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Ryan W Carlson, Molly J Crockett
In the face of competing desires, humans often strive to be fair, honest, and considerate of others. Research from social neuroscience implicates the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) in our capacity to pursue such goals, yet its precise computational role is less clear. Here, we draw on insights from the neuroscience of hierarchical control and value-based choice to offer an integrative look at how LPFC supports the pursuit of moral goals. We conclude by highlighting how future work may leverage these insights to deepen our understanding of the dynamic neural code of morality...
October 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Ezgi Gulcay, Ilknur Erucar
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have been widely studied in gas separation applications due to their large surface areas, high pore volumes, tunable pore sizes and chemical stabilities. In this study, separation performances of 153 COFs, 14 IRMOFs and 8 ZIFs were assessed for efficient removal of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) from CCl4 /Ar, CCl4 /N2 , CCl4 /O2 mixtures at 298 K and infinite dilution. The top performing three materials in each group, namely, borazine-linked polymer (BLP-2H-AA), IRMOF-11 and ZIF-6 were identified...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Aron S Talai, Jan Sedlacik, Kai Boelmans, Nils D Forkert
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy - Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) are often represented by similar clinical symptoms, which may challenge diagnostic accuracy. The objective of this study was to investigate and compare regional cerebral diffusion properties in PD and PSP-RS subjects and evaluate the use of these metrics for an automatic classification framework. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diffusion-tensor MRI datasets from 52 PD and 21 PSP-RS subjects were employed for this study...
October 4, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
En-Nung Kao, Kuo-Hsiu Liao, Teng-Wei Chen, De-Chuan Chan, Jyh-Cherng Yu
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of a foreign body rarely results in perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. Foreign bodies such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, toothpicks and cocktail sticks have been known to cause bowel perforation; however, bowel perforation caused by shrimp leg has not been reported so far. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 69-years-old man who presented with a 4-months epigastric pain. Laboratory data revealed inflammation at the first hospital visit...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Yuzhi Song, Shuang Liu, Yunfan Yang, Dongmei Wei, Jie Pan, Yongqing Li
2-(Anthracen-1-yliminomethyl)-phenol (AYP) had been synthesized recently and used as a chemosensor to detect Al3+ ion, while its fluorescent properties and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process were not investigated in detail. In this study, the molecular absorption and emission spectra were accurately reproduced by using TDDFT/CAM-B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) computational method. The ESIPT- chromophore photochemical behaviors and detecting Al3+ ion photophysical changes were explained for the first time at the molecular level...
October 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Naghmeh Poorinmohammad, Javad Hamedi, Mohammad Hossein Abbaspour Motlagh Moghaddam
Lantibiotics, an important group of ribosomally synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of novel promising antimicrobials showing high potency in fighting against the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among microbial pathogens. However, due to the lack of high throughput strategies for the isolation and identification of these compounds, our information regarding their structure and especially sequence-based properties is far from complete. Therefore, in the present study, a comprehensive sequence-based analysis of these peptides was performed with the help of machine learning approach together with a feature selection technique...
October 9, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Xiao-Heng Zhao, Franklin R Tay, Yan-Jun Fang, Liu-Yan Meng, Zhuan Bian
OBJECTIVES: Gingival recession and alveolar bone loss are common manifestations of periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration is the ideal strategy for rehabilitating periodontal tissue defects and preventing tooth loss. The present study examined whether localized, topical application of gingival overgrowth-inducing drugs, phenytoin, nifedipine or cyclosporine, induces periodontal regeneration. METHODS: Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) was used as the carrier for preparation of phenytoin, nifedipine or cyclosporine-loaded PLGA microspheres, using an oil-in-water emulsification technique...
October 6, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Pei-Jiang Wang, Farhad Rikhtegar Nezami, Maysam B Gorji, Francesca Berti, Lorenza Petrini, Tomasz Wierzbicki, Francesco Migliavacca, Elazer R Edelman
Polymeric bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS), at their early stages of invention, were considered as a promising revolution in interventional cardiology. However, they failed dramatically compared to metal stents showing substantially higher incidence of device failure and clinical events, especially thrombosis. One problem is that use of paradigms inherited from metal stents ignores dependency of polymer material properties on working environment and manufacturing/deployment steps. Unlike metals, polymeric material characterization experiments cannot be considered identical under dry and submerged conditions at varying rates of operation...
October 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ke Luo, Noah Yudewitz, Ghatu Subhash, Douglas E Spearot
Shockwave propagation in polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels is simulated for the first time using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. PEGDA hydrogel models are built using the "perfect network" approach such that each crosslink junction is comprised of six chain connections. The influence of PEGDA concentration (20-70 wt%) on shock behavior is investigated for a range of particle velocities (200-1000 m/s). In agreement with reported experimental results in the literature on gels with similar densities, shock velocity and pressure in PEGDA hydrogels are found to increase with polymer concentration, within a range bounded by pure water and pure polymer behaviors...
September 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Zena J Wally, Abdul M Haque, Antonio Feteira, Frederik Claeyssens, Russell Goodall, Gwendolen C Reilly
Dental implants need to support good osseointegration into the surrounding bone for full functionality. Interconnected porous structures have a lower stiffness and larger surface area compared with bulk structures, and therefore are likely to enable better bone-implant fixation. In addition, grading of the porosity may enable large pores for ingrowth on the periphery of an implant and a denser core to maintain mechanical properties. However, given the small diameter of dental implants it is very challenging to achieve gradations in porosity...
