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Traumatic brain injury in childs

Nanhua Zhang, Eloise E Kaizar, Megan E Narad, Brad G Kurowski, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Shari L Wade
A series of five randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) conducted between 2002 and 2015 support the potential efficacy of online family problem-solving treatment (OFPST) in improving both child and parent/family outcomes after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, small sample sizes and heterogeneity across individual studies have precluded examination of potentially important moderators. We jointly analyzed individual participant data (IPD) from these five RCTs, involving 359 children between the ages of 5 and 18 years, to confirm the role of previously identified moderators (child's age and pre-treatment symptom levels, parental education) and to examine other potential moderators (race, sex, IQ), using IPD meta-analysis...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
M H Beauchamp, E Vera-Estay, F Morasse, V Anderson, J Dooley
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that moral processes are disrupted by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this study was to explore moral reasoning (MR) and decision-making in adolescents with TBI, and to examine potential associations with global manifestations of social competence. DESIGN: This retrospective, cross-sectional research design compared MR and decision-making in adolescents with mild TBI (n = 20), moderate-severe TBI (n = 23) and typically developing controls (n = 93)...
October 16, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Linda Ewing-Cobbs, Charles S Cox, Amy E Clark, Richard Holubkov, Heather T Keenan
: media-1vid110.1542/5828371885001PEDS-VA_2018-0939 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: We examined whether preinjury, demographic, and family factors influenced vulnerability to postconcussion symptoms (PCSs) persisting the year after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: Children with mTBI ( n = 119), complicated mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI) ( n = 110), or orthopedic injury (OI) ( n = 118), recruited from emergency departments, were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study...
October 15, 2018: Pediatrics
Gemma Batchelor, Ben McNaughten, Thomas Bourke, Julie Dick, Claire Leonard, Andrew Thompson
In paediatric practice feeding, eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties are present in up to 1% of children. Dysphagia is any disruption to the swallow sequence that results in compromise to the safety, efficiency or adequacy of nutritional intake. Swallowing difficulties may lead to pharyngeal aspiration, respiratory compromise or poor nutritional intake. It causes sensory and motor dysfunction impacting on a child's ability to experience normal feeding. Incoordination can result in oral pharyngeal aspiration where fluid or food is misdirected and enters the airway, or choking where food physically blocks the airway The incidence is much higher in some clinical populations, including children with neuromuscular disease, traumatic brain injury and airway malformations...
October 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
Playground-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children remain a considerable problem world-wide and current safety standards are being questioned due to historical reasons where the injury thresholds had been perpetuated from automobile industry. Here we investigated head injury mechanisms due to falls on playgrounds using a previously developed and validated age-scalable and positionable whole body child model impacted at front, back and side of the head simulating head-first falls from 1.59 meters (m)...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalie Feary, Audrey McKinlay
Children do not always receive adequate medical attention following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), despite the necessity of this treatment. Adult mTBI knowledge may be one factor that affects if a child receives medical attention, but little is known about association between mTBI knowledge and help-seeking behaviour. Participants were 212 females and 58 males, including 84 parents, with a mean age of 35.57 years (standard deviation = 10.96). A questionnaire evaluated participants' understanding of mTBI and vignettes to evaluate behavioural intentions regarding help-seeking behaviour after an mTBI...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Laura Carone, Rohan Ardley, Patrick Davies
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in children after infancy. Almost 25% of all cyclists killed in the UK are children, and two thirds of these will die because of their head injuries. We compared the population of young people wearing helmets whilst cycling, to those admitted with serious post cycling head injuries to our paediatric critical care unit. METHOD: All children aged 0-18 years admitted to our intensive care following a bicycle accident between the years January 2011-June 2018 were identified and information on the mechanism of injury, and both immediate and long term clinical data were collected...
August 20, 2018: Injury
Brian L Brooks, William S MacAllister, Taryn B Fay-McClymont, Marsha Vasserman, Elisabeth M S Sherman
Background: Development of an embedded performance validity test (PVT) is desired for visual memory tests. The goal of this study was to derive an embedded PVT for the Child and Adolescent Memory Profile (ChAMP) Objects visual memory subtest in youth with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Methods: Children and adolescents (N = 91; mean age = 14.9 years, SD = 2.2, range = 8-18) on average 25.2 weeks (SD = 15.4) post-MTBI were administered ChAMP Objects. Two stand-alone PVTs (Test of Memory Malingering and Medical Symptom Validity Test) were administered, which allowed for grouping into valid (zero failed stand-alone PVTs) and invalid (both stand-alone PVTs failed)...
August 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Joanne N Wood, M Katherine Henry, Rachel P Berger, Daniel M Lindberg, James D Anderst, Lihai Song, Russell Localio, Chris Feudtner
OBJECTIVES: To describe the percentage and characteristics of children <24 months old with non-motor vehicle crash (non-MVC)-related injuries who 1) undergo a skeletal survey and 2) have occult fractures. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of a stratified, systematic random sample of 1769 children <24 months old with non-MVC-related bruises, burns, fractures, abdominal injuries, and head injuries at 4 children's hospitals from 2008-2012. Sampling weights were assigned to each child to allow for representative hospital-level population estimates...
