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Fetal hydrocephalus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516217/prenatal-surgery-for-myelomeningocele-review-of-the-literature-and-future-directions
#1
Gregory G Heuer, Julie S Moldenhauer, N Scott Adzick
Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is one of the most common serious congenital malformations. Historically, this condition has been treated with closure of the MMC defect shortly after birth. The goal of postnatal closure is to cover the exposed spinal cord and prevent infection. However, postnatal surgery does not reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, reverse hindbrain herniation, or prevent hydrocephalus. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic prenatal damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma...
May 17, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510072/fetal-ventriculomegaly-diagnosis-treatment-and-future-directions
#2
Jared M Pisapia, Saurabh Sinha, Deborah M Zarnow, Mark P Johnson, Gregory G Heuer
Fetal ventriculomegaly (VM) refers to the enlargement of the cerebral ventricles in utero. It is associated with the postnatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus. VM is clinically diagnosed on ultrasound and is defined as an atrial diameter greater than 10 mm. Because of the anatomic detailed seen with advanced imaging, VM is often further characterized by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fetal VM is a heterogeneous condition with various etiologies and a wide range of neurodevelopmental outcomes. These outcomes are heavily dependent on the presence or absence of associated anomalies and the direct cause of the ventriculomegaly rather than on the absolute degree of VM...
May 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470384/first-60-fetal-in-utero-myelomeningocele-repairs-at-saint-louis-fetal-care-institute-in-the-post-moms-trial-era-hydrocephalus-treatment-outcomes-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-versus-ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt
#3
Samer K Elbabaa, Anne M Gildehaus, Matthew J Pierson, J Andrew Albers, Emanuel J Vlastos
INTRODUCTION: The published results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) trial in 2011 showed improved outcomes (reduced need for shunting, decreased incidence of Chiari II malformation, and improved scores of mental development and motor function) in the fetal prenatal repair group compared to the postnatal group. Historically, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) remains as a controversial hydrocephalus treatment option with high failure rates in pediatric patients with a history of myelomeningocele (MMC)...
May 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457106/detection-rate-and-sonographic-signs-of-trisomy-21-fetuses-at-14-17-weeks-of-gestation
#4
Eliezer Bronshtein, Ido Solt, Moshe Bronshtein, Ayala Gover, Igal Wolman, Zeev Blumenfeld
BACKGROUND: Early prenatal ultrasound is an important part of prenatal screening in Israel. No studies have described the rate of trisomy 21 [T21] identification at 14-17 weeks gestation. OBJECTIVES: To describe the rate of T21 identification by transvaginal sonograms (TVS) at 14-17 weeks gestation. METHODS: We conducted a historical prospective study. Since 1986, early TVS of 72,000 fetuses at 14-17 weeks gestation have been prospectively recorded together with prenatal screening data at a private ultrasound center (AL-KOL, Haifa)...
January 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424008/olfactory-development-part-2-neuroanatomic-maturation-and-dysgeneses
#5
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to the primitive telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Olfactory bulb neurons do not differentiate in situ but arrive via the rostral migratory stream. Synaptic glomeruli and concentric laminar architecture are unlike other cortices. Fetal olfactory maturation of neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and myelination remains incomplete at term and have a protracted course of postnatal development. The olfactory ventricular recess involutes postnatally but dilates in congenital hydrocephalus...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369985/nongalenic-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-prenatal-diagnosis
#6
Cristina Martínez-Payo, Javier Sancho Saúco, Maria Miralles, Tirso Pérez Medina
Pial arteriovenous (AV) fistulae have rarely been diagnosed in utero. They are characterized by one or more pial arteries flowing directly into a cortical vein without any shunt or interposed capillary bed. In the fetus and the newborn up to 2 years of age, the most common clinical manifestation is heart failure resulting from fistula overload. Later on, hydrocephalus, focal neurologic deficits, headaches, seizures, and cerebral hemorrhage are the most common manifestations. We present a case of nongalenic pial AV fistula diagnosed in the 25th week of pregnancy, which resulted in intrauterine fetal death due to congestive heart failure...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368078/genotyping-of-toxoplasma-gondii-strain-directly-from-human-csf-samples-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-clinical-case
#7
