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Insect insulin

Arkadiusz Urbanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
Despite much research on the insect immune system, hormonal regulation of its activity is not well-understood. Previous research on insect neuroendocrinology suggests that neuropeptides may play an important role in the regulation of the insect immune system. Especially recent studies dealing for example with adipokinetic hormones, bursicon or insulin-like peptides provided deeper insights on this issue showing that neuropeptides can modulate various aspects of insect immune responses, both at the molecular and cellular level...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Benjamin Herran, Joanne Bertaux, Pierre Grève
The Insulin-like Receptors (IRs) are an important protein family, represented by three members in vertebrates, two of which are well-known for their implication in metabolism (Insulin Receptor) and growth (IGF Receptor). In contrast, little is known about these receptors in invertebrates, in which a single gene generally exists except for a part of insects and other occasional species-specific duplications. In this study, we used publicly available sequences as well as de novo assembled transcriptomes to investigate the IR evolution in malacostracan crustaceans, animals in which the Insulin/IGF pathway is known to be implicated in sexual development through the androgenic gland hormone...
July 25, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Xinda Lin, Yili Xu, Jianru Jiang, Mark Lavine, Laura Corley Lavine
Food quality is a critical environmental condition that impacts an animal's growth and development. Many insects facing this challenge have evolved a phenotypically plastic, adaptive response. For example, many species of insect exhibit facultative wing growth, which reflects a physiological and evolutionary trade-off between dispersal and reproduction, triggered by environmental conditions. What the environmental cues are and how they are transduced to produce these alternative forms, and their associated ecological shift from dispersal to reproduction, remains an important unsolved problem in evolutionary ecology...
July 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lukas Peter Maria Kremer, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Social insects show an extreme degree of phenotypic plasticity. In highly eusocial species, this manifests in the generation of distinct castes with extreme differences in both morphology and life span. The molecular basis of these differences is highly entangled and not fully understood, but several recent studies demonstrated that insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is one of the key pathways. Here, we investigate the molecular evolution of insect insulin receptors (InRs), which are membrane-bound dimers that enable IIS by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular signaling cascades...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Alisson M Gontijo, Andres Garelli
Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila. The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis...
April 30, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Ken Moran-Francia, Guillermo Perales-Ortiz, Mario Henry Rodríguez, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the transcription pattern of neuropeptides in the ontogeny of a malaria vector, the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The transcription pattern of Crustacean CardioActive peptide (CCAP), corazonin, Ecdysis Triggering Hormone (ETH), allatostatin-A, orcokinin, Insulin Like Peptide 2 (ILP2), Insulin Like Peptide 5 (ILP5) and bursicon was evaluated using qPCR on larvae (1st - 4th instar), pupae and adult mosquitoes. RESULTS: Unlike in other insects, transcripts of CCAP (70...
January 2018: Salud Pública de México
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
Many insects have the ability to develop alternative morphologies in response to specific environmental signals such as photoperiod, temperature, nutrition and crowding. These signals are integrated by the brain and result in alternative patterns of secretion of developmental hormones like ecdysone, juvenile hormone and insulin-like growth factors, which, in turn, direct alternative developmental trajectories. Insulin signaling appears to be particularly important when the polyphenism involves differences in the sizes of the body, appendages and other structures, such as wings, mandibles and horns...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Xinda Lin, Laura Corley Lavine
Changes in food availability and crowding are two critical environmental conditions that impact an animal's trajectory toward either reproduction or migration. Many insects facing this challenge have evolved wing polymorpisms that allow them to respond to changing conditions. When conditions favor reproduction, wing polymorphic species produce adults that either have no wings or short, non-functional wings; however, when conditions favor migration, adults with functional wings and robust flight muscles develop...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Takashi Koyama, Christen K Mirth
Insects show impressive diversity in adult body size across species, and within species adult body size is sensitive to numerous environmental conditions, particularly to changes in nutrition. Body size in adult insects correlates with a number of important fitness-related traits such as fecundity, longevity, stress resistance, and mating success. Over the past few decades, the field of insect body size regulation has made impressive progress towards understanding the signalling pathways that regulate body size in response to nutrition...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Sheng Li, Shiming Zhu, Qiangqiang Jia, Dongwei Yuan, Chonghua Ren, Kang Li, Suning Liu, Yingying Cui, Haigang Zhao, Yanghui Cao, Gangqi Fang, Daqi Li, Xiaoming Zhao, Jianzhen Zhang, Qiaoyun Yue, Yongliang Fan, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng, Shuai Zhan
Many cockroach species have adapted to urban environments, and some have been serious pests of public health in the tropics and subtropics. Here, we present the 3.38-Gb genome and a consensus gene set of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We report insights from both genomic and functional investigations into the underlying basis of its adaptation to urban environments and developmental plasticity. In comparison with other insects, expansions of gene families in P. americana exist for most core gene families likely associated with environmental adaptation, such as chemoreception and detoxification...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Xianyu Lin, Guy Smagghe
Organismal development is a complex process as it requires coordination of many aspects to grow into fit individuals, such as the control of body size and organ growth. Therefore, the mechanisms of precise control of growth are essential for ensuring the growth of organisms at a correct body size and proper organ proportions during development. The control of the growth rate and the duration of growth (or the cessation of growth) are required in size control. The insulin signaling pathway and the elements involved are essential in the control of growth...
