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Marina Campos Rocha, Krissia Franco de Godoy, Renata Bannitz-Fernandes, João H T Marilhano Fabri, Mayra M Ferrari Barbosa, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Fausto Almeida, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha, Luis E S Netto, Marcos Antonio de Oliveira, Iran Malavazi
Standing among the front defense strategies against pathogens, host phagocytic cells release various oxidants. Therefore, pathogens have to cope with stressful conditions at the site of infection. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are highly reactive and abundant peroxidases that can support virulence and persistence of pathogens in distinct hosts. Here, we revealed that the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus presents three 1-Cys Prx (Prx6 subfamily), which is unprecedented. We showed that PrxB and PrxC were in mitochondria, while Prx1 was in cytosol...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Aguilar, D Monaenkova, V Linevich, W Savoie, B Dutta, H-S Kuan, M D Betterton, M A D Goodisman, D I Goldman
Groups of interacting active particles, insects, or humans can form clusters that hinder the goals of the collective; therefore, development of robust strategies for control of such clogs is essential, particularly in confined environments. Our biological and robophysical excavation experiments, supported by computational and theoretical models, reveal that digging performance can be robustly optimized within the constraints of narrow tunnels by individual idleness and retreating. Tools from the study of dense particulate ensembles elucidate how idleness reduces the frequency of flow-stopping clogs and how selective retreating reduces cluster dissolution time for the rare clusters that still occur...
August 17, 2018: Science
Jordana Goldman, Moreshwar S Desai, Kenneth L McClain, M Hossein Tcharmtchi, Curtis E Kennedy, Kathleen Thompson, Fong Lam, Dalia A Bashir, Ivan K Chinn, Baruch R Goldberg, Carl E Allen, Trung C Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis poses significant challenges due to limited tools to guide clinical decisions in a population at high risk of death. We sought to assess whether disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatobiliary dysfunction, significant comorbidities seen in critical care settings, would identify hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients with increased risk of mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single-center PICU...
August 14, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Sundeep Malik, Emily Lambert, Junhui Zhang, Tong Wang, Heather Clark, Michael Cypress, Bruce Goldman, George A Porter, Salvador Pena, Wilson Nino, Daniel Gray
To better understand the role of the inward-rectifying K channel, Kir4.1 (KCNJ10), in the distal nephron, we initially studied a global Kir4.1 knock out mouse (gKO) which demonstrated the hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia seen in SeSAME/EAST syndrome and was associated with reduced Na/Cl cotransporter (NCC) expression. Lethality by ~3 wks, however, limits the usefulness of this model, so we developed a kidney specific Kir4.1 "knock down" mouse (ksKD) using a cadherin 16 promoter and Cre-loxP methodology...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jonathan Goldman, Meng'ou Zhu, Tammy B Pham, Ruth Milanaik
Age restriction warning labels (ARLs) are placed on highly-caffeinated food and drinks, such as Red Bull, to deter consumption by minors who are especially vulnerable to the risks of excessive caffeine consumption. Previous studies have shown that ARLs on media like TV programs and video games fail to discourage minors. However, it is unclear how ARLs on food and drink packages affect minors' purchasing behavior. High school students aged 14 to 17 years (n = 150, Mage  = 15.2, 51% male) were asked to choose between seven novel product dyads (three food/drink dyads, two movie dyads, and two video game dyads); each dyad contained one product with an ARL and one without...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Syunsuke Yamanaka, Erik D Skarsgard, Ran D Goldman
Question A 10-year-old girl who was seen in my office last week with acute-onset abdominal pain and fever was referred to an emergency department, was diagnosed with appendicitis, and was treated conservatively with antibiotics, without surgery. Has the paradigm for treating appendicitis changed, and which is the preferred treatment of appendicitis in children: antibiotics or appendectomy? Answer For more than 100 years, surgical management was the principal treatment of acute appendicitis. Potential adverse events associated with appendectomy include bleeding, surgical site infection, and ileus, as well as stress for children and their parents...
