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Membrane contact

Hanxiang Wu, Hanhong Xu, Cécile Marivingt-Mounir, Jean-Louis Bonnemain, Jean-François Chollet
Systemicity of agrochemicals is an advantageous property for controlling phloem sucking insects, as well as pathogens and pests not accessible to contact products. After the penetration of the cuticle, the plasma membrane constitutes the main barrier to the entry of an agrochemical into the sap flow. The current strategy for developing systemic agrochemicals is to optimize the physicochemical properties of the molecules so that they can cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion or ion trapping mechanisms...
December 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Christine Lansche, Anil K Dasanna, Katharina Quadt, Benjamin Fröhlich, Dimitris Missirlis, Marilou Tétard, Benoit Gamain, Bernd Buchholz, Cecilia P Sanchez, Motomu Tanaka, Ulrich S Schwarz, Michael Lanzer
Sickle cell trait, a common hereditary blood disorder, protects carriers from severe disease in infections with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . Protection is associated with a reduced capacity of parasitized erythrocytes to cytoadhere to the microvascular endothelium and cause vaso-occlusive events. However, the underpinning cellular and biomechanical processes are only partly understood and the impact on endothelial cell activation is unclear. Here, we show, by combining quantitative flow chamber experiments with multiscale computer simulations of deformable cells in hydrodynamic flow, that parasitized erythrocytes containing the sickle cell haemoglobin displayed altered adhesion dynamics, resulting in restricted contact footprints on the endothelium...
2018: Communications biology
Seul I Kim, Seongok Kim, Eunsuk Kim, Seo Yeon Hwang, Hyunjin Yoon
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical membranous structures released by Gram-negative bacteria. Several bacterial pathogens utilize OMVs as vehicles for the delivery of virulence factors into host cells. Results of our previous study on proteomic analysis revealed that OMVs isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had virulence effectors that are known to be translocated by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS1) into the host cell. In the present study, immunoblot analysis confirmed the secretion of the six T3SS1 effector proteins, namely SipB and SipC (translocators of T3SS1), and SipA, SopA, SopB, and SopE2 (effectors translocated by T3SS1), by OMVs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Md Anisur Rahman, Marpe Bam, Edgar Luat, Moumita Sharmin Jui, Mitra S Ganewatta, Tinom Shokfai, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Alan W Decho, Chuanbing Tang
Bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance, particularly by Gram-negative pathogens, have become a global healthcare crisis. We report the design of a class of cationic antimicrobial polymers that cluster local facial amphiphilicity from repeating units to enhance interactions with bacterial membranes without requiring a globally conformational arrangement associated with highly unfavorable entropic loss. This concept of macromolecular architectures is demonstrated with a series of multicyclic natural product-based cationic polymers...
December 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Seonghoon Kim, Marcos M Pires, Wonpil Im
Peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis and assembly are needed for bacterial cell wall formation. Lipid II is the precursor in the PG biosynthetic pathway and carries a nascent PG unit that is processed by glycosyltransferases. Despite its immense therapeutic value as a target of several classes of antibiotics, the conformational ensemble of lipid II in bacterial membranes and its interactions with membrane-anchored enzymes remain elusive. In this work, lipid II and its elongated forms (lipid VI and lipid XII) were modeled and simulated in bilayers of POPE (palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine) and POPG (palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol) that mimic the prototypical composition of Gram-negative cytoplasmic membranes...
December 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicolás Pírez, Sofia G Bernabei-Cornejo, Magdalena Fernandez-Acosta, José M Duhart, M Fernanda Ceriani
In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , the daily cycle of rest and activity is a rhythmic behavior that relies on the activity of a small number of neurons. The small Lateral Neurons ventral (sLNvs) are considered key in the control of locomotor rhythmicity. Previous work from our laboratory has showed that these neurons undergo structural remodeling on its axonal projections on a daily basis. Such remodeling endows sLNvs with the possibility to make synaptic contacts with different partners at different times along the day as has been previously described...
