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population effector

Yun Jung Choi, Hi-Jung Park, Hye Jin Park, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Jae-Il Lee
Peripheral CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) T cells are associated with autoimmune disorders, cancer, and viral infection. However, the relationship between organ transplantation and DP T cells is unclear. Here, we examined the functional characteristics of peripheral DP T cells and analyzed their significance with respect to islet graft rejection in a nonhuman primate model of islet transplantation. DP T cells were functionally equivalent to conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells in terms of helper and cytotoxic activity, respectively...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Stefanie Pektor, Lina Hilscher, Kerstin C Walzer, Isabelle Miederer, Nicole Bausbacher, Carmen Loquai, Mathias Schreckenberger, Ugur Sahin, Mustafa Diken, Matthias Miederer
BACKGROUND: [18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is commonly used in the clinic for diagnosis of cancer and for follow-up of therapy outcome. Additional to the well-established value in tumor imaging, it bears potential to depict immune processes in modern immunotherapies. T cells enhance their glucose consumption upon activation and are crucial effectors for the success of such novel therapies. In this study, we analyzed the T cell immunity in spleen after antigen-specific stimulation of T cells via highly innovative RNA-based vaccines using FDG-PET/MRI...
August 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Michelle Miron, Brahma V Kumar, Wenzhao Meng, Tomer Granot, Dustin J Carpenter, Takashi Senda, Dora Chen, Aaron M Rosenfeld, Bochao Zhang, Harvey Lerner, Amy L Friedman, Uri Hershberg, Yufeng Shen, Adeeb Rahman, Eline T Luning Prak, Donna L Farber
Translating studies on T cell function and modulation from mouse models to humans requires extrapolating in vivo results on mouse T cell responses in lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes [LN]) to human peripheral blood T cells. However, our understanding of T cell responses in human lymphoid sites and their relation to peripheral blood remains sparse. In this study, we used a unique human tissue resource to study human T cells in different anatomical compartments within individual donors and identify a subset of memory CD8+ T cells in LN, which maintain a distinct differentiation and functional profile compared with memory CD8+ T cells in blood, spleen, bone marrow, and lungs...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Meirav Leibman-Markus, Lorena Pizarro, Maya Bar, Gitta Coaker, Adi Avni
Plants are constantly exposed to numerous diverse microbes and pests. They lack an adaptive immune system and rely on innate immunity to perceive and ward off potential pathogens. The plant immune system enables plants to overcome invading microorganisms, and can be defined as highly successful in this regard. Nevertheless, specialized pathogens are able to overcome structural barriers, preformed defenses, innate immunity and are a persistent threat to crop and food supplies worldwide. The rapidly growing world population results in massive demands for agricultural products and reliable crop yields...
August 15, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Dirk Baumjohann, Vigo Heissmeyer
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critically involved in the establishment of potent antibody responses against infectious pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, but their dysregulation may also result in aberrant antibody responses that frequently coincide with autoimmune diseases or allergies. The fate and identity of Tfh cells is tightly controlled by gene regulation on the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Here, we provide deeper insights into the posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate Tfh cell differentiation, function, and plasticity through the actions of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and small endogenously expressed regulatory RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dorien Wilmaerts, Mariam Bayoumi, Liselot Dewachter, Wouter Knapen, Jacek T Mika, Johan Hofkens, Peter Dedecker, Giovanni Maglia, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Bacterial populations harbor a small fraction of cells that display transient multidrug tolerance. These so-called persister cells are extremely difficult to eradicate and contribute to the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Several signaling pathways leading to persistence have been identified. However, it is poorly understood how the effectors of these pathways function at the molecular level. In a previous study, we reported that the conserved GTPase Obg induces persistence in Escherichia coli via transcriptional upregulation of the toxin HokB...
August 14, 2018: MBio
Ivan Gudelj, Gordan Lauc, Marija Pezer
The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycome is well known for its heterogeneity and shows a significant degree of variation within populations. IgG glycome composition is influenced both by genes and by environment, making it an excellent biomarker of a person's general health state, i.e. biological age. IgG glycosylation appears to be highly regulated, both during homeostasis and in cases of its disturbance. Changes in IgG glycosylation patterns have been observed in aging and in various diseases. Differential IgG glycosylation is known to modulate IgG effector functions and is involved in disease development and progression, representing both a predisposition and a functional mechanism involved in disease pathology...