August 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Jesper S Johansen, Darius Kavaliauskas, Shawn H Pfeil, Mickaël Blaise, Barry S Cooperman, Yale E Goldman, Søren S Thirup, Charlotte R Knudsen
According to the traditional view, GTPases act as molecular switches, which cycle between distinct 'on' and 'off' conformations bound to GTP and GDP, respectively. Translation elongation factor EF-Tu is a GTPase essential for prokaryotic protein synthesis. In its GTP-bound form, EF-Tu delivers aminoacylated tRNAs to the ribosome as a ternary complex. GTP hydrolysis is thought to cause the release of EF-Tu from aminoacyl-tRNA and the ribosome due to a dramatic conformational change following Pi release. Here, the crystal structure of Escherichia coli EF-Tu in complex with a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue (GDPNP) has been determined...
August 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Darius Kavaliauskas, Chunlai Chen, Wei Liu, Barry S Cooperman, Yale E Goldman, Charlotte R Knudsen
The GTPase elongation factor EF-Tu delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the mRNA-programmed ribosome during translation. Cognate codon-anticodon interaction stimulates GTP hydrolysis within EF-Tu. It has been proposed that EF-Tu undergoes a large conformational change subsequent to GTP hydrolysis, which results in the accommodation of aminoacyl-tRNA into the ribosomal A-site. However, this proposal has never been tested directly. Here, we apply single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to study the conformational dynamics of EF-Tu when bound to the ribosome...
August 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Paul Abrams, Karl-Erik Andersson, Apostolos Apostolidis, Lori Birder, Donna Bliss, Linda Brubaker, Linda Cardozo, David Castro-Diaz, P R O'Connell, Alan Cottenden, Nikki Cotterill, Dirk de Ridder, Roger Dmochowski, Chantal Dumoulin, Mandy Fader, Christopher Fry, Howard Goldman, Philip Hanno, Yukio Homma, Vik Khullar, Chris Maher, Ian Milsom, Diane Newman, Rien J M Nijman, Kevin Rademakers, Dudley Robinson, Peter Rosier, Eric Rovner, Stefano Salvatore, Masayuki Takeda, Adrian Wagg, Todd Wagner, Alan Wein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Mark T Palermo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Monica Boen, Monique J Vanaman Wilson, Douglas C Wu, Mitchel P Goldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Hillary Goldman, Maria Fagnano, Tamara T Perry, Ariel Weisman, Amanda Drobnica, Jill S Halterman
Background/Aims Engaging underserved populations in research requires substantial effort for recruitment and retention. The objective of this study is to describe the effort needed to recruit and retain urban participants in pediatric asthma studies and to characterize the Hardest-to-Reach group by demographics and asthma severity. Methods We included 311 children (3-10 years) with persistent asthma enrolled in two school-based asthma interventions in Rochester, NY. Contact logs were collected at four time points (baseline, 2 month, 4 month, 6 month)...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Aaron J Goldenberg, Michele Lloyd-Puryear, Jeffrey P Brosco, Bradford Therrell, Lynn Bush, Susan Berry, Amy Brower, Natasha Bonhomme, Bruce Bowdish, Denise Chrysler, Angus Clarke, Thomas Crawford, Edward Goldman, Sally Hiner, R Rodney Howell, David Orren, Benjamin S Wilfond, Michael Watson
BACKGROUND: The evidence review processes for adding new conditions to state newborn screening (NBS) panels rely on data from pilot studies aimed at assessing the potential benefits and harms of screening. However, the consideration of ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of screening within this research has been limited. This paper outlines important ELSI issues related to newborn screening policy and practices as a resource to help researchers integrate ELSI into NBS pilot studies...