Chiara Pagliuca, Gabiria Pastore, Elena Scaglione, Annalisa Migliucci, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Annunziata Gaetana Cicatiello, Elena Salvatore, Marco Picardi, Josè Camilla Sammartino, Maria Consiglio Buonocore, Pasquale Martinelli, Emilia Iaccarino, Roberta Colicchio, Paola Salvatore
This report describes a case of congenital toxoplasmosis in a newborn in Southern Italy. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 20th week of her pregnancy on account of pharyngodynia and laterocervical lymphadenopathy. Although serological testing of the mother's serum documented a seroconversion with positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies during II trimester, the woman refused to perform prenatal diagnosis for congenital toxoplasmosis. Fetal ultrasound scan already showed mild asymmetrical triventricular hydrocephaly and cerebral calcifications...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277363/fetoscopic-open-neural-tube-defect-repair-development-and-refinement-of-a-two-port-carbon-dioxide-insufflation-technique
#8
Michael A Belfort, William E Whitehead, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Zhoobin H Bateni, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Olutoyin A Olutoye, David G Mann, Jimmy Espinoza, Erin Williams, Timothy C Lee, Sundeep G Keswani, Nancy Ayres, Christopher I Cassady, Amy R Mehollin-Ray, Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Elena Carreras, Jose L Peiro, Rodrigo Ruano, Darrell L Cass
OBJECTIVE: To describe development of a two-port fetoscopic technique for spina bifida repair in the exteriorized, carbon dioxide-filled uterus and report early results of two cohorts of patients: the first 15 treated with an iterative technique and the latter 13 with a standardized technique. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study (2014-2016). All patients met Management of Myelomeningocele Study selection criteria. The intraoperative approach was iterative in the first 15 patients and was then standardized...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260505/copy-number-variations-with-isolated-fetal-ventriculomegaly
#9
P Hu, Y Wang, R Sun, L Cao, X Chen, C Liu, C Luo, D Ma, W Wang, X Fu, W Shi, S Yi, K Zhang, H Liu, Z Xu
BACKGROUND: Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are an important genetic cause of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). However, the association between CNVs and the development and prognosis of isolated fetal ventriculomegaly (IMV) is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible associations between CNVs and the development of fetal IMV. METHODS: This retrospective study recruited 154 subjects with ultrasound-confirmed fetal IMV and 190 subjects in a control cohort who underwent a high-risk prenatal serum screening program...
March 3, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125818/neural-stem-cells-and-fetal-onset-hydrocephalus
#10
Esteban M Rodríguez, María M Guerra
Fetal-onset hydrocephalus is not only a disorder of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, but also a brain disorder. How can we explain the inborn and, so far, irreparable neurological impairment in children born with hydrocephalus? We hypothesize that a cell junction pathology of neural stem cells (NSC) leads to two inseparable phenomena: hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis. All neurons, glial cells, and ependymal cells of the mammalian central nervous system originate from the NSC forming the ventricular zone (VZ) and the neural progenitor cells (NPC) forming the subventricular zone...
January 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114843/the-impact-of-fetal-middle-cerebral-artery-doppler-on-the-outcome-of-congenital-hydrocephalus
#11
Nail Obeidat, Bahauddin Sallout, Badi Albaqawi, Wajeih Al AlAali
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of abnormal middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler on the perinatal mortality in fetuses with congenital hydrocephalus (CH). METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses with CH who delivered at our hospital over a period of 7 years. Data were obtained from the ultrasound, Labor room and intensive neonatal care unit (NICU) database. The Perinatal mortality rates were evaluated in relation to the following measures, associated congenital anomalies, cortical mantle thickness (CMT), and MCA Doppler abnormalities (absent or reversed diastole)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096980/genetic-and-prenatal-findings-in-two-japanese-patients-with-schinzel-giedion-syndrome
#12
Nozomi Hishimura, Michiko Watari, Hiroki Ohata, Naho Fuseya, Sadae Wakiguchi, Tomoharu Tokutomi, Kouji Okuhara, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Susumu Iizuka, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Takashi Mishima, Satoko Fujieda, Ryoji Kobayashi, Kazutoshi Cho, Yukiko Kuroda, Kenji Kurosawa, Hidefumi Tonoki
We report two Japanese patients with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. When polyhydramnios is observed, additional fetal findings such as overlapping fingers, hydrocephalus, hydronephrosis, and very characteristic facial appearance comprising high, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, and depressed nasal root may suggest Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.
