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Insect insulin

Seogang Hyun
The mechanism that determines the specific body size of an animal is a fundamental biological question that remains largely unanswered. This aspect is now beginning to be understood in insect models, particularly in Drosophila melanogaster , with studies highlighting the importance of nutrient-responsive growth signaling pathways involving insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) (IIS/TOR). These pathways operate in animals, from insects to mammals, adjusting the growth rate in response to the nutritional condition of the organism...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Ding Ding, Guangjian Liu, Li Hou, Wanying Gui, Bing Chen, Le Kang
Animal and human highlanders have evolved distinct traits to enhance tissue oxygen delivery and utilization. Unlike vertebrates, insects use their tracheal system for efficient oxygen delivery. However, the genetic basis of insect adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia remains unexplored. Here, we report a potential mechanism of metabolic adaptation of migratory locusts in the Tibetan Plateau, through whole-genome resequencing and functional investigation. A genome-wide scan revealed that the positively selected genes in Tibetan locusts are predominantly involved in carbon and energy metabolism...
November 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Zachary A Batz, Peter A Armbruster
Diapause is an alternative life-history strategy that allows organisms to enter developmental arrest in anticipation of unfavorable conditions. Diapause is widespread among insects and plays a key role in enhancing overwinter survival as well as defining the seasonal and geographic distributions of populations. Next generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of the transcriptional basis for this crucial adaptation but less is known about regulation of embryonic diapause physiology at the metabolite level...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jie Zhang, Weike Yang, Junfeng Xu, Wanying Yang, Qingrong Li, Yangjin Zhong, Yang Cao, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiaojuan Deng
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important effector molecules of insect humoral immunity, and expression of AMPs is mainly regulated by the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. FoxO, a key downstream regulator of the insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway, has been recently reported to be involved in the regulation of AMPs in Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, we investigated AMP gene expression and the regulation pathway controlled by the starvation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We discovered that antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of B...
December 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jennifer A Brisson, Hai-Jun Xu
Many insects are capable of developing into either long-winged or shortwinged (or wingless) morphs, which enables them to rapidly match heterogeneous environments. Thus, the wing polymorphism is an adaptation at the root of their ecological success. Wing polymorphism is orchestrated at various levels, starting with the insect's perception of environmental cues, then signal transduction and signal execution, and ultimately the transmitting of signals into physiological adaption in accordance with the particular morph produced...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Yong-Bo Li, Cai-Hua Chen, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Insulin promotes larval growth of insects by stimulating the synthesis of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which induces pupation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the coordinate regulation of insect pupation and apoptosis by these two functionally opposing hormones is still unclear. Here, using the lepidopteran insect and serious agricultural pest Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) as a model, we report that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and forkhead box O (FoxO) play key roles in these processes...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pan Deng, Qing-Yu Xu, Kai-Yun Fu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
It is noted that insect insulin/insulin-like growth factor/target of rapamycin signaling is critical for the regulation of metamorphosis in holometabolous insects. However, the molecular mechanism remains undetermined. Our previous findings reveal that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of an insulin gene (LdILP2) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata disturbs both 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, and impairs pupation. In the present paper, we further observed that the expression of the insulin receptor substrate gene chico (Ldchico) and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase gene pi3k (Ldpi3k92E) was repressed in LdILP2 depleted larvae...
October 6, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Irene Miguel-Aliaga, Heinrich Jasper, Bruno Lemaitre
The gastrointestinal tract has recently come to the forefront of multiple research fields. It is now recognized as a major source of signals modulating food intake, insulin secretion and energy balance. It is also a key player in immunity and, through its interaction with microbiota, can shape our physiology and behavior in complex and sometimes unexpected ways. The insect intestine had remained, by comparison, relatively unexplored until the identification of adult somatic stem cells in the Drosophila intestine over a decade ago...
October 2018: Genetics
Md Abdullah Al Baki, Jin Kyo Jung, Rameswor Maharjan, Hwijong Yi, Jeong Joon Ahn, Xiaojun Gu, Yonggyun Kim
Insect growth is influenced by two major environmental factors: temperature and nutrient. These environmental factors are internally mediated by insulin/insulin-like growth factor signal (IIS) to coordinate tissue or organ growth. Maruca vitrata, a subtropical lepidopteran insect, migrates to different climate regions and feeds on various crops. The objective of this study was to determine molecular tools to predict growth rate of M. vitrata using IIS components. Four genes [insulin receptor (InR), Forkhead Box O (FOXO), Target of Rapamycin (TOR), and serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt)] were used to correlate their expression levels with larval growth rates under different environmental conditions...
2018: PloS One
Huizhen Guo, Chunlin Huang, Liang Jiang, Tingcai Cheng, Tieshan Feng, Qingyou Xia
Bombyx mori is a poikilothermic insect and is economically important for silk production. Drastic changes in the ambient temperature have a negative impact on sericulture. However, the reason as to why high temperature is associated with the occurrence of diseases in silkworm and the response of silkworm to low temperature remain unclear and were the focus of the present study. Dazao silkworm exposed to 13 °C (DZ-13), 25 °C (DZ-25), and 37 °C (DZ-37) were used for RNA-seq analysis. There were 478 and 194 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DZ-13 and DZ-37 while 49 and 273 downregulated DEGs in DZ-13 and DZ-37, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lin Ling, Alexander S Raikhel
Disease-transmitting female mosquitoes require a vertebrate blood meal to produce their eggs. An obligatory hematophagous lifestyle, rapid reproduction, and existence of a large number of transmittable diseases make mosquitoes the world's deadliest animals. Attaining optimal body size and nutritional status is critical for mosquitoes to become reproductively competent and effective disease vectors. We report that blood feeding boosts serotonin concentration and elevates the serotonin receptor Aa5HT2B ( Aedes aegypti 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, type 2B) transcript level in the fat-body, an insect analog of the vertebrate liver and adipose tissue...