December 10, 2018: Biology Open
Jean-Claude Farré, Shanmuga S Mahalingam, Marco Proietto, Suresh Subramani
Peroxisomes are conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells with important roles in cellular metabolism, human health, redox homeostasis, as well as intracellular metabolite transfer and signaling. We review here the current status of the different co-existing modes of biogenesis of peroxisomal membrane proteins demonstrating the fascinating adaptability in their targeting and sorting pathways. While earlier studies focused on peroxisomes as autonomous organelles, the necessity of the ER and potentially even mitochondria as sources of peroxisomal membrane proteins and lipids has come to light in recent years...
December 10, 2018: EMBO Reports
Zahra Shariatinia
Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide which is achieved by deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most plentiful compound in nature, after cellulose. It is a linear copolymer of β-(1 → 4)-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose. It has appreciated properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity, nontoxicity, high bioavailability, simplicity of modification, favorable permselectivity of water, outstanding chemical resistance, capability to form films, gels, nanoparticles, microparticles and beads as well as affinity to metals, proteins and dyes...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Takahide Murakami, Ichiro Hijikuro, Kota Yamashita, Shigeru Tsunoda, Kenjiro Hirai, Takahisa Suzuki, Yoshiharu Sakai, Yasuhiko Tabata
Postoperative adhesion is a relevant clinical problem that causes a variety of clinical complications after abdominal surgery. The objective of this study is to develop a liquid-type antiadhesion agent and evaluate its efficacy in preventing tissue adhesion in a rat peritoneal adhesion model. The liquid-type agent was prepared by submicron-sized emulsification of C17 glycerin ester (C17GE), squalene, pluronic F127, ethanol, and water with a high-pressure homogenizer. The primary component was C17GE, which is an amphiphilic lipid of one isoprenoid-type hydrophobic chain and can form two phases of self-assembly nonlamellar liquid crystals...
December 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
T Sun, Y Han, Z Q Jiang, S J Zhang, F Y Lou, X L Zheng, T Zhang, X X Li, L Li, X H Dong, J W Sun
Objective: To compare the clinical effects of modified double-lumen drainage tube and traditional silicone tube in external drainage of chronic subdural hematoma. Methods: Selected 49 patients suffering from chronic subdural hematoma hospitalized in the Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College between July 2016 and June 2018 who underwent external drainage, and divided them randomly into experimental groups (using modified brain protection double lumen drainage tube in 23 cases) and control group (using traditional silicone drainage tube in 26 cases)...
December 4, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Vahid Satarifard, Andrea Grafmueller, Reinhard Lipowsky
The response of biomembranes to aqueous phase separation and to the resulting water-in-water droplets has been recently studied on the micrometer scale, using optical microscopy and elasticity theory. When such a droplet adheres to the membrane, it forms a contact area which is bounded by a contact line. For a micrometer-sized droplet, the line tension associated with this contact line can usually be ignored compared to the surface tensions. However, for a small nanoscopic droplet, this line tension is expected to affect the membrane-droplet morphology...
December 10, 2018: ACS Nano
Andrea Ontaneda, Gail M Annich
The balance between systemic anticoagulation and clotting is challenging. In normal hemostasis, the endothelium regulates the balance between anticoagulant and prothrombotic systems. It becomes particularly more challenging to maintain this physiologic hemostasis when we are faced with extracorporeal life support therapies, where blood is continuously in contact with a foreign extracorporeal circuit surface predisposing a prothrombotic state. The blood-surface interaction during extracorporeal life support therapies requires the use of systemic anticoagulation to decrease the risk of clotting...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kiminori Sato
1. The human vocal fold is a vibrating tissue and vascular structures in organs which have the capacity to vibrate require a specific structure suitable for vibration. 2. The structure of the blood vessels is unique at the vocal fold edge as a vibrating tissue, where only small vessels, including arterioles, venules, and capillaries, are present. The capillaries are distributed in the superficial layer of the lamina propria (Reinke's space). 3. The blood vessels enter the vocal fold edge from the anterior or posterior end of the membranous vocal fold and run essentially parallel to the vocal fold edge...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
James A Olzmann, Pedro Carvalho
Lipid droplets are storage organelles at the centre of lipid and energy homeostasis. They have a unique architecture consisting of a hydrophobic core of neutral lipids, which is enclosed by a phospholipid monolayer that is decorated by a specific set of proteins. Originating from the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets can associate with most other cellular organelles through membrane contact sites. It is becoming apparent that these contacts between lipid droplets and other organelles are highly dynamic and coupled to the cycles of lipid droplet expansion and shrinkage...
