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Membrane contact

Asako Goto, Mark Charman, Neale D Ridgway
Protein kinase D (PKD) controls secretion from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ and proteins that bind and/or transfer phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PTDINS-4P), such as oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and ceramide transfer protein. Here we investigated the consequences of PKD phosphorylation of OSBP at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi membrane contact sites (MCS). Results with OSBP phospho-mutants revealed that PKD phosphorylation did not affect sterol and PTDINS-4P binding, activation of sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis at Golgi-ER MCS or other OSBP phospho-sites...
August 12, 2018: Traffic
Rebecca Stanhope, Isabelle Derré
In naïve cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the ER-resident VAP proteins are common components of sites of membrane contacts that mediate the non-vesicular transfer of lipids between organelles. There is increasing recognition that the hijacking of VAP by intracellular pathogens is a novel mechanism of host-pathogen interaction. Here, we summarize our recent findings showing that the Chlamydia inclusion membrane protein IncV tethers the ER to the inclusion membrane by binding to VAP via the molecular mimicry of two eukaryotic FFAT motifs...
January 2018: Contact (Thousand Oaks)
William Parkes, Luis Vilchez-Madrigal, Sharon Cushing, Blake Papsin, Adrian James
OBJECTIVES: The natural history of tympanic membrane retraction is unpredictable. To obtain prognostic information for guiding surveillance and treatment, a cohort of children with retraction from cleft palate were prospectively followed for over 5 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study at a tertiary academic institution. Children with pars tensa retraction were selected from a cohort of 143 children with cleft palate. Thirty-seven ears were assessed with otoendoscopic image capture and audiometry at a median age of 9 years and reassessed at a median follow-up interval of 6...
August 3, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Ryan P Emptage, Mark A Lemmon, Kathryn M Ferguson, Ronen Marmorstein
The kinase associated-1 (KA1) domain is found at the C-terminus of multiple Ser/Thr protein kinases from yeast to humans, and has been assigned autoinhibitory, membrane-binding, and substrate-targeting roles. Here, we report the crystal structure of the MARK1 kinase/UBA domain bound to its autoinhibitory KA1 domain, revealing an unexpected interface at the αD helix and contacts with both the N- and C-lobes of the kinase domain. We confirm the binding interface location in kinetic studies of variants mutated on the kinase domain surface...
August 7, 2018: Structure
Princy Vijayababu, Gopinath Samykannu, Christian Bharathi Antonyraj, SundaraBaalaji Narayanan, Syed Ibrahim Basheer Ahamed, Perumal Perumal, Shanmughavel Piramanayagam
Typhoid fever is a severe illness in humans, caused by Salmonella typhi, a Gram-negative bacterium. Membrane proteins of S. typhi have strong potential for its use in development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. In current study, peptide-based subunit vaccine constructed from AI-2 import ATP-binding cassette transporter protein (LsrA) against S. typhi. B-cell and T-cell epitopes were identified at fold level with validated 3-D theoretical modelled structure. T-cell epitope from LsrA (LELPGSRPQ) has binds to maximum number (82...
August 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Paul R Meers, Carol Liu, Rensa Chen, William Bartos, Julianne Davis, Nicole Dziedzic, Jason Orciuolo, Szymon Kutyla, Maria Jose Pozo, Deepti Mithrananda, Dominick Panzera, Shu Wang
Lysobacter enzymogenes C3 is a predatory strain of gram-negative gliding bacteria that produces antifungal antibiotics by the polyketide synthetic pathway. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are formed as a stress response and can deliver virulence factors to host cells. The production of OMV by C3 and their role in antifungal activity are reported here. Vesicles in the range of 130-150 nm in diameter were discovered in the cell-free supernatants of C3 cultures. These OMV contain molecules characteristic of bacterial outer membranes, such as lipopolysaccharide and phospholipids...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bradley R Dotson, Dia Soltan, John Schmidt, Mariam Areskoug, Kenny Rabe, Corné Swart, Susanne Widell, Allan G Rasmusson
BACKGROUND: Trichoderma fungi live in the soil rhizosphere and are beneficial for plant growth and pathogen resistance. Several species and strains are currently used worldwide in co-cultivation with crops as a biocontrol alternative to chemical pesticides even though little is known about the exact mechanisms of the beneficial interaction. We earlier found alamethicin, a peptide antibiotic secreted by Trichoderma, to efficiently permeabilise cultured tobacco cells. However, pre-treatment with Trichoderma cellulase made the cells resistant to subsequent alamethicin, suggesting a potential mechanism for plant tolerance to Trichoderma, needed for mutualistic symbiosis...
