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Traumatic brain injury in childs

Catharine Vander Linden, Helena Verhelst, Ellen Deschepper, Guy Vingerhoets, Karel Deblaere, Karen Caeyenberghs
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunctioning after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to poor outcomes in school performance, social functioning and employment. The credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement in TBI is threatened by its limited proof of benefit in executive skills of daily living. AIM: Our primary aim was to investigate if cognitive intervention for improving impairments in executive functions in the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury is effective during adolescence...
December 14, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Brian MacWhinney
Ongoing advances in computer technology have opened up a deluge of new datasets for understanding human behavior (Goldstone & Lupyan, 2016). Many of these datasets provide information on the use of written language. However, data on naturally occurring spoken-language conversations are much more difficult to obtain. A major exception to this is the TalkBank system, which provides online multimedia data for 14 types of spoken-language data: language in aphasia, child language, stuttering, child phonology, autism spectrum disorder, bilingualism, Conversation Analysis, classroom discourse, dementia, right hemisphere damage, Danish conversation, second language learning, traumatic brain injury, and daylong recordings in the home...
December 3, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Jessica M Aguilar, Amy E Cassedy, Emily L Shultz, Michael W Kirkwood, Terry Stancin, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of a web-based parenting intervention (Internet-Based Interacting Together Everyday: Recovery After Childhood TBI [I-InTERACT]) and an abbreviated version (Express) in reducing executive dysfunction and internalizing problems among young children following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD: Parents of 113 children (ages 3-9 years) who had sustained a TBI were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: I-InTERACT, Express, or an Internet Resource Comparison (IRC) group...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEThere remains uncertainty regarding the appropriate level of care and need for repeating neuroimaging among children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) complicated by intracranial injury (ICI). This study's objective was to investigate physician practice patterns and decision-making processes for these patients in order to identify knowledge gaps and highlight avenues for future investigation.METHODSThe authors surveyed residents, fellows, and attending physicians from the following pediatric specialties: emergency medicine; general surgery; neurosurgery; and critical care...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Shari L Wade, Amy E Cassedy, McKenna Sklut, H Gerry Taylor, Kelly A McNally, Michael W Kirkwood, Terry Stancin, Brad G Kurowski
Objective: To characterize treatment preferences for delivery of family problem-solving treatment (F-PST) to adolescents with behavioral challenges following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine associations with attrition, adherence, satisfaction, and efficacy. Method: Adolescents who had been hospitalized for moderate to severe TBI were randomized to face-to-face F-PST (n = 34), therapist-guided online F-PST (n = 56), and self-guided online F-PST (n = 60)...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Dennis J Caine, Kasey Young, Aaron J Provance
Mountain-biking has become a popular competitive and recreational activity but also involves risk of injury. This article provides an overview of what is known about the scope of the injury problem affecting children and adolescent mountain bikers, the risk factors involved and injury prevention strategies. The proportion of injured child and adolescent mountain bikers ranges from 10.6% to 64.0%, but few studies provide separate analysis of youth injuries. Upper extremity injuries appear most common except among adolescents where the risk of head injury and traumatic brain injuries are greater...
2018: Research in Sports Medicine
M J Minney, R M Roberts, J L Mathias, J Raftos, A Kochar
OBJECTIVE: To provide a qualitative examination of the service and support needs of children who have had a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and their parents, in order to improve clinical services. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 children (8-12 years; M = 10.6 years, SD = 0.8) and their parents (n = 9) 29-55 days (M = 34 days; SD = 9.3) after presenting to an Australian Paediatric Emergency Department (PED) for mTBI. Children's post-concussive symptoms (PCS) were additionally measured using the Post-Concussive Symptom Inventory (PCSI)...
November 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Lenora M Olson, Kristine A Campbell, Lawrence Cook, Heather T Keenan
BACKGROUND: Child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) are often consulted for injuries when child physical abuse is suspected or when the etiology of a serious injury is unclear. CAPs carefully evaluate the reported mechanism of the child's injury and the medical findings in the context of the child's family and social setting to identify possible risk and protective factors for child abuse and the need for social services. It is unknown what population risk indicators along with other social cues CAPs record in the social history of the consultation notes when assessing families who are being evaluated for child physical abuse...
October 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Corinne Ammann-Reiffer, Caroline H G Bastiaenen, Hubertus J A Van Hedel
AIM: To examine the responsiveness and minimal important change (MIC) of two gait performance measures, the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire walking scale (FAQ), in a paediatric inpatient setting. METHOD: Sixty-four children and adolescents with a motor disorder, including cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, or stroke (25 females, 39 males; mean age [SD] 12y 6mo [3y 2mo], range 6-18y 6mo), were recruited. Physiotherapists scored the FMS and FAQ at the start and end of active gait rehabilitation...
October 19, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Nanhua Zhang, Eloise E Kaizar, Megan E Narad, Brad G Kurowski, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Shari L Wade
A series of five randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) conducted between 2002 and 2015 support the potential efficacy of online family problem-solving treatment (OFPST) in improving both child and parent/family outcomes after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, small sample sizes and heterogeneity across individual studies have precluded examination of potentially important moderators. We jointly analyzed individual participant data (IPD) from these five RCTs, involving 359 children between the ages of 5 and 18 years, to confirm the role of previously identified moderators (child's age and pre-treatment symptom levels, parental education) and to examine other potential moderators (race, sex, IQ), using IPD meta-analysis...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
M H Beauchamp, E Vera-Estay, F Morasse, V Anderson, J Dooley
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that moral processes are disrupted by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this study was to explore moral reasoning (MR) and decision-making in adolescents with TBI, and to examine potential associations with global manifestations of social competence. DESIGN: This retrospective, cross-sectional research design compared MR and decision-making in adolescents with mild TBI (n = 20), moderate-severe TBI (n = 23) and typically developing controls (n = 93)...