August 16, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Tricia Z King, Justin Wise, Schauna Gillam, Julie Trapani, Barbara Weissman, Roberta DePompei
OBJECTIVE: To describe elementary school outcomes for children who experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 6 years compared with a control group of children with orthopedic injuries. PARTICIPANTS: Children ages 6 to 9 years recruited from community and trauma registries in a large southeastern state. DESIGN: Descriptive findings from the first year of a 3-year longitudinal study. MAIN MEASURES: Child assessment and parent report measures were administered to capture cognitive, language, reading, and behavior outcomes...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Cindy W Christian, Alex V Levin
Child abuse can cause injury to any part of the eye. The most common manifestations are retinal hemorrhages (RHs) in infants and young children with abusive head trauma (AHT). Although RHs are an important indicator of possible AHT, they are also found in other conditions. Distinguishing the number, type, location, and pattern of RHs is important in evaluating a differential diagnosis. Eye trauma can be seen in cases of physical abuse or AHT and may prompt referral for ophthalmologic assessment. Physicians have a responsibility to consider abuse in the differential diagnosis of pediatric eye trauma...
August 2018: Pediatrics
Shari L Wade, Gary Bedell, Jessica A King, Michele Jacquin, Lyn S Turkstra, Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Jeremy Johnson, Ralph Salloum, Megan E Narad
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an app-based coaching intervention (Social Participation and Navigation; SPAN) to help survivors of acquired brain injury attain social participation goals. Research Method/Design: This is a nonrandomized pilot trial of SPAN, including 15 adolescents (9 with traumatic brain injury, 6 with brain tumor) between the ages of 14-22. The SPAN intervention consisted of a mobile app to support the development and implementation of social participation goals, weekly video-conference coaching sessions to identify goals and step-by-step action plans, and online didactic materials...
August 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Kelly M Jones, Nicola J Starkey, Alice Theadom, Alina Gheorghe, Dawn Willix-Payne, Philip Prah, Valery L Feigin
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children is most commonly associated with parent-reported child behaviour problems. The extent to which parent and child ratings align is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in child behaviour and patterns of recovery over the first 12 months following mTBI based on parent and child self-report. METHODS: Ninety-nine children (8-15 years) with mTBI and one of their parents completed the Behavioural Assessment Scale for Children - version 2 to assess child hyperactivity, anxiety and depression at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 months post-injury...
July 9, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Glenn Keays, Debbie Friedman, Isabelle Gagnon
OBJECTIVES: Increases of mild traumatic brain injuries in children have been reported in the USA and Ontario over the past decade. The main objective of this study is to calculate the pediatric rates of mild traumatic brain injury in Quebec, and our second objective is to compare them with those in Ontario. METHODS: Analysts from the Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ, Quebec Health Insurance Board) compiled tables, by age and sex, of all medical services for mild traumatic brain injuries (concussions and minor head injuries) between 2003 and 2016...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Francisco Abecasis, Vitor Oliveira, Chiara Robba, Marek Czosnyka
PURPOSE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been used for more than 30 years in clinical practice. Although adult intensive care is relatively well covered, pediatric cases are still underrepresented. We intend to review a series of pediatric cases where TCD was determinant in clinical decisions and a literature review on this topic. METHODS: We describe cases with different pathologies where TCD had an important role in clinical management of the patients. We discuss TCD utility and potential role both in the emergency department and the intensive care unit...
August 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Marie Holland, Christine Norman
This research explored staff perceptions of risk assessment and management of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) displayed in patients following a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The primary focus was to determine differences in perceptions between qualified (N = 40) and direct care staff (N = 47). Vignettes depicting ISB displayed by a male following a TBI were rated. The vignettes varied in behaviour (intimate versus non-contact) and age of the victim (child versus adult). Ratings for causal explanations (poor management, attention seeking, negative emotion and education), attributions (need for action and increase awareness) and emotions were analysed alongside risk assessment and management variables...
June 25, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Alolika Mondal, Prabhas Prasun Giri
Hypoventilation syndrome leading to Type 2 respiratory failure is not a rare cause of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Common causes in pediatric population are Guillain-Barre syndrome and various central nervous system disorders such as encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, and drugs. Any injury or disease in the cervical cord can also produce respiratory paralysis causing respiratory failure. Here, we present two cases of mixed cerebral palsy with cervical myelopathy due to compression effect of fractured segments of first and second cervical vertebrae...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Valentina Pastore, Susanna Galbiati, Monica Recla, Katia Colombo, Elena Beretta, Sandra Strazzer
OBJECTIVE: To describe behavioural and adjustment problems in a group of 57 adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compare them with a clinical group of peers with brain lesions of other origin (N = 33) and a control group of healthy adolescents (N = 48). METHODS: All subjects received an age-appropriate assessment, including the child behaviour checklist (CBCL) 4/18, the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) and the vineland adaptive behaviour scales (VABS)...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Charlotte Oris, Bruno Pereira, Julie Durif, Jeanne Simon-Pimmel, Christoph Castellani, Sergio Manzano, Vincent Sapin, Damien Bouvier
CONTEXT: The usefulness of S100B has been noted as a biomarker in the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adults. However, S100B efficacy as a biomarker in children has previously been relatively unclear. OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis is conducted to assess the prognostic value of S100B in predicting intracerebral lesions in children after mTBI. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar...
June 2018: Pediatrics
Michelle R Witt, Trevor F Stokes, Barry S Parsonson, Carol C Dudding
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of distance caregiver coaching on skill acquisition of a child with traumatic brain injury. Interactions between caregivers and persons with brain injury may play a critical role in the rehabilitation process, and coaching caregivers is one method that may foster more positive functional outcomes for the individual as caregiver skills may generalize across domains. METHOD: This study utilised a single-subject, multiple baseline across behaviours design to examine the effects of caregiver behaviours on skill acquisition by a child with a traumatic brain injury...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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