August 10, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Mario Pérez-Sayáns, Alejandro I Lorenzo-Pouso, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, Fernando Muñoz-Guzón, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra, Mónica López-Peña, Manuel Somoza-Martín, Mercedes Gallas-Torreira, Abel García-García
This study compared the in vivo behavior of two biomaterials, xenograft (Bio-Oss® ) and alloplastic tricalcium phosphate (Sil-Oss® ), vs a control (no biomaterial) in beagle dogs treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR). Six male adult beagle dogs were included. The third and fourth mandibular premolars and first mandibular molars (3P3, 4P4 and 1M1) on both sides were extracted. After 12 weeks of healing, Straumann implants (3.3 × 8 mm) were placed, performing standardized defects (3.3 × 6 mm) in the vestibular aspect of the alveolar bone...
August 9, 2018: Odontology
Nikit Kumar, Marianna Leonzino, William Hancock-Cerutti, Florian A Horenkamp, PeiQi Li, Joshua A Lees, Heather Wheeler, Karin M Reinisch, Pietro De Camilli
Mutations in the human VPS13 genes are responsible for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders including chorea acanthocytosis (VPS13A) and Parkinson's disease (VPS13C). The mechanisms of these diseases are unknown. Genetic studies in yeast hinted that Vps13 may have a role in lipid exchange between organelles. In this study, we show that the N-terminal portion of VPS13 is tubular, with a hydrophobic cavity that can solubilize and transport glycerolipids between membranes. We also show that human VPS13A and VPS13C bind to the ER, tethering it to mitochondria (VPS13A), to late endosome/lysosomes (VPS13C), and to lipid droplets (both VPS13A and VPS13C)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Romain Guiho, Kevin Biteau, Giulia Grisendi, Mathias Chatelais, Regis Brion, Julien Taurelle, Sarah Renault, Dominique Heymann, Massimo Dominici, Françoise Redini
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent pediatric malignant bone tumor. OS patients have not seen any major therapeutic progress in the last 30 years, in particular in the case of metastatic disease, which requires new therapeutic strategies. The pro-apoptotic cytokine Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) can selectively kill tumor cells while sparing normal cells, making it a promising therapeutic tool in several types of cancer. However, many OS cell lines appear resistant to recombinant human (rh)TRAIL-induced apoptosis...
August 6, 2018: Cytotherapy
Maryamossadat Kazemi, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Majid Peyravi
The WO3 nanostructures were modified by doping with iron and then the polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was developed using prepared Fe0 -doped WO3 photocatalytic nanoparticles via layer by layer technology. According to UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis/DRS) characterization, the photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles could be improved by doping with Fe impurity. The prepared membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and contact angle analyzer...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Maria Del Pilar Quintana, Jun-Hong Ch'ng, Arash Zandian, Maryam Imam, Kjell Hultenby, Michael Theisen, Peter Nilsson, Ulrika Qundos, Kirsten Moll, Sherwin Chan, Mats Wahlgren
Plasmodium falciparum invasion into red blood cells (RBCs) is a complex process engaging proteins on the merozoite surface and those contained and sequentially released from the apical organelles (micronemes and rhoptries). Fundamental to invasion is the formation of a moving junction (MJ), a region of close apposition of the merozoite and the RBC plasma membranes, through which the merozoite draws itself before settling into a newly formed parasitophorous vacuole (PV). SURFIN4.2 was identified at the surface of the parasitized RBCs (pRBCs) but was also found apically associated with the merozoite...