July 23, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Kaitlin R Carroll, Eileen E Elfers, Joseph J Stevens, Jonathan P McNally, David A Hildeman, Michael B Jordan, Jonathan D Katz
Preserving endogenous insulin production is clinically advantageous and remains a vital unmet challenge in the treatment and reversal of type 1 diabetes. While broad immunosuppression has had limited success in prolonging the so-called remission period, it comes at the cost of compromising beneficial immunity. Here, we employed a novel strategy to specifically deplete the activated diabetogenic T cells that drive pathogenesis while preserving not only endogenous insulin production but also protective immunity...
August 13, 2018: Diabetes
Robert J Plenter, Todd J Grazia, Marilyne G Coulombe, Michelle K Nelsen, Christine M Lin, K Scott Beard, Tinalyn M Kupfer, Martin R Zamora, Ronald G Gill, Biagio A Pietra
The induction of tolerance to transplanted organs is a major objective in transplantation immunology research. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) interactions have been identified as a key component of the T-cell activation process that may be interrupted to lead to allograft tolerance. In mice, αLFA-1 mAb is a potent monotherapy that leads to the induction of donor-specific transferable tolerance. By interrogating important adaptive and innate immunity pathways, we demonstrate that the induction of tolerance relies on CD8+ T-cells...
August 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Mark D Singh, Minjian Ni, Jenna M Sullivan, Jessica A Hamerman, Daniel J Campbell
CD8+ T cells respond to signals via the T cell receptor (TCR), costimulatory molecules, and immunoregulatory cytokines by developing into diverse populations of effector and memory cells. The relative strength of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling early in the T cell response can dramatically influence downstream effector and memory T cell differentiation. We show that initial PI3K signaling during T cell activation results in up-regulation of the signaling scaffold B cell adaptor for PI3K (BCAP), which further potentiates PI3K signaling and promotes the accumulation of CD8+ T cells with a terminally differentiated effector phenotype...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Sinead M Walsh, Julie C Worrell, Aurelie Fabre, Boris Hinz, Rosemary Kane, Michael P Keane
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive interstitial pneumonia that is characterized by excessive fibroproliferation. Key effector cells in IPF are myofibroblasts that are recruited from three potential sources: resident fibroblasts, fibrocytes and epithelial cells. We hypothesized that IPF myofibroblasts from different sources of origin displayed unique genetic profiles and distinct functional characteristics. Primary human pulmonary fibroblasts (normal and IPF), fibrocytes and epithelial cells were activated into myofibroblasts using the pro fibrotic factors TGF β and TNF α...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Rosanne Spolski, Peng Li, Warren J Leonard
IL-2 was first identified as a growth factor capable of driving the expansion of activated human T cell populations. In the more than 40 years since its discovery, a tremendous amount has been learned regarding the mechanisms that regulate the expression of both IL-2 and its cell surface receptor, its mechanisms of signalling and its range of biological actions. More recently, the mechanisms by which IL-2 regulates CD4+ T cell differentiation and function have been elucidated. IL-2 also regulates the effector and memory responses of CD8+ T cells, and the loss of IL-2 or responsiveness to IL-2 at least in part explains the exhausted phenotype that occurs during chronic viral infections and in tumour responses...
August 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Santiago Cerrizuela, Guillermo A Vega-López, María Belén Palacio, Celeste Tríbulo, Manuel J Aybar
The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent migratory embryonic population that is formed during late gastrulation and gives rise to a wide array of derivatives, including cells from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the craniofacial bones and cartilages, peripheral glial cells, and melanocyte cells, among others. In this work we analyzed the role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway effector gli2 in Xenopus NC. We provide evidence that the gli2 gene is expressed in the prospective, premigratory and migratory NC...
August 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Rachel M Wiltshire, Christina M Bergey, Jonathan K Kayondo, Josephine Birungi, Louis G Mukwaya, Scott J Emrich, Nora J Besansky, Frank H Collins
BACKGROUND: Malaria is the leading cause of global paediatric mortality in children below 5 years of age. The number of fatalities has reduced significantly due to an expansion of control interventions but the development of new technologies remains necessary in order to achieve elimination. Recent attention has been focused on the release of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes into natural vector populations as a mechanism of interrupting parasite transmission but despite successful in vivo laboratory studies, a detailed population genetic assessment, which must first precede any proposed field trial, has yet to be undertaken systematically...