August 29, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Lars Kihlström Burenstam Linder, Ulrik Birgersson, Kalle Lundgren, Christopher Illies, Thomas Engstrand
BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of complex cranial defects is challenging and associated with a high complication rate. The development of a patient specific, titanium reinforced, calcium phosphate based (CaP-Ti) implant with bone regenerative properties has previously been described in two case studies with the hypothesis that the implant may improve clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether the introduction of CaP-Ti implant has the potential to improve clinical outcome...
October 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yiwei Yang, Di Nie, Yuan Liu, Miaorong Yu, Yong Gan
Spherical particles such as liposomes and microspheres are the most common and extensively applied drug vehicles. However, researchers have come to realize the superiority of nonspherical nanoparticles. Actually, in human bodies red blood cells, gut biotics and many well-known pathogens have distinct shapes. It can be reasonably inferred that particle shape plays a pivotal part in human bodies. In this review, we summarize the recent studies about the effect of shape on delivery processes such as cellular uptake, tissue penetration and biodistribution...
October 17, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Pascual Lozano-Vilardell, Raúl Lara-Hernández, Noé Benabarre-Castany, David García-García
A 79-year old patient with an asymptomatic 63-mm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, confirmed on computed tomography, was admitted in our unit. The patient had undergone kidney transplantation years before, due to renal failure secondary to polycystic kidney disease. Renal function at admission was normal. The aneurysm had a very short neck, and a standard endovascular aortic repair procedure was not feasible. So, the two renal arteries were embolized with coils and endovascular repair of the aneurysm, covering the ostia of the renal arteries, was achieved placing the endoprosthesis up to the level of superior mesenteric artery...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Y Law, N Tsilimparis, S Aleed, F Rohlffs, N Schofer, E S Debus, G Müller, T Kölbel
INTRODUCTION: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with self-expanding endo-graft is increasingly used as a viable treatment option for adult aortic coarctation (AC). METHODS: We hereby reported a 55 years old gentleman with late presentation of AC, treated by a novel strategy with thoracic endograft and in situ laser fenestration for left subclavian artery (LSA) revascularization. RESULTS: AC was incidentally discovered during coronary angiogram as an investigation for his angina pectoris...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Adrianos G Katsouris, Nikolaos C Kapsalis, Xanthi Stachtea, Panagiotis Papageorgiou, Antonis Mavromatos, Prof Charalabos Papageorgiou, Prof Christos N Capsalis
BACKGROUND: The inverse problem solution in the field of ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) analysis has been addressed in the scientific literature for many decades, utilizing either mathematical techniques for measurement fitting or pure ElectroMagnetic (EM) methods involving complex head models for the prediction of the near field. NEW METHOD: A novel radiated EM field estimation analysis scheme is proposed for EEG analysis, based on the determination of a grid of equivalent distributed EM sources with equal magnetic moments, in order to compute the extrapolated far field...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lopamudra Das, Sarita Nanda, J K Das
Identification of exon location in a DNA sequence has been considered as the most demanding and challenging research topic in the field of Bioinformatics. This work proposes a robust approach combining the Trigonometric mapping with Adaptive tuned Kaiser Windowing approach for locating the protein coding regions (EXONS) in a genetic sequence. For better convergence as well as improved accurateness, the side lobe height control parameter (β) of Kaiser Window in the proposed algorithm is made adaptive to track the changing dynamics of the genetic sequence...
October 17, 2018: Genomics
Clovis Mariano Faggion, Luisiana Aranda, Nikolaos Pandis, Marco Antonio Alarcón, Karla Tatiana Diaz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the changes in the risk of bias (RoB) across different versions of the same Cochrane systematic review, and to identify characteristics of systematic reviews which may be associated with different RoB scores by means of regression analysis. METHODS: We examined changes in RoB ratings in domains of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled trials (CTs) included in original Cochrane systematic reviews and their updates published in oral health...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Peter Klare, Christoph Sander, Martin Prinzen, Bernhard Haller, Sebastian Nowack, Mohamed Abdelhafez, Alexander Poszler, Hayley Brown, Dirk Wilhelm, Roland M Schmid, Stefan von Delius, Thomas Wittenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adenoma detection is a highly personalized task that differs markedly between endoscopists. Technical advances are therefore desirable for the improvement of the adenoma detection rate (ADR). An automated computer driven technology would offer the chance to objectively assess the presence of colorectal polyps during colonoscopy. We present here the application of a real-time automatic polyp detection software (APDS) under routine colonoscopy conditions. METHODS: This was a prospective study at a university hospital in Germany...
October 17, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Henrik Quanz, Peter R Schreiner
Tunneling in experiments (TUNNEX) is a free open-source program with an easy-to-use graphical user interface to simplify the process of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) computations. TUNNEX aims at experimental chemists with basic knowledge of computational chemistry, and it offers the computation of tunneling half-lives, visualization of data, and exporting of graphs. It also provides a helper tool for executing the zero-point vibrational energy correction along the path. The program also enables computing high-level single points along the intrinsic reaction path...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Ulvi K Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Taina Tervahartiala, Mervi Gürsoy, Jari Pitkänen, Paula Torvi, Anna Liisa Suominen, Pirkko Pussinen, Timo Sorsa