2018: PloS One
Braulio Vargas Möller-Hergt, Andreas Carlström, Katharina Stephan, Axel Imhof, Martin Ott
Mitochondrial gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsible for the production of highly hydrophobic subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Membrane insertion occurs co-translationally on membrane bound mitochondrial ribosomes. Here, by employing a systematic mass-spectrometric-based approach, we discovered the previously uncharacterized membrane protein Mrx15 that interacts via a soluble C-terminal domain with the large ribosomal subunit. Mrx15 contacts mitochondrial translation products during their synthesis and plays, together with the ribosome receptor Mba1, an overlapping role in co-translational protein insertion...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Michael Kirmiz, Stephanie Palacio, Parashar Thapa, Anna N King, Jon T Sack, James S Trimmer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM) form junctions crucial to ion and lipid signaling and homeostasis. The Kv2.1 ion channel is localized at ER-PM junctions in brain neurons and is unique among PM proteins in its ability to remodel these specialized membrane contact sites. Here, we show that this function is conserved between Kv2.1 and Kv2.2, which differ in their biophysical properties, modulation and cellular expression. Kv2.2 ER-PM junctions are present at sites deficient in the actin cytoskeleton, and disruption of actin cytoskeleton affects their spatial organization...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Meghan Hauser, Rui Yan, Wan Li, Nicole A Repina, David V Schaffer, Ke Xu
Through three-dimensional STORM super-resolution microscopy, we resolve the spectrin-actin-based membrane cytoskeleton of neural stem cells (NSCs) and NSC-derived neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We show that undifferentiated NSCs are capable of forming patches of locally periodic, one-dimensional (1D) membrane cytoskeleton with ∼180 nm periodicity. Such periodic structures become increasingly ordered and long-ranging as the NSCs mature into terminally differentiated neuronal and glial cell types, and, during this process, distinct 1D periodic "strips" dominate the flat 2D membranes...
August 7, 2018: Cell Reports
Philipp Adelhelm, Lukas Medenbach, Ines Escher, Linda Zedler, Benjamin Dietzek, Marc Armbrüster, Nicolas Köwitsch
There is currently intense research on sulfur/carbon composite materials as positive electrodes for rechargeable batteries. Preparation of such composites by ball milling or (melt/solution) impregnation are popular approaches to obtain intimate contact between both elements with the hope to improve battery performance. Here, we report that sulfur shows an unexpected "spillover" effect in contact with porous carbons under ambient conditions. When gently mixing sulfur and porous carbon (e.g. 1:1 mass ratio), complete surface coverage takes place within just a few days along with the loss of sulfurs bulk properties (crystallinity, melting point, Raman signals)...
August 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Wenjing Liu, Chuanxi Wang, Hao Yu, Shaofeng Liu, Jun Yang
Acetylation tubulin is one of the major post-translational modifications of microtubules. Stable microtubules are well known to contain acetylated tubulin. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of acetylated tubulin in the mouse cochlea during postnatal development. At postnatal day 1 (P1), acetylated tubulin was localized primarily to the auditory nerve inside the cochlea and their synaptic contacts with the inner and outer hair cells (IHCs and OHCs). In the organ of Corti, acetylated tubulin occurred first at the apex of pillar cells...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Raquel Tenorio, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Jonathan J Knowlton, Paula F Zamora, Christopher H Lee, Bernardo A Mainou, Terence S Dermody, Cristina Risco
Like most viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm, mammalian reoviruses assemble membranous neo-organelles called inclusions that serve as sites of viral genome replication and particle morphogenesis. Viral inclusion formation is essential for viral infection, but how these organelles form is not well understood. We investigated the biogenesis of reovirus inclusions. Correlative light and electron microscopy showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes are in contact with nascent inclusions, which form by collections of membranous tubules and vesicles as revealed by electron tomography...
August 7, 2018: MBio
Natalia V Varlakhanova, Frances J D Alvarez, Tyler M Brady, Bryan A Tornabene, Christopher J Hosford, Joshua S Chappie, Peijun Zhang, Marijn G J Ford
Dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) are large multidomain GTPases required for diverse membrane-remodeling events. DRPs self-assemble into helical structures, but how these structures are tailored to their cellular targets remains unclear. We demonstrate that the fungal DRP Vps1 primarily localizes to and functions at the endosomal compartment. We present crystal structures of a Vps1 GTPase-bundle signaling element (BSE) fusion in different nucleotide states to capture GTP hydrolysis intermediates and concomitant conformational changes...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Yingchao Dong, Lining Ma, Chuyang Y Tang, Fenglin Yang, Xie Quan, David Jassby, Michael J Zaworotko, Michael Dominic Guiver
Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising process for the treatment of highly saline wastewaters. The central component of MD is a stable porous hydrophobic membrane with a large liquid-vapor interface for efficient water vapor transport. A key challenge for current polymeric or hydrophobically modified inorganic membranes is insufficient operating stability, resulting in some issues such as wetting, fouling, flux and rejection decline. This study presents an overall conceptual design and application strategy for a superhydrophobic ceramic‒based carbon nanotube (CNT) desalination membrane having specially designed membrane structures with unprecedented operating stability and MD performance...
August 7, 2018: Nano Letters
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