August 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
Shimaa Ibrahim Abdelmenym Mohamed, Ibrahim Jantan, Mohd Azlan Nafiah, Mohamed Ali Seyed, Kok Meng Chan
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells (APC) which play a pivotal role in immunotherapy and induction of an effective immune response against tumors. In the present study, 80% ethanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus was used to generate tumor lysate (TLY) derived from HCT 116 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines via induction of apoptosis. Monocyte-derived DCs were generated ex vivo from the adherent population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The generated TLY were used to impulse DCs to investigate its effect on their cellular immune functions including antigen presentation capacity, phagocytic activity, chemotaxis capacity, T-cell proliferation and cytokines release...
August 6, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Taylor Garmon, Megen Wittling, Shuyi Nie
BACKGROUNDS: Neural crest is a vertebrate specific cell population. Induced at lateral borders of the neural plate, neural crest cells (NCCs) subsequently undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to detach from the neuroepithelium before migrating into various locations in the embryo. Despite the wealth of knowledge of transcription factors involved in this process, little is known about the effectors that directly regulate neural crest EMT and migration. RESULTS: Here, we examined the activity of matrix metalloproteinase MMP14 in NCCs and found that MMP14 is expressed in both premigratory and migrating NCCs...
August 6, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Vijai Bhadauria, Ron MacLachlan, Curtis Pozniak, Aurelie Cohen-Skalie, Li Li, Jerlene Halliday, Sabine Banniza
Colletotrichum lentis causes anthracnose, which is a serious disease on lentil and can account for up to 70% crop loss. Two pathogenic races, 0 and 1, have been described in the C. lentis population from lentil. To unravel the genetic control of virulence, an isolate of the virulent race 0 was sequenced at 1481-fold genomic coverage. The 56.10-Mb genome assembly consists of 50 scaffolds with N50 scaffold length of 4.89 Mb. A total of 11 436 protein-coding gene models was predicted in the genome with 237 coding candidate effectors, 43 secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes and 229 carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), suggesting a contraction of the virulence gene repertoire in C...
August 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Meline Valérian, Delage Wesley, Brin Chrystelle, Li-Marchetti Camille, Sochard Daniel, Arlat Matthieu, Rousseau Céline, Darrasse Armelle, Briand Martial, Lebreton Guillaume, Portier Perrine, Fischer-Le Saux Marion, Durand Karine, Jacques Marie-Agnès, Belin Etienne, Boureau Tristan
Cases of emergence of novel plant pathogenic strains are regularly reported that hinder yield of crops and trees. However the molecular mechanisms underlying such emergence are still poorly understood. The acquisition by environmental non-pathogenic strains of novel virulence genes by horizontal gene transfer has been suggested as a driver for the emergence of novel pathogenic strains. In the present study, we tested such an hypothesis by transferring a plasmid encoding the Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) and four associated Type 3 Secreted proteins (T3SPs) to the non-pathogenic strains of Xanthomonas CFBP 7698 and CFBP 7700, that lack genes encoding T3SS and any previously known T3SPs...
August 4, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Zhen Li, Ten Feizi
The neoglycolipid (NGL) technology is the basis of a state-of-the-art oligosaccharide microarray system, which we offer for screening analyses to the broad scientific community. We review here the sequential development of the technology and its power in pinpointing and isolating naturally occurring ligands for glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) within glycan populations. We highlight our Designer Array approach and Beam Search Array approach for generating natural glycome arrays to identify novel ligands of biological relevance...
August 3, 2018: FEBS Letters
Supriya B Aglawe, Kalyani M Barbadikar, Satendra K Mangrauthia, M Sheshu Madhav
Crop improvement is a continuous process in agriculture which ensures ample supply of food, fodder and fiber to burgeoning world population. Despite tremendous success in plant breeding and transgenesis to improve the yield-related traits, there have been several limitations primarily with the specificity in genetic modifications and incompatibility of host species. Because of this, new breeding techniques (NBTs) are gaining worldwide attention for crop improvement programs. Among the NBTs, genome editing (GE) using site-directed nucleases (SDNs) is an important and potential technique that overcomes limitations associated with classical breeding and transgenesis...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
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