October 16, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Linda Ewing-Cobbs, Charles S Cox, Amy E Clark, Richard Holubkov, Heather T Keenan
: media-1vid110.1542/5828371885001PEDS-VA_2018-0939 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: We examined whether preinjury, demographic, and family factors influenced vulnerability to postconcussion symptoms (PCSs) persisting the year after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: Children with mTBI ( n = 119), complicated mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI) ( n = 110), or orthopedic injury (OI) ( n = 118), recruited from emergency departments, were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study...
November 2018: Pediatrics
Gemma Batchelor, Ben McNaughten, Thomas Bourke, Julie Dick, Claire Leonard, Andrew Thompson
In paediatric practice feeding, eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties are present in up to 1% of children. Dysphagia is any disruption to the swallow sequence that results in compromise to the safety, efficiency or adequacy of nutritional intake. Swallowing difficulties may lead to pharyngeal aspiration, respiratory compromise or poor nutritional intake. It causes sensory and motor dysfunction impacting on a child's ability to experience normal feeding. Incoordination can result in oral pharyngeal aspiration where fluid or food is misdirected and enters the airway, or choking where food physically blocks the airway The incidence is much higher in some clinical populations, including children with neuromuscular disease, traumatic brain injury and airway malformations...
October 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
Playground-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children remain a considerable problem world-wide and current safety standards are being questioned due to historical reasons where the injury thresholds had been perpetuated from automobile industry. Here we investigated head injury mechanisms due to falls on playgrounds using a previously developed and validated age-scalable and positionable whole body child model impacted at front, back and side of the head simulating head-first falls from 1.59 meters (m)...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalie Feary, Audrey McKinlay
Children do not always receive adequate medical attention following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), despite the necessity of this treatment. Adult mTBI knowledge may be one factor that affects if a child receives medical attention, but little is known about association between mTBI knowledge and help-seeking behaviour. Participants were 212 females and 58 males, including 84 parents, with a mean age of 35.57 years (standard deviation = 10.96). A questionnaire evaluated participants' understanding of mTBI and vignettes to evaluate behavioural intentions regarding help-seeking behaviour after an mTBI...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Laura Carone, Rohan Ardley, Patrick Davies
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in children after infancy. Almost 25% of all cyclists killed in the UK are children, and two thirds of these will die because of their head injuries. We compared the population of young people wearing helmets whilst cycling, to those admitted with serious post cycling head injuries to our paediatric critical care unit. METHOD: All children aged 0-18 years admitted to our intensive care following a bicycle accident between the years January 2011-June 2018 were identified and information on the mechanism of injury, and both immediate and long term clinical data were collected...
August 20, 2018: Injury
Brian L Brooks, William S MacAllister, Taryn B Fay-McClymont, Marsha Vasserman, Elisabeth M S Sherman
Background: Development of an embedded performance validity test (PVT) is desired for visual memory tests. The goal of this study was to derive an embedded PVT for the Child and Adolescent Memory Profile (ChAMP) Objects visual memory subtest in youth with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Methods: Children and adolescents (N = 91; mean age = 14.9 years, SD = 2.2, range = 8-18) on average 25.2 weeks (SD = 15.4) post-MTBI were administered ChAMP Objects. Two stand-alone PVTs (Test of Memory Malingering and Medical Symptom Validity Test) were administered, which allowed for grouping into valid (zero failed stand-alone PVTs) and invalid (both stand-alone PVTs failed)...
August 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Joanne N Wood, M Katherine Henry, Rachel P Berger, Daniel M Lindberg, James D Anderst, Lihai Song, Russell Localio, Chris Feudtner
OBJECTIVE: To describe the percentage and characteristics of children aged <24 months with non-motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related injuries who undergo a skeletal survey and have occult fractures. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of a stratified, systematic random sample of 1769 children aged <24 months with non-MVC-related bruises, burns, fractures, abdominal injuries, and head injuries at 4 children's hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Sampling weights were assigned to each child to allow for representative hospital-level population estimates...
August 16, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Tricia Z King, Justin Wise, Schauna Gillam, Julie Trapani, Barbara Weissman, Roberta DePompei
OBJECTIVE: To describe elementary school outcomes for children who experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 6 years compared with a control group of children with orthopedic injuries. PARTICIPANTS: Children ages 6 to 9 years recruited from community and trauma registries in a large southeastern state. DESIGN: Descriptive findings from the first year of a 3-year longitudinal study. MAIN MEASURES: Child assessment and parent report measures were administered to capture cognitive, language, reading, and behavior outcomes...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Cindy W Christian, Alex V Levin
Child abuse can cause injury to any part of the eye. The most common manifestations are retinal hemorrhages (RHs) in infants and young children with abusive head trauma (AHT). Although RHs are an important indicator of possible AHT, they are also found in other conditions. Distinguishing the number, type, location, and pattern of RHs is important in evaluating a differential diagnosis. Eye trauma can be seen in cases of physical abuse or AHT and may prompt referral for ophthalmologic assessment. Physicians have a responsibility to consider abuse in the differential diagnosis of pediatric eye trauma...
August 2018: Pediatrics
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