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Niels Ørtenblad, Joachim Nielsen, Robert Boushel, Karin Söderlund, Bengt Saltin, Hans-Christer Holmberg
As one of the most physically demanding sports in the Olympic Games, cross-country skiing poses considerable challenges with respect to both force generation and endurance during the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration. The isoforms of myosin in skeletal muscle have long been considered not only to define the contractile properties, but also to determine metabolic capacities. The current investigation was designed to explore the relationship between these isoforms and metabolic profiles in the arms ( triceps brachii ) and legs ( vastus lateralis ) as well as the range of training responses in the muscle fibers of elite cross-country skiers with equally and exceptionally well-trained upper and lower bodies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
A King, S J Booker, W J Thomas, C D Smith
Introduction This retrospective review investigates whether the triceps-on approach obtains alignment of total elbow arthroplasty implants equivalent to a triceps-off approach. Methods The last 30 consecutive total elbow arthroplasties performed by the senior author were reviewed to identify the approach used and pathology treated. Initially, a triceps split and reflection approach was used, then a triceps-preserving approach. Two blinded reviewers measured the component alignment in standardised radiographs...
August 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Miroslava Slavíková, Bohumír Procházka, Pavel Dlouhý, Michal Anděl, Jolana Rambousková
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the risk of malnutrition among institutionalized elderly individuals in North Bohemia and compare it to the risk of malnutrition in the capital city of Prague, Czech Republic. In the Czech Republic, very few studies have been conducted with the goal of describing and evaluating the nutritional status of the institutionalized elderly. METHODS: In this study, data was collected from 254 elderly individuals (aged ≥ 65) residing in retirement homes in North Bohemia and then compared with similar data for the elderly living in retirement homes in Prague (the data from Prague were previously published in 2013)...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
André O Werneck, Danilo R Silva, Maria R O Bueno, Rômulo A Fernandes, Enio R V Ronque
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the longitudinal relationship between adiposity and maturity status throughout the transition between childhood and adolescence in boys, and the moderation effect of maturation on adiposity trajectories. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study conducted with 197 boys who were followed over 3 years (from childhood to adolescence). Body adiposity was estimated through the subcutaneous skinfold method, with measures of triceps and subscapular skinfolds...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus Guirro, Alcimar Barbosa Soares, Amanda Caldeira Guirro, Camila Simieli, Alessandra Vairo Peres Boratino, Gabriela de Carvalho, Aline Gobbi, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro
There is currently little information on the positioning of reference electrode (RE). It is generally accepted that it must be positioned on electrically neutral tissues, such as tendons or bony prominences. The objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics of the electromyographic signal (EMG) for different positions of RE as well as at different levels of muscle contraction. Signals from the brachial biceps and triceps were recorded from 18 healthy women (BMI: 21.20 kg/m2  ± 1.72; mean age: 21...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Shannon R Carpenter, D Alex Stroh, Roshan Melvani, Brent G Parks, Lyn M Camire, Anand M Murthi
BACKGROUND/HYPOTHESIS: Suture anchor-based repair has been advocated for repair of distal triceps avulsion, but previous models have used an unequal number of sutures across the repair site. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in triceps tendon displacement between gold standard repair with transosseous cruciate bone tunnels and suture anchor repair with an equal number of sutures in the constructs. METHODS: The triceps tendon footprint was measured in 20 cadaveric elbows (10 matched pairs), and a distal triceps tendon rupture was created...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Ashley Davis Lake, Heather Myers, Brett Aefsky, Robert Butler
Background: Dry needling (DN) has been established as an effective treatment for myofascial pain, however, there are no studies thus far investigating the benefit to movement and motor control. Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to compare differences in a series of outcomes between dry needling, dry needling and stretching, and stretching only in a sample of healthy males. A secondary purpose was to compare change over time. Design: Blinded, randomized controlled trial...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Jared R Fletcher, Brian R MacIntosh
During prolonged running, the magnitude of Achilles tendon (AT) length change may increase, resulting in increased tendon strain energy return with each step. AT elongation might also affect the magnitude of triceps surae (TS) muscle shortening and shortening velocity, requiring greater activation and increased muscle energy cost. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the tendon strain energy return and muscle energy cost necessary to allow energy storage to occur prior to and following prolonged running. 14 trained male (n = 10) and female (n = 4) distance runners (24±4 years, 1...