February 16, 2018: Peptides
Yuya Ohhara, Satoru Kobayashi, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Naoki Yamanaka
Holometabolous insects undergo metamorphosis to reorganize their behavioral and morphological features into adult-specific ones. In the central nervous system (CNS), some larval neurons undergo programmed cell death, whereas others go through remodeling of axonal and dendritic arbors to support functions of re-established adult organs. Although there are multiple neuropeptides that have stage-specific roles in holometabolous insects, the reorganization pattern of the entire neuropeptidergic system through metamorphosis still remains largely unclear...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Koji Takeda, Takashi Okumura, Mayu Terahata, Mio Yamaguchi, Kiichiro Taniguchi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are evolutionarily conserved gastrointestinal secretory cells that show scattered distribution in the intestinal epithelium. These cells classified into several subtypes based on the hormones they produce in both mammals and insects. In the fruit fly Drosophila, it has been suggested that nearly equal numbers of two subtypes of EEs (Allatostatin A: AstA and Diuretic hormone 31 : Dh31) are alternately produced from the intestinal stem cells in the posterior midgut. However, we found that these two subtypes are not always present in this manner, but are rather distributed in a complementary frequency gradient along the posterior midgut...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Thomas Flatt, Rodolfo Costa
In response to adverse environmental conditions many organisms from nematodes to mammals deploy a dormancy strategy, causing states of developmental or reproductive arrest that enhance somatic maintenance and survival ability at the expense of growth or reproduction. Dormancy regulation has been studied in C. elegans and in several insects, but how neurosensory mechanisms act to relay environmental cues to the endocrine system in order to induce dormancy remains unclear. Here we examine this fundamental question by genetically manipulating aminergic neurotransmitter signaling in Drosophila melanogaster...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
James Hust, Mark D Lavine, Amy M Worthington, Robert Zinna, Hiroki Gotoh, T Niimi, Laura Lavine
Males of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, possess exaggerated head and thoracic horns that scale dramatically out of proportion to body size. While studies of insulin signaling suggest that this pathway regulates nutrition-dependent growth including exaggerated horns, what regulates disproportionate growth has yet to be identified. The Fat signaling pathway is a potential candidate for regulating disproportionate growth of sexually-selected traits, a hypothesis we advanced in a previous paper (Gotoh et al...
February 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ping Kang, Kai Chang, Ying Liu, Mark Bouska, Allison Birnbaum, Galina Karashchuk, Rachel Thakore, Wenjing Zheng, Stephanie Post, Colin S Brent, Sheng Li, Marc Tatar, Hua Bai
Transcriptional coordination is a vital process contributing to metabolic homeostasis. As one of the key nodes in the metabolic network, the forkhead transcription factor FOXO has been shown to interact with diverse transcription co-factors and integrate signals from multiple pathways to control metabolism, oxidative stress response, and cell cycle. Recently, insulin/FOXO signaling has been implicated in the regulation of insect development via the interaction with insect hormones, such as ecdysone and juvenile hormone...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kai Lu, Xia Chen, Wenru Li, Yue Li, Zhichao Zhang, Qiang Zhou
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) sense and transduce nutritional information and are linked to female reproduction in many insect species. Our previous studies have shown that "Target of rapamycin" (TOR) pathway functions through juvenile hormone (JH) to regulate amino acids-mediated vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, one of the most destructive rice pests in Asia. Recent reports have demonstrated that DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) are also involved in female reproduction of N...
January 10, 2018: Gene
Ji-Chong Zhuo, Chen Lei, Ji-Kai Shi, Nan Xu, Wen-Hua Xue, Meng-Qiu Zhang, Ze-Wei Ren, Hou-Hong Zhang, Chuan-Xi Zhang
Sexual dimorphism and wing polyphenism are important and evolutionarily conserved features of many insect species. In this article, we found a cross-talk linking sexual differentiation with wing polyphenism in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (order: Hemiptera). Knockdown of the sex determination gene Transformer-2 in N. lugens ( NlTra-2 ) in nymph caused females to develop into infertile pseudomales containing undeveloped ovaries. Whereas males treated with ds NlTra-2 exhibited normal morphology, but lost fertility...
November 2017: Genetics
Sébastien Lebreton, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Witzgall
Many animals adjust their reproductive behavior according to nutritional state and food availability. Drosophila females for instance decrease their sexual receptivity following starvation. Insulin signaling, which regulates many aspects of insect physiology and behavior, also affects reproduction in females. We show that insulin signaling is involved in the starvation-induced reduction in female receptivity. More specifically, females mutant for the insulin-like peptide 5 (dilp5) were less affected by starvation compared to the other dilp mutants and wild-type flies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Lin Ling, Vladimir A Kokoza, Changyu Zhang, Emre Aksoy, Alexander S Raikhel
Hematophagous female mosquitoes transmit numerous devastating human diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and others. Because of their obligatory requirement of a vertebrate blood meal for reproduction, these mosquitoes need a lot of energy; therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms linking metabolism and reproduction is of particular importance. Lipids are the major energy store providing the fuel required for host seeking and reproduction. They are essential components of the fat body, a metabolic tissue that is the insect analog of vertebrate liver and adipose tissue...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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