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Ole Kristian Alhaug, Gøran Berdal, Elisabeth Ellingsen Husebye, Kjetil Hvaal
BACKGROUND: The transfer of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon (FHL) is an established method for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. An extensive examination of power, strength, endurance and complications related to this procedure is presented. METHODS: 21 patients treated with open FHL transfer for chronic Achilles tendon rupture were studied retrospectively. Medical records were reviewed. The patients were examined with a test battery for triceps surae strength, functional tests and PROMs...
July 18, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
X Wang, G Zhou, J Zeng, T Yang, J Chen, T Li
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating any potential effects of educational interventions on health in childhood. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify all RCTs that fit our analysis through May 2016. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was used to measure the effect of educational interventions in childhood by using a random effects model...
October 12, 2018: Public Health
Charlotte Sandersen, Justine Ceusters, Alexia Fourez, Irene Tosi, Helene Graide, Jean-Philippe Lejeune, Didier Serteyn
Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) commonly affects horses and is characterized by abnormal respiratory sounds and exercise intolerance. The recurrent laryngeal nerve shows lesions of demyelination. The benefit of applying stem cells to demyelinated nerves has been demonstrated in various animal models. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility and safety of a peri-neuronal injection of autologous muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in healthy horses by using an electrical nerve stimulator...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Paulo de Souza Junior, Lucas Mucci Richter Pereira Dos Santos, Wilson Viotto-Souza, Natan da Cruz de Carvalho, Erick Candiota Souza, Carlos Benhur Kasper, Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
The characteristics of the muscles of the thoracic limb were evaluated in 22 specimens of Lycalopex gymnocercus. Descriptive and comparative analyses showed similarity with other canids in terms of topography and tendon insertions. Differences with the domestic dog were observed in the pectoralis profundus, triceps brachii and interflexorii muscles. Intraspecific variations were observed in the rhomboideus capitis, serratus ventralis cervicis, extensor carpi radialis, extensor digiti I and II, lumbricales, flexor digiti I brevis, abductor digiti I brevis, and flexor digiti V muscles...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Christine M Harper, Adam D Sylvester
Larger terrestrial mammals have generally been found to use more extended limb postures, a mechanism which maintains muscular requirements at larger sizes by improving the effective mechanical advantage (EMA) of limb musculature. Felids, however, have been documented to maintain joint angles across body sizes. If felid morphology scales isometrically, it would mean larger felids have relatively weaker muscles, compromising locomotor activities. Here we examine the allometric relationships between the EMA of the elbow and knee extensors and body mass, finding that the EMA of the triceps brachii and quadriceps muscles scale with positive allometry...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Maria Vollsæter, Thomas Halvorsen, Trond Markestad, Knut Øymar, Per Magne Ueland, Klaus Meyer, Øivind Midttun, Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and low birth weight are associated with reduced nephron numbers and increased risk of hypertension and kidney disease in later life. AIMS: We tested the hypothesis that extremely preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction is associated with decreased renal function in mid childhood. METHODS: At 11 years of age the following measures were obtained in a regional cohort of children born extremely premature (EP, i...
2018: PloS One
Dawid Dróżdż
Aetosaurs are armored basal archosaurs that played a significant role in land ecosystems during the Late Triassic (237-201 Ma). The polish species Stagonolepis olenkae Sulej, 2010 described from the Krasiejów locality (southern Poland) is one of the oldest known representatives of the group. Abundant and well-preserved material, including partially articulated specimens, allows a detailed description of the forelimbs in this species. The forelimbs of S. olenkae are the most similar to that of large aetosaurs like Desmatosuchus smalli , Desmatosuchus spurensis , Longosuchus meadei , Typothorax coccinarum or Stagonolepis robertsoni ...
2018: PeerJ
Abel Ruiz-Hermosa, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Celia Alvarez-Bueno, Jorge C García-Prieto, María J Pardo-Guijarro, Mairena Sánchez-López
BACKGROUND: Walking and bicycling (active commuting) to school may be a useful strategy to increase the daily amount of physical activity, and, potentially, improve children's health. However, it is unclear whether active commuting to school (ACS) has the potential to improve physical health and cognitive performance in children. Our aim was to examine the relationship between ACS with adiposity indicators, physical fitness, and cognitive performance in 4- to 7-year-old children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1159 children from the provinces of Cuenca and Ciudad Real, Spain...
November 2018: Journal of School Health
Guillermina Barril, Angel Nogueira, Mar Ruperto López, Yone Castro, José Antonio Sánchez-Tomero
INTRODUCTION: A controlled protein intake has shown beneficial effects to preserve renal function and nutritional status in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aimed to analyze usual dietary protein intake and its potential contribution to body composition in CKD patients in stages 3-5. METHOD: Cross-sectional study in 134 CKD patients in stages 3-5 (mean e-GFR: 19.4±8.7ml/min/1.73m2 ; males 68.7% and primary CKD etiology was diabetes mellitus, 35...
October 4, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Jennifer M Singleton, Theodore Garland
Glucocorticoids, a class of metabolic hormones, impact a wide range of traits (e.g., behavior, skeletal growth, muscle maintenance, glucose metabolism), and variation in concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids (such as corticosterone), at the level of natural individual variation, in relation to endocrine disorders, or from exogenous supplementation, have manifold effects. Changes in circulating corticosterone concentrations can also impact multiple aspects of locomotor behavior, including both motivation and physical ability for exercise...
