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Fetal hydrocephalus

Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Renato Santana Aguiar, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Monica B Arruda, Fabiana de Oliveira Melo, Suelem Taís Clementino Ribeiro, Alba Gean Medeiros Batista, Thales Ferreira, Mayra Pereira Dos Santos, Virgínia Vilar Sampaio, Sarah Rogéria Martins Moura, Luciana Portela Rabello, Clarissa Emanuelle Gonzaga, Gustavo Malinger, Renato Ximenes, Patricia Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Leila Chimelli, Paola Paz Silveira, Rodrigo Delvechio, Luiza Higa, Loraine Campanati, Rita M R Nogueira, Ana Maria Bispo Filippis, Jacob Szejnfeld, Carolina Moreira Voloch, Orlando C Ferreira, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Amilcar Tanuri
Importance: Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. Objective: To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Joshua L Gu, Anthony Johnson, Marcia Kerr, Kenneth J Moise, Michael W Bebbington, Claudia Pedroza, David I Sandberg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study evaluates the predictive value of prenatal imaging measurements regarding the need for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion for fetal hydrocephalus in the first 3 months after birth. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive case series of patients with fetal hydrocephalus from January 2011 to December 2014 (n = 45). Prenatal measurements included head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and lateral ventricle (LV) width...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
After sagittal division of the prosencephalon at 4.5 weeks of gestation, the early fetal cerebral hemisphere bends or rotates posteroventrally from seven weeks of gestation. The posterior pole of the telencephalon thus becomes not the occipital but the temporal lobe as the telencephalic flexure forms the operculum and finally the lateral cerebral or Sylvian fissure. The ventral part is infolded to become the insula. The frontal and temporal lips of the Sylvian fissure, as well as the insula, all derive from the ventral margin of the primitive telencephalon, hence may be influenced by genetic mutations with a ventrodorsal gradient of expression...
October 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Hart Isaacs
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this review is to document the various types of astrocytoma that occur in the fetus and neonate, their locations, initial findings, pathology, and outcome. Data are presented that show which patients are likely to survive or benefit from treatment compared with those who are unlikely to respond. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred one fetal and neonatal tumors were collected from the literature for study. RESULTS: Macrocephaly and an intracranial mass were the most common initial findings...
August 27, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Christopher Bismarck Eke, Enoch Ogbonnaya Uche, Josephat Maduabuchi Chinawa, Ikechukwu Emmanuel Obi, Herbert Anayo Obu, Roland Chidi Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies, including those of the central nervous system (CNS), are among the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of CNS congenital anomalies in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study of children managed with CNS anomalies was undertaken. Relevant clinical data of identified cases based on standard case definitions were retrieved from their case record files...
July 2016: Annals of African Medicine
Dawid Szpecht, Dagmara Frydryszak, Norbert Miszczyk, Marta Szymankiewicz, Janusz Gadzinowski
INTRODUCTION: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is mostly documented in premature infants, and the younger the gestational age, the more often it occurs. IVH is very rarely reported in full-term neonates. CASE REPORT: Retrospective analysis was performed in 35939 full-term neonates, who were born in the Clinical Hospital of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań. Clinical data were retrieved from their medical records. We report a case series of 2 term newborns, who developed severe IVH grade 3 and 4 with no evidence of asphyxia, neuroinfection, TORCH infections, coagulation disorders and trombocytopenia, metabolic disorders, arteriovenous malformations, and selected genetic abnormalities (factor V Leiden 1601G > A polymorphism and MTHFR 677C > T; 1298A > C polymorphisms)...
July 8, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Uma Pandey, Neeraj Kumar Agrawal, Shilpa Agrawal, Shuchita Batra
AIM: The study was done to determine the maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes either Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) or preexisting (type 1 or type 2) diabetes over a period from March 2011 to Feb 2013 in a tertiary care hospital, Varanasi. METHODS: This is a retrospective audit of the maternal and fetal outcome of women who presented to the Sir Sundar Lal Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India from March 2011 to Feb 2013, with GDM or pre-existing type 1 or type 2 Diabetes with pregnancy...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Sonia Perez, Ruben Tato, Jorge Julio Cabrera, Alberto Lopez, Olga Robles, Eugenio Paz, Amparo Coira, Maria Paz Sanchez-Seco, Ana Vazquez, Raquel Carballo, Carlos Quintas, Anxela Pousa
We describe Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in an imported case in Spain, in a 17-week pregnant woman. ZIKV IgG, IgM and RNA were detected in serum in week 17. At 19 weeks, ultrasound scan revealed fetal malformations and ZIKV was detected in the amniotic fluid. Pregnancy was terminated at week 21; autopsy of the fetus revealed bilateral hydrocephalus, brain microcalcifications and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. ZIKV was detected in the umbilical cord and brain tissue.