December 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Themis Thoudam, Chae-Myeong Ha, Jaechan Leem, Dipanjan Chanda, Jong-Seok Park, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Jae-Han Jeon, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Yang Hoon Huh, Tae-Hwan Kwon, Keun-Gyu Park, Robert A Harris, Kyu-Sang Park, Hyun-Woo Rhee, In-Kyu Lee
Mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a structural link between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). MAM regulates Ca2+ transport from the ER to mitochondria via an IP3R1-GRP75-VDAC1 complex-dependent mechanism. Excessive MAM formation may cause mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the exact implication of MAM formation in metabolic syndromes remains debatable. Here, we demonstrate that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) interacts with and stabilizes IP3R1-GRP75-VDAC1 complex at the MAM interface...
December 6, 2018: Diabetes
Toni Matson, Jonathan Gootee, Colten Snider, John Brockman, David Grant, Sheila A Grant
Soy lecithin has been shown to play a critical role in cell signaling and cellular membrane structure. In addition, it has been shown to increase biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, and decrease cytotoxicity. Gold nanoparticles have also shown to improve cellularity. Lecithin, gold nanoparticles, and polycaprolactone (PCL) solutions were electrospun in order to develop unique mesh materials for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The electrospinning parameters were optimized to achieve different solution ratios for fiber optimization...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Miriam Zaccaro Scelza, Isleine Portal Caldas, Jhony Medeiros de Mattos, Felipe Oliveira, Waldimir Carvalho, Gutemberg Gomes Alves
This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of the Vita AC12, Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic and InSync indirect restorative materials. Extracts of each material were prepared by incubation for 1, 7 and 40 days, with daily washing. Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the extracts, and cell viability was evaluated by sequential assessment of mitochondrial activity (XTT), membrane integrity (NRU) and cell density (CVDE). Extracts of polystyrene beads and latex fragments were used as negative and positive controls, respectively...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Yinghua Qiu, Zuzanna S Siwy, Meni Wanunu
Single nanopores have attracted much scientific interest due to their versatile applications. The majority of experiments have been performed with nanopores being in contact with the same electrolyte on both sides of the membrane, while solution gradients across semi-permeable membranes are omnipresent in natural systems. In this manuscript, we studied ionic and fluidic movement through thin nanopores under viscosity gradients both experimentally and using simulations. Ionic current rectification was observed under these conditions, due to solutions with different conductivities filled across the pore under different biases caused by electroosmotic flow...
December 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lianpei Zou, Sitong Zhang, Jianyong Liu, Yi Cao, Guangren Qian, Yu-You Li, Zhi Ping Xu
A commercial nanofiltration (NF) membrane was modified using poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) to improve the nitrate rejection from groundwater. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta potential, and water contact angle analyses were performed, showing that PSS was successfully coated onto the membrane with the surface negative charge density being enhanced. The results of nitrate removal tests showed that the best PSS concentration was 1.5 mg/L, with the nitrate rejection rate of 88...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Patricia Castro-Sánchez, Rocío Ramirez-Munoz, Noa B Martín-Cófreces, Oscar Aguilar-Sopeña, Sergio Alegre-Gomez, Sara Hernández-Pérez, Raquel Reyes, Qi Zeng, Carlos Cabañas, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Pedro Roda-Navarro
The regulatory role of most dual specific phosphatases during T cell activation remains unknown. Here, we have studied the expression and function of phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs: PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3) during T cell activation, as well as, the dynamic delivery of PRL-1 to the Immunological Synapse (IS). We found that T cell activation downregulates the expression of PRL-2, resulting in an increased PRL-1/PRL-2 ratio. PRL-1 redistributed at the IS in two stages: Initially, it was transiently accumulated at scanning membranes enriched in CD3 and actin, and at later times, it was delivered at the contact site from pericentriolar, CD3ζ-containing, vesicles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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