October 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Samaneh Mafakheri, Ralf R Flörke, Sibylle Kanngießer, Sonja Hartwig, Lena Espelage, Christian De Wendt, Tina Schönberger, Nele Hamker, Stefan Lehr, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani
In skeletal muscle, the Rab GTPase-activating (GAP) protein TBC1D1 is phosphorylated by AKT and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in response to insulin and muscle contraction. Genetic ablation of Tbc1d1 or mutation of distinct phosphorylation sites impairs intracellular GLUT4 retention and GLUT4 traffic, presumably through alterations of the activation state of downstream Rab GTPases. Previous studies have focused on characterizing the C-terminal GAP domain of TBC1D1 that lacks the known phosphorylation sites, as well as putative regulatory domains...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nikolaj Kulahin Roed, Cristina M Viola, Ole Kristensen, Gerd Schluckebier, Mathias Norrman, Waseem Sajid, John D Wade, Asser Sloth Andersen, Claus Kristensen, Timothy R Ganderton, Johan P Turkenburg, Pierre De Meyts, Andrzej M Brzozowski
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling axis is an evolutionary ancient and highly conserved hormonal system involved in the regulation of metabolism, growth and lifespan in animals. Human insulin is stored in the pancreas, while insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is maintained in blood in complexes with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6). Insect insulin-like polypeptide binding proteins (IBPs) have been considered as IGFBP-like structural and functional homologues. Here, we report structures of the Drosophila IBP Imp-L2 in its free form and bound to Drosophila insulin-like peptide 5 and human IGF-1...
September 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Uliana V Semaniuk, Dmytro V Gospodaryov, Khrystyna M Feden'ko, Ihor S Yurkevych, Alexander M Vaiserman, Kenneth B Storey, Stephen J Simpson, Oleh Lushchak
Fruit flies have eight identified Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) that are involved in the regulation of carbohydrate concentrations in hemolymph as well as in accumulation of storage metabolites. In the present study, we investigated diet-dependent roles of DILPs encoded by the genes dilp1 - 5 , and dilp7 in the regulation of insect appetite, food choice, accumulation of triglycerides, glycogen, glucose, and trehalose in fruit fly bodies and carbohydrates in hemolymph. We have found that the wild type and the mutant lines demonstrate compensatory feeding for carbohydrates...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Annick Sawala, Alex P Gould
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), a sex difference in body size, is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, raising the question of how sex influences existing growth regulatory pathways to bring about SSD. In insects, somatic sexual differentiation has long been considered to be controlled strictly cell-autonomously. Here, we discuss our surprising finding that in Drosophila larvae, the sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) functions in neurons to non-autonomously specify SSD. We found that Sxl is required in specific neuronal subsets to upregulate female body growth, including in the neurosecretory insulin producing cells, even though insulin-like peptides themselves appear not to be involved...
2018: Fly
Arkadiusz Urbanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
Despite much research on the insect immune system, hormonal regulation of its activity is not well-understood. Previous research on insect neuroendocrinology suggests that neuropeptides may play an important role in the regulation of the insect immune system. Especially recent studies dealing for example with adipokinetic hormones, bursicon or insulin-like peptides provided deeper insights on this issue showing that neuropeptides can modulate various aspects of insect immune responses, both at the molecular and cellular level...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Benjamin Herran, Joanne Bertaux, Pierre Grève
The Insulin-like Receptors (IRs) are an important protein family, represented by three members in vertebrates, two of which are well-known for their implication in metabolism (Insulin Receptor) and growth (IGF Receptor). In contrast, little is known about these receptors in invertebrates, in which a single gene generally exists except for a part of insects and other occasional species-specific duplications. In this study, we used publicly available sequences as well as de novo assembled transcriptomes to investigate the IR evolution in malacostracan crustaceans, animals in which the Insulin/IGF pathway is known to be implicated in sexual development through the androgenic gland hormone...
November 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Xinda Lin, Yili Xu, Jianru Jiang, Mark Lavine, Laura Corley Lavine
Food quality is a critical environmental condition that impacts an animal's growth and development. Many insects facing this challenge have evolved a phenotypically plastic, adaptive response. For example, many species of insect exhibit facultative wing growth, which reflects a physiological and evolutionary trade-off between dispersal and reproduction, triggered by environmental conditions. What the environmental cues are and how they are transduced to produce these alternative forms, and their associated ecological shift from dispersal to reproduction, remains an important unsolved problem in evolutionary ecology...
July 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lukas Peter Maria Kremer, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Social insects show an extreme degree of phenotypic plasticity. In highly eusocial species, this manifests in the generation of distinct castes with extreme differences in both morphology and life span. The molecular basis of these differences is highly entangled and not fully understood, but several recent studies demonstrated that insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is one of the key pathways. Here, we investigate the molecular evolution of insect insulin receptors (InRs), which are membrane-bound dimers that enable IIS by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular signaling cascades...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Alisson M Gontijo, Andres Garelli
Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila. The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis...
April 30, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
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