June 16, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Rosangela Ferese, Stefania Zampatti, Anna Maria Pia Griguoli, Francesco Fornai, Emiliano Giardina, Giuseppe Barrano, Veronica Albano, Rosa Campopiano, Simona Scala, Giuseppe Novelli, Stefano Gambardella
X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH) is a genetic disorder leading to a syndrome characterized by mental retardation, bilateral adducted thumbs, and spasticity of upper and lower limbs. In most cases, X-linked mutation leads to a defective activity of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1CAM (L1 cell adhesion molecule, OMIM 308840). Depending on mutations of L1CAM, four X-linked neurological syndromes have been described. These syndromes are very different albeit each one possesses marked variability. In the present study, we describe a novel L1CAM mutation in a 33-year-old woman reporting two voluntary terminations of pregnancy due to fetal hydrocephalus...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Marko Culjat, Stephen E Darling, Vivek R Nerurkar, Natascha Ching, Mukesh Kumar, Sarah K Min, Rupa Wong, Leon Grant, Marian E Melish
Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly. Subsequently, tropism for the brain was established in human fetal brain tissue. We present the first congenital ZIKV infection in the United States, confirmed by high ZIKV immunoglobulin M antibody titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The phenotypic characteristics of the patient fall within fetal brain disruption sequence, suggesting impaired brain development in the second half of gestation. Brain imaging revealed an almost agyric brain with diffuse parenchymal calcifications, hydrocephalus ex vacuo, and cerebellar hypoplasia...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Eduardo Ortega, Rosa I Muñoz, Nelly Luza, Francisco Guerra, Monserrat Guerra, Karin Vio, Roberto Henzi, Jaime Jaque, Sara Rodriguez, James P McAllister, Esteban Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Mutant rodent models have highlighted the importance of the ventricular ependymal cells and the subcommissural organ (a brain gland secreting glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid) in the development of fetal onset hydrocephalus. Evidence indicates that communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus can be two sequential phases of a single pathological phenomenon triggered by ependymal disruption and/or abnormal function of the subcommissural organ. We have hypothesized that a similar phenomenon may occur in human cases with fetal onset hydrocephalus...
2016: BMC Neurology
J Dukanac Stamenkovic, M Steric, L Srbinovic, T Janjic, S Vrzic Petronijevic, M Petronijevic, A Cetkovic
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present the course and outcome of pregnancies complicated with fetal ventriculomegaly, determine the association between prenatal ultrasound diagnoses and definitive postnatal diagnosis or diagnoses after autopsy and additional analysis, and to monitor the psychomotor development of children born with ventriculomegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was designed as retrospective study and included 62 pregnant women who were attending a regular ultrasound examinations at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, or patients who were referred from other institutions in Serbia...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Karen M Chisholm, Amy Heerema-McKenney, Lu Tian, Anand K Rajani, Suchi Saria, Daphne Koller, Anna A Penn
INTRODUCTION: A major goal of neonatal medicine is to identify neonates at highest risk for morbidity and mortality. Previously, we developed PhysiScore (Saria et al., 2010), a novel tool for preterm morbidity risk prediction. We now further define links between overall individual morbidity risk, specific neonatal morbidities, and placental pathologies. METHODS: 102 placentas, including 38 from multiple gestations, were available from the previously defined PhysiScore cohort (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks and birth weight ≤ 2000 g)...
March 2016: Placenta
Irina Burd, Diane Griffin
Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research...
April 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Jernej Mlakar, Misa Korva, Nataša Tul, Mara Popović, Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj, Jerica Mraz, Marko Kolenc, Katarina Resman Rus, Tina Vesnaver Vipotnik, Vesna Fabjan Vodušek, Alenka Vizjak, Jože Pižem, Miroslav Petrovec, Tatjana Avšič Županc
A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta...
March 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
David Atallah, Fersan Mansour, Elie Samaha, Nadine El Kassis, Joseph Nassif
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage due to arteriovenous malformation or intracranial aneurysm is a rare but severe complication of pregnancy with maternal and fetal mortality of 20% and 33% respectively. Whether to deliver the patient first, or to treat the aneurysm first is still controversial, but an emergency cesarean section followed by aneurismal treatment appears to be a widely accepted strategy in pregnant women with cerebral aneurysmal complications. CASE: A 38-year-old patient, G3P2A0, presented at 36 gestational weeks with a diffuse bilateral subarachnoid hemorrhage with fourth ventricle bleeding and hydrocephalus...
October 2015: Le Journal Médical Libanais. the Lebanese Medical Journal
M Hassan Toufaily, Drucilla J Roberts, Marie-Noel Westgate, Lewis B Holmes
OBJECTIVES: Triploidy (69, XXX; 69, XXY; 69, XYY) accounts for 1% of conceptions, but the affected fetus often does not survive past the first trimester. Fetal development in triploidy is rare. A consecutive series was used to describe the fetal and placental phenotypes and compare them with previous publications. METHODS: Fifty-four triploid fetuses were identified in the Active Malformations Surveillance Program between 1972 and 2012 at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Christina N Cordeiro, Michael Tsimis, Irina Burd
Several different bodies of evidence support a link between infection and altered brain development. Maternal infections, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus, have been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders, differences in cognitive test scores, and bipolar disorder; an association that has been shown in both epidemiologic and retrospective studies. Several viral, bacterial, and parasitic illnesses are associated with alterations in fetal brain structural anomalies including brain calcifications and hydrocephalus...
October 2015: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
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