October 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Eric R Friedman, Kenneth H Butler
BACKGROUND: Compartment syndrome is often considered in patients with long-bone fractures and soft-tissue injuries, but is not as commonly associated with a period of unconsciousness. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old man was brought to our emergency department (ED) because he had lost consciousness for an unknown amount of time after snorting heroin. He had severe pain in his upper right arm. Physical examination revealed right arm edema, paresthesia, tenderness, and firmness to palpation...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Carlos A S Alves, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Michele Caroline de Souza, Diego Augusto Santos Silva
To verify the association between anthropometric indicators and body fat percentage (F %) estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 62 children and adolescents with HIV (8 to 15 years). F % was estimated by DXA and ADP. Anthropometric indicators were skinfolds (abdominal, triceps, subscapular, calf); perimeter relaxed arm (PRA), waist circumference (WC), perimeter neck (PN); body mass index (BMI); waist-to-height ratio (WHR); conicity index and body adiposity index...
October 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
S L Loy, Y B Cheung, S E Soh, S Ng, M T Tint, I M Aris, J Y Bernard, Y S Chong, K M Godfrey, L P Shek, K H Tan, Y S Lee, H H Tan, B S M Chern, N Lek, F Yap, S Y Chan, C Chi, J K Y Chan
STUDY QUESTION: Are higher overall and central adiposity associated with reduced fecundability, measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP), in Asian women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher overall adiposity, but not central adiposity, was associated with longer TTP in Asian women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with a longer TTP, although the associations of body composition and distribution with TTP are less clear. There are no previous studies of TTP in Asian women, who have a relatively higher percentage of body fat and abdominal fat at relatively lower BMI...
October 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Otani Tomoko, Kase Yasuko, Kunitomo Kazufumi, Shimooka Kazumi, Naoe Mitsugu, Yamamoto Hiroko, Kawazoe Kazuyoshi, Sato Youichi, Yamauchi Aiko
In recumbent elderly patients, creatinine clearance (eCCr) estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation may not necessarily reflect renal function. We aimed to develop a novel formula to revise the CG equation using anthropometric measurements in bedridden elderly patients and evaluate its clinical utility. The subjects included 77 bedridden Japanese patients aged ≦ 65, hospitalized at Naruto Yamakami Hospital. The actual CCr (mCCr) value was measured using the 24-hour urine collection method. Anthropometric data, such as skeletal muscle mass, body fat mass (BFM), and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), were collected...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Zhixian Gao, Lin Chen, Qiliang Xiong, Nong Xiao, Wei Jiang, Yuan Liu, Xiaoying Wu, Wensheng Hou
Background: Synergistic recruitment of muscular activities is a generally accepted mechanism for motor function control, and motor dysfunction, such as cerebral palsy (CP), destroyed the synergistic electromyography activities of muscle group for limb movement. However, very little is known how motor dysfunction of CP affects the organization of the myoelectric frequency components due to the abnormal motor unit recruiting patterns. Objectives: Exploring whether the myoelectric activity can be represented with synergistic recruitment of surface electromyography (sEMG) frequency components; evaluating the effect of CP motor dysfunction on the synergistic recruitment of sEMG oscillations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ewertton S Bezerra, Brad J Schoenfeld, Gabriel Paz, Déborah de Araújo Farias, Raphael L Sakugawa, Iago Vieira, Mateus Rossato, Humberto Miranda
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise order on volume load (VL) and myoelectric activation (EMG) during the bench press (BP), military press (MP) and close-grip bench press (CGBP) exercises executed with a barbell and Smith machine. Twelve men experienced in resistance training performed four different exercise sessions in randomised order. Each session consisted of four sets of a given exercise order: O1 = CGBP + MP + BP with barbell; O2 = inverse O1 with barbell, O3 = same O1 with Smith Machine; O4 = same O2 with Smith machine...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Paul J Collings, Brian Kelly, Jane West, John Wright
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations of TV parameters with adiposity in early life. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Born in Bradford (BiB) longitudinal birth cohort study. Child TV viewing duration was parent reported, and BMI, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at ~12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age in 1,338 children. Mixed effects models were used to quantify adjusted associations of TV viewing duration with adiposity markers, incorporating data from all time points...
October 2018: Obesity
Adam H Boyette, Sheina Lew-Levy, Mallika S Sarma, Lee T Gettler
Males in vertebrate species with biparental care commonly face a life history trade-off between investing in mating versus parenting effort. Among these males, testosterone is frequently elevated during mating and competition and reduced when males help raise offspring. These physiological patterns may be adaptive, increasing males' fitness through investments in young. However, for some species, including humans, indirect parenting often benefits young but can also involve male competition and risk-taking behavior and may be facilitated by elevated testosterone...
September 27, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Paul E Caldwell, Christopher S Evensen, Nicholas G Vance, Sara E Pearson
Distal triceps ruptures are uncommon injuries resulting in loss of elbow extension strength and necessitating surgical repair to ensure optimal functional outcome. Traditional fixation techniques using running, locking sutures through the tendon secured through bone tunnels have been shown to poorly restore the anatomic footprint and are mechanically inferior to anatomic repairs. We endorse restoring the anatomic footprint of the distal triceps, similar to the well-researched rotator cuff repair model.
September 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Vikas R Singh, Gregory I Bain
Olecranon spur is a common underlying clinical problem in patients with inflammatory conditions such as triceps tendonitis, olecranon bursitis, and gout. It is often managed conservatively. Conventionally, symptomatic olecranon spurs that have failed conservative management are excised along with the overlying bursa using an open technique. We describe an endoscopic extrabursal technique, where the spur is dissected out and excised in its entirety under endoscopic vision. Using this technique, a satisfactory view is achieved with less morbidity compared with the open excision; it also avoids a wound over the sensitive skin over the olecranon...
September 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
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