2018: PloS One
D Holzer, G Epro, C McCrum, J Doerner, J A Luetkens, L Scheef, G M Kukuk, H Boecker, A Mierau, G-P Brüggemann, C N Maganaris, K Karamanidis
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine: (1) the relationship between ankle plantarflexor muscle strength and Achilles tendon (AT) biomechanical properties in older female adults, and (2) whether muscle strength asymmetries between the individually dominant and non-dominant legs in the above subject group were accompanied by inter-limb AT size differences. METHODS: The maximal generated AT force, AT stiffness, AT Young's modulus, and AT cross-sectional area (CSA) along its length were determined for both legs in 30 women (65 ± 7 years) using dynamometry, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Amanda Fantry, Andrew Sobel, Nicholas Capito, Jonathan Hodax, Tyler Pidgeon, Sarath Koruprolu, Ryan Rich, Joseph L Fava, Andrew Green, Scott Paxton
OBJECTIVES: To determine if mean ultimate strength or failure mechanism differed between comminuted olecranon fractures created at the proximal 25% or 50% of the trochlear notch and fixed with pre-contoured posterior locking plates (PLP) METHODS:: Comminuted osteotomies were created in ten matched pairs of cadaveric upper extremities at either the proximal 25% or 50% of the trochlear after quantitative CT scans were performed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD). Variable-angle olecranon PLPs were fixed to the specimens...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Valdeci Carlos Dionisio, Cyntia Rogean de Jesus Alves de Baptista, Adriana de Sales Rodrigues, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci Sande de Souza
Objective: The study aim was to evaluate the immediate effect of rhythmic stabilization on local and distant muscles involved in a functional reach. Method: Prospective, observational cross-sectional study. Eight right-handed and non-impaired individuals (4 females and 4 males) aged 18-24 years (21.5 ± 1.58 years) were evaluated. Bilateral electromyographic recording of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, multifidus lumbar, and rectus abdominis muscles was performed during three different tasks. Task 1 involved functional reach, while Task 2 involved rhythmic stabilization followed by a functional reach...
August 2018: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
Mindy F Levin, John M Solomon, Akash Shah, Andréanne K Blanchette, Anatol G Feldman
OBJECTIVES: Deficits in regulation of tonic stretch reflex thresholds (TSRTs) after stroke occur in elbow flexors and extensors leading to spasticity in specific joint ranges. Threshold deregulation may also be responsible for other deficits such as abnormal activation of passively shortening muscles. Goals were to characterize activation of shortening elbow extensors during passive elbow flexor stretch in individuals with stroke, and identify its relationship to upper-limb motor impairment...
July 24, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Shinya Ogaya, Ryo Kubota, Yuta Chujo, Eiko Hirooka, Kenichi Ito, Kim Kwang-Ho, Kimitaka Hase
Many individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) generate low forward center of mass (COM) acceleration during the late stance phase, consequently making it difficult to walk fast. This study analyzed individual muscle contributions to forward COM acceleration and the muscle potential (i.e., acceleration by unit force) to clarify whether reduced acceleration was related to decreased muscle potential of forward progression by the triceps sure. Twelve individuals with knee OA and 12 healthy age-matched individuals participated in this study...
