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Britta Siegmund, Christoph Högenauer, Gottfried Novacek, Wolfgang Petritsch, Walter Reinisch, Alain Schoepfer, Stefan Schreiber, Stephan Vavricka, Bernd Bokemeyer
The present review by the IBD-Dach group provides a comprehensive summary of the mode of action, clinical development, approval, efficacy and safety aspects of the novel anti-p40 antibody Ustekinumab. The review provides current data, including the large clinical trials as well as smaller case series and work outside the field of inflammatory bowel diseases for shedding more light into special situations. Together, the data indicate that Ustekinumab shows clinical efficacy as well as a good safety profile for the treatment of Crohn's disease...
August 13, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Xianyun Ye, Yueming Liu, Qiang He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
T G J de Meij, E F J de Groot, C F W Peeters, N K H de Boer, C M F Kneepkens, A Eck, M A Benninga, P H M Savelkoul, A A van Bodegraven, A E Budding
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal microbiota is considered to play a crucial role in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to describe faecal microbiota composition and dynamics in a large cohort of children with de novo (naïve) IBD, in comparison to healthy paediatric controls (HC). METHODS: In this prospective study, performed at two tertiary centres, faecal samples from newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve paediatric IBD patients were collected prior to bowel cleansing for colonoscopy (t0) and 1, 3 and 6 weeks and 3 months after initiation of therapy...
2018: PloS One
Mohamad Karaky, María Fedetz, Victor Potenciano, Eduardo Andrés-León, Anna Esteve Codina, Cristina Barrionuevo, Antonio Alcina, Fuencisla Matesanz
SP140 locus has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as other autoimmune diseases by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The causal variant of these associations (rs28445040-T) alters the splicing of the SP140 gene transcripts reducing the protein expression. We aimed to understand why the reduction of SP140 expression produced by the risk variant can increase the susceptibility to MS. To this end, we determined by RNA-seq analysis the differentially expressed genes after SP140 silencing in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
August 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Conghua Song, Jinpu Yang, Wen Ye, Yuting Zhang, Chunyan Tang, Xiaomei Li, Xiaojiang Zhou, Yong Xie
BACKGROUND: The relationship between living conditions in urban and rural areas during childhood and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains controversial. AIM: To explore the association between environmental exposures early in life and the subsequent risk of IBD. METHODS: Literature searchs were conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index. Studies were analysed separately using rate ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 13, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kyle Null, Varun Kumar, Trevor Lissoos, Michelle Luo
AIMS: Increasing use of biologics has led to interest in treatment components with potential for cost savings. This study was aimed at comparing administration times and associated costs of infliximab and vedolizumab infusions for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used claims data from the Symphony Health Integrated Dataverse to identify IBD patients using infliximab or vedolizumab between May 20, 2014, and February 29, 2016. Use of Current Procedural Terminology administration codes was evaluated and costs calculated using the 2016 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Physician Fee Schedule...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Angela Richard-Eaglin, Benjamin A Smallheer
Autoimmune disorders are a category of diseases in which the immune system attacks healthy cells as a result of a dysfunction of the acquired immune system. Clinical presentation and diagnosis are disease specific and often correspond with the degree of inflammation, as well as the systems involved. Treatment varies based on the specific disease, its stage of presentation, and patient symptoms. The primary goal of treatment is to decrease inflammation, minimize symptoms, and lessen the potential for relapse...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
W Mohammed, P Hoskin, A Henry, A Gomez-Iturriaga, A Robinson, A Nikapota
AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has historically been considered a risk factor for increased bowel toxicity in patients receiving pelvic external beam radiotherapy. The risk is reduced in intensity-modulated radiotherapy compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The effect of brachytherapy has been less extensively researched. Despite the increased dose to the gross tumour volume and decreased dose to organs at risk, previous studies have recommended avoidance of low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy in patients with IBD, due to increased bowel toxicity...
September 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
A Hillary Steinhart, Remo Panaccione, Laura Targownik, Brian Bressler, Reena Khanna, John K Marshall, Waqqas Afif, Charles N Bernstein, Alain Bitton, Mark Borgaonkar, Usha Chauhan, Brendan Halloran, Jennifer Jones, Erin Kennedy, Grigorios I Leontiadis, Edward V Loftus, Jonathan Meddings, Paul Moayyedi, Sanjay Murthy, Sophie Plamondon, Greg Rosenfeld, David Schwartz, Cynthia H Seow, Chadwick Williams
Background: Fistulas occur in about 25% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and can be difficult to treat. The aim of this consensus was to provide guidance for the management of patients with perianal fistulizing CD. Methods: A systematic literature search identified studies on the management of fistulizing CD. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach...