August 13, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Ethan G Brown, Samuel M Goldman, Caroline M Tanner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Miri Gitik, Erica D Holliday, Ming Leung, Qiaoping Yuan, Sheree F Logue, Roope Tikkanen, David Goldman, Thomas J Gould
Earlier initiation of smoking correlates with higher risk of nicotine dependence, mental health problems, and cognitive impairments. Additionally, exposure to nicotine and/or tobacco smoke during critical developmental periods is associated with lasting epigenetic modifications and altered gene expression. This study examined whether adolescent nicotine exposure alters adult hippocampus-dependent learning, involving persistent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation and if choline, a dietary methyl donor, would reverse and mitigate these alterations...
August 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Alice J Chen, Dana P Goldman
BACKGROUND: One of the key recommendations of the Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine is to take a societal perspective when evaluating new technologies-including measuring the productivity benefits of new treatments. Yet relatively little is known about the impact that new treatments have on labor productivity. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between new drug treatments and gains in labor productivity across conditions in the United States and to evaluate which randomized clinical trials (RCTs) collected labor productivity data...
August 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Arpiar Saunders, Evan Z Macosko, Alec Wysoker, Melissa Goldman, Fenna M Krienen, Heather de Rivera, Elizabeth Bien, Matthew Baum, Laura Bortolin, Shuyu Wang, Aleksandrina Goeva, James Nemesh, Nolan Kamitaki, Sara Brumbaugh, David Kulp, Steven A McCarroll
The mammalian brain is composed of diverse, specialized cell populations. To systematically ascertain and learn from these cellular specializations, we used Drop-seq to profile RNA expression in 690,000 individual cells sampled from 9 regions of the adult mouse brain. We identified 565 transcriptionally distinct groups of cells using computational approaches developed to distinguish biological from technical signals. Cross-region analysis of these 565 cell populations revealed features of brain organization, including a gene-expression module for synthesizing axonal and presynaptic components, patterns in the co-deployment of voltage-gated ion channels, functional distinctions among the cells of the vasculature and specialization of glutamatergic neurons across cortical regions...
August 9, 2018: Cell
Susanne G Mueller, Maromi Nei, Lisa M Bateman, Robert Knowlton, Kenneth D Laxer, Daniel Friedman, Orrin Devinsky, Alica M Goldman
Observations in witnessed Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) suggest that a fatal breakdown of the central autonomic control could play a major role in SUDEP. A previous MR study found volume losses in the mesencephalon in focal epilepsy that were more severe and extended into the lower brainstem in two patients who later died of SUDEP. The aims of this study were to demonstrate an association (1) between brainstem volume loss and impaired autonomic control (reduced heart rate variability [HRV]); (2) between brainstem damage and time to SUDEP in patients who later died of SUDEP...
August 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Elizabeth A Nunamaker, Julia L Goldman, Cynthia R Adams, Jeffrey D Fortman
Managing postoperative pain in rodents is an important part of any animal care and use program, and identifying an optimalanalgesic plan for a surgical procedure is critical to providing for animal welfare. Opioids and NSAID are commonly used in rodents, but few studies have evaluated their efficacy in surgical models. The current study aimed to evaluate thetherapeutic efficacy of clinically relevant doses of buprenorphine (2 formulations) or meloxicam used in combination with ketamine and xylazine anesthesia in a Sprague-Dawley rat ovariohysterectomy surgical model...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Sara Strzok, Sophie Cleanthous, Farrah Pompilus, Stefan J Cano, Patrick Marquis, Stanley Cohan, Myla D Goldman, Kiren Kresa-Reahl, Jennifer Petrillo, Carmen Castrillo-Viguera, Diego Cadavid, Shih-Yin Chen
Background and objective: The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) is a patient-reported outcome instrument that quantifies the progressive loss of walking ability from the patient perspective. However, previous psychometric analyses indicated floor and ceiling effects across the multiple sclerosis severity spectrum. This study aimed to address floor effects by creating a gait module that can be used in conjunction with the MSWS-12 for better measurement of treatment benefit in the higher functioning multiple sclerosis population...
April 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
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