August 2, 2018: Human Movement Science
Guo-Bao Wang, Ai-Ping Yu, Chye Yew Ng, Gao-Wei Lei, Xiao-Min Wang, Yan-Qun Qiu, Jun-Tao Feng, Tie Li, Qing-Zhong Chen, Qian-Ru He, Fei Ding, Shu-Sen Cui, Yu-Dong Gu, Jian-Guang Xu, Su Jiang, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Contralateral C7 (CC7) nerve root has been used as a donor nerve for targeted neurotization in the treatment of total brachial plexus palsy (TBPP). The authors aimed to study the contribution of C7 to the innervation of specific upper-limb muscles and to explore the utility of C7 nerve root as a recipient nerve in the management of TBPP. METHODS This was a 2-part investigation. 1) Anatomical study: the C7 nerve root was dissected and its individual branches were traced to the muscles in 5 embalmed adult cadavers bilaterally...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Sarah L Pownder, Brian G Caserto, Kei Hayashi, Mary Lou Norman, Hollis G Potter, Matthew F Koff
OBJECTIVE To characterize the MRI and histologic features of the supraspinatus tendon in nonlame dogs. ANIMALS 7 cadavers (14 shoulder joints) of nonlame 2-year-old sexually intact male Beagles. PROCEDURES Multiple MRI fluid-sensitive pulse sequences were obtained for both shoulder joints of each cadaver, and the thickness, volume, and signal intensity of each supraspinatus tendon were assessed. After MRI scanning was complete, the shoulder joints were processed for histologic examination. Tissue specimens were stained with various stains to determine tendon morphology and composition...
August 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Betty R Vohr, Roy Heyne, Carla Bann, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins, Susan R Hintz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Former preterm infants are at increased risk of hypertension with increasing age. Our objective was to identify rates of high blood pressure (BP) (≥90th percentile) and hypertension (BP ≥95th percentile) and associated risk factors among extreme preterm (EPT) infants at 6 to 7 years of age. METHODS: Assessment included BP and anthropometrics. Comparisons were made by BP ≥90th versus <90th percentile. Regressions were run to identify relative risk (RR) of factors associated with BP ≥90th percentile...
August 2018: Pediatrics
Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Tue Hvass Petersen, Henrik Kirk, Christian Forman, Christian Svane, Mathilde Kofoed-Hansen, Finn Boesen, Jakob Lorentzen
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated ankle stiffness in adults with and without neurological disorders and investigated the accuracy and reproducibility of a clinically applicable method using a dynamometer. METHODS: Measurements were obtained from 8 healthy subjects (age 39.3), 9 subjects with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) (age 39.8) and 8 subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) (age 49.9). Slow and fast dorsiflexion stretches of the ankle joint were performed to evaluate passive muscle-tendon-joint stiffness, reflex mediated stiffness and range of movement (ROM), respectively...
September 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Tiago Rodrigues de Lima, Mark Stephen Tremblay
The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between health-related physical fitness components (aerobic fitness, muscle strength, flexibility, and body fat) and resting heart rate (RHR) in Brazilian adolescents. The study included 695 schoolchildren (14-19 years) from public schools of the city of São José, Brazil. RHR was evaluated using an automated oscillometric sphygmomanometer. Aerobic fitness was assessed by the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test; muscle strength was measured by handgrip dynamometer; flexibility was assessed by the sit-and-reach test; and body fat was assessed indirectly by sum of two skinfold thicknesses (triceps and subscapular)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Colin K Franz, Alyssa Puritz, Lewis A Jordan, Jeffrey Chow, J Alberto Ortega, Evangelos Kiskinis, Charles J Heckman
BACKGROUND: Peripheral axon regeneration is improved when the nerve lesion under consideration has recently been preceded by another nerve injury. This is known as the conditioning lesion effect (CLE). While the CLE is one of the most robust and well characterized means to enhance motor axon regeneration in experimental models, it is not considered a clinically feasible strategy. A pharmacological means to re-produce the CLE is highly desirable. OBJECTIVE: To test whether chemodenervation with a clinical grade formulation of botulinum toxin A (BoTX) would be sufficient to reproduce the CLE...
July 25, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Brian H Dalton, Vincenzo S Contento, Geoffrey A Power
Following active muscle lengthening, steady-state isometric force is elevated compared with an isometric contraction without prior lengthening for the same muscle length and activation level. This property of muscle contraction is known as residual force enhancement (RFE). Here, we aimed to determine whether neural factors may mask some of the mechanical benefits of RFE on plantar flexion torque production. Inherent to lengthening contractions is an increase in cortical and spinal-mediated inhibition, while knee flexion places the medial gastrocnemius at a neuromechanical disadvantage...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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