January 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076893/pseudofeeders-on-fetal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predict-outcome-in-vein-of-galen-malformations
#13
Guillaume Saliou, Irène Vraka, Jean-Paul Teglas, Marie-Victoire Senat, Philippe Durand, Claire Colmant, Augustin Ozanne, Jelena Martinovic, Pierre Tissiere, Catherine Adamsbaum
OBJECTIVE: Although vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) can be diagnosed in the fetus, the challenge is predicting the occurrence of its 2 major complications: cardiopulmonary failure and encephalomalacia. This study attempts to determine which fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features might be used to predict the development of these complications at birth. METHODS: The cohort was extracted from a prospectively assembled database of VGAM cases managed at a single referral center from 2000 to 2014...
February 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028598/a-comparison-of-the-moms-trial-results-to-a-contemporaneous-single-institution-postnatal-closure-cohort
#14
Nicholas M B Laskay, Anastasia A Arynchyna, Samuel G McClugage, Betsy Hopson, Chevis Shannon, Benjamin Ditty, John C Wellons, Jeffrey P Blount, Brandon G Rocque
PURPOSE: We evaluate a single-institution cohort of mothers contemporaneous with the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) trial to determine the generalizability of MOMS results and compare shunt rates. METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified patients with myelomeningocele born between 2003 and 2009. We applied MOMS eligibility criteria and compared sociodemographic variables between patients at our institution who would have been eligible or ineligible and MOMS participants...
April 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862250/prenatal-myelomeningocele-repair-do-bladders-better
#15
Maya Horst, Luca Mazzone, Thomas Schraner, Christine Bodmer, Ueli Möhrlen, Martin Meuli, Rita Gobet
AIMS: Prenatal myelomeningocele (MMC) repair has been proven to significantly reduce the need for hydrocephalus shunting and improve lower-extremity motor outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal MMC repair on the urological outcome. METHODS: All patients who underwent fetal MMC repair at our institution are followed prospectively. Assessments include medical history, renal and bladder ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamic study, need for clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and anticholinergics, and the occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI)...
November 15, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787388/hydrocephalus-secondary-to-chemotherapy-in-a-case-of-prenatally-diagnosed-giant-immature-grade-3-sacrococcygeal-teratoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Ioan Sarbu, Demetra Socolov, Razvan Socolov, Ingrith Miron, Mioara Trandafirescu, Smaranda Diaconescu, Carmen Iulia Ciongradi
INTRODUCTION: Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is a rare tumor in the general population, arising from multipotent stem cells. Whereas most of the cases diagnosed postnatally have good prognosis, the rate of mortality and morbidities associated with prenatally diagnosed SCT remain high, with a reported mortality rate of 30% to 50%. The outcome of fetal SCT can be unpredictable, with some cases with slow growth during fetal life, whereas others grow rapidly, causing multiple complications; also, some of these tumor will develop triggering fetal (preterm delivery, high-output cardiac failure, hydrops fetalis, intrauterine death) or maternal complications (distocia, placentomegaly, maternal mirror syndrome-preeclampsia)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695855/congenital-zika-virus-infection-beyond-neonatal-microcephaly
#17
Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Renato Santana Aguiar, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Monica B Arruda, Fabiana de Oliveira Melo, Suelem Taís Clementino Ribeiro, Alba Gean Medeiros Batista, Thales Ferreira, Mayra Pereira Dos Santos, Virgínia Vilar Sampaio, Sarah Rogéria Martins Moura, Luciana Portela Rabello, Clarissa Emanuelle Gonzaga, Gustavo Malinger, Renato Ximenes, Patricia Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Leila Chimelli, Paola Paz Silveira, Rodrigo Delvechio, Luiza Higa, Loraine Campanati, Rita M R Nogueira, Ana Maria Bispo Filippis, Jacob Szejnfeld, Carolina Moreira Voloch, Orlando C Ferreira, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Amilcar Tanuri
Importance: Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. Objective: To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689921/diagnosis-of-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation-using-fetal-mri
#18
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676186/correlating-prenatal-imaging-findings-of-fetal-ventriculomegaly-with-the-need-for-surgical-intervention-in-the-first-3-months-after-birth
#19
Joshua L Gu, Anthony Johnson, Marcia Kerr, Kenneth J Moise, Michael W Bebbington, Claudia Pedroza, David I Sandberg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study evaluates the predictive value of prenatal imaging measurements regarding the need for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion for fetal hydrocephalus in the first 3 months after birth. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive case series of patients with fetal hydrocephalus from January 2011 to December 2014 (n = 45). Prenatal measurements included head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and lateral ventricle (LV) width...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650823/origin-of-the-zika-virus-revealed-a-historical-journey-across-the-world
#20
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
December 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
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