines. We have rationally engineered a nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery system for vaccines (InAc-NPs) using inulin acetate (InAc) as the polymer to target DCs. The material and the antigen-encapsulated InAc-NPs (∼190 nm in diameter) were characterized for their physicochemical properties. As a potent vaccine adjuvant, InAc-NPs activated TLR4 on multiple immune cells, including DCs and primary swine and human cells, to secrete various cytokines as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
August 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yue Liu, Kyra A Y Defourny, Eddy J Smid, Tjakko Abee
During recent years it has become increasingly clear that the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a feature inherent to all cellular life forms. These lipid bilayer-enclosed particles are secreted by members of all domains of life: Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea, being similar in size, general composition, and potency as a functional entity. Noticeably, the recent discovery of EVs derived from bacteria belonging to the Gram-positive phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes has added a new layer of complexity to our understanding of bacterial physiology, host interactions, and pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ernesto Rodríguez, Karen Francia, Natalie Brossard, Juan J García Vallejo, Hakan Kalay, Yvette van Kooyk, Teresa Freire, Cecilia Giacomini
Glycans present in biological glycoconjugates have several structural and functional roles. Elucidation of glycan structure and biological function is critical to understand their role in physiological and pathogenic process, enabling the development of diagnostic methods and disease treatment. Immobilized glycosidases are powerful tools for glycan analysis, as they are able to remove specific carbohydrates without altering the protein structure. Here we describe the individual immobilization of Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase and Canavalia ensiformis α-mannosidase onto agarose and silica magnetic nanoparticles activated with cyanate ester groups...
October 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Wei Shi, Yiming Kou, Jinghui Xiao, Lijuan Zhang, Feng Gao, Wei Kong, Weiheng Su, Chunlai Jiang, Yong Zhang
Adjuvants have been proven to be very effective in enhancement of immune response of many antigens. However, few studies involved head-to-head comparison of their potentials in inactive rabies virus vaccine. In this study, we investigated two types of aluminum adjuvants and five other adjuvants (BLPs, AS02, AS03, MF59 and Poly I:C) on their capacity in enhancing the efficacy of rabies vaccine. The differences in immunogenicity and potency of rabies vaccines with different adjuvants were evaluated by immunizations in ICR mice...
August 9, 2018: Vaccine
Pritish Nilendu, Sachin C Sarode, Devashree Jahagirdar, Ishita Tandon, Shankargouda Patil, Gargi S Sarode, Jayanta K Pal, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
BACKGROUND: Various cancers have been found to be associated with heterogeneous and adaptive tumor microenvironments (TMEs) and to be driven by the local TMEs in which they thrive. Cancer heterogeneity plays an important role in tumor cell survival, progression and drug resistance. The diverse cellular components of the TME may include cancer-associated fibroblasts, adipocytes, pericytes, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, lymphocytes and other immune cells. These components may support tumor development through the secretion of growth factors, evasion from immune checkpoints, metabolic adaptations, modulations of the extracellular matrix, activation of oncogenes and the acquisition of drug resistance...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Natasha C Gunawardana, Stephen R Durham
OBJECTIVE: New insights into mechanisms should enable strategic improvement of allergen immunotherapy, aiming to make it safer, faster, more effective and able to induce long-term tolerance. We review novel approaches with potential to translate into clinical use. DATA SOURCES: Database searches were conducted in Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTIONS: Search terms were based on current and novel approaches in immunotherapy. Literature was selected primarily from recent randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Farooq Syed, Marco Bugliani, Michela Novelli, Francesco Olimpico, Mara Suleiman, Lorella Marselli, Ugo Boggi, Franco Filipponi, Vittoria Raffa, Silke Krol, Daniela Campani, Pellegrino Masiello, Vincenzo De Tata, Piero Marchetti
To improve the efficiency of pancreatic islet transplantation, we performed in-vitro and in-vivo experiments with isolated human pancreatic islets coated by multi-layer nano-encapsulation using differently charged polymers [chitosan and poly(sodium styrene sulfonate)] to obtain up to 9 layers. The islet coating (thickness: 104.2 ± 4.2 nm) was uniform, with ≥ 90% cell viability and well preserved beta- and alpha-cell ultrastructure. Nano-encapsulated islets maintained physiological glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by both static incubation and perifusion studies...
July 23, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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