August 6, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Fabio Cominelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
K Argyriou, M Khan, S Samuel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Gastroenterology
Anyan Xie, René J Robles, Samiran Mukherjee, Haohai Zhang, Linda Feldbrügge, Eva Csizmadia, Yan Wu, Keiichi Enjyoji, Alan C Moss, Leo E Otterbein, Francisco J Quintana, Simon C Robson, Maria Serena Longhi
In Crohn's disease, pathogenic Th17-cells express low levels of CD39 ectonucleotidase and are refractory to the immunosuppressive effects of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), an endogenous ligand for aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor (AhR). This resistance to AhR ligation might be associated with alterations in responses to hypoxia. Limited exposure to hypoxia appears beneficial in acute tissue injury. However, in protracted inflammation, hypoxemia may paradoxically result in Th17-cell activation. We report here that in vitro exposure of Th17-cells from Crohn's disease patients to hypoxia limits responsiveness to AhR stimulation by UCB, as reflected by lower CD39 levels...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Jihua Pei, Liqin Yu, Xuanping Xia, Shenglong Xia, Xiuqing Lin, Jie Jin, Yi Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: For 275 CD patients and 495 controls, the genotypes of VEGF gene rs699947 and rs3025039 loci were determined with a SNaPshot method. RESULTS: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the rs699947 and rs3025039 loci did not differ between the two groups (all P>0...
August 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Anthony K Akobeng, Dongni Zhang, Morris Gordon, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Prevention of relapse is a major issue in the management of quiescent Crohn's disease (CD). Current therapies (e.g. methotrexate, biologics, 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine) may be effective for maintaining remission in CD, but these drugs may cause significant adverse events. Interventions that are effective and safe for maintenance of remission in CD are desirable. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of enteral nutrition for the maintenance of remission in CD and to assess the impact of formula composition on effectiveness...
August 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hui-Jing Zhang, Yi-Ning Zhang, Huan Zhou, Lin Guan, Yue Li, Ming-Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Its exact mechanism is still unclear, and effective treatments to control or reverse the fibrosis process are unavailable. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may promote intestinal fibrosis by increasing deposition of extracellular matrix protein. IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and it has been shown as a profibrotic factor as its association with fibrosis of multiple organs was reported. AIMS: To assess the roles of IL-17A and EMT in the initiation and development of intestinal fibrosis and to verify the potential inductive effect of IL-17A on EMT...
August 10, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Adam C Fields, Nelya Melnitchouk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Fang Yao, Yihong Fan, Bin Lv, Conghua Ji, Li Xu
The aim of this study was to examine the expression of serological markers in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in China, and determine the diagnostic utility of serological markers, individually and in combination, for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD).Serum samples were obtained from 160 participants in Eastern China. Among the participants, 98 were diagnosed with CD, 33 had ulcerative colitis (UC), and 29 were healthy controls (HC). The serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC), Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial sequence I2 (anti-I2), anti-laminarin (anti-L), anti-chitin (anti-C), anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibody (ACCA), anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate antibody (ALCA), anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibody (AMCA), and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ilse Molendijk, Andrea E van der Meulen-de Jong, Hein W Verspaget, Roeland A Veenendaal, Daniel W Hommes, Bert A Bonsing, Koen C M J Peeters
BACKGROUND: Local administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into the fistula tract seems to improve patient outcome in perianal fistulas due to Crohn's disease (CD). In this paper we propose a standardized and validated protocol for the local administration of MSCs for CD perianal fistulas to be able to reliably assess efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A working group consisting of gastroenterologists and surgeons with expertise in the treatment of perianal CD developed a consensus perianal fistula treatment protocol for local MSC treatment of perianal fistulizing CD...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mark Löwenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Patrick H Bradley, Stephen Nayfach, Katherine S Pollard
The mechanisms by which different microbes colonize the healthy human gut versus other body sites, the gut in disease states, or other environments remain largely unknown. Identifying microbial genes influencing fitness in the gut could lead to new ways to engineer probiotics or disrupt pathogenesis. We approach this problem by measuring the statistical association between a species having a gene and the probability that the species is present in the gut microbiome. The challenge is that closely related species tend to be jointly present or absent in the microbiome and also share many genes, only a subset of which are involved in gut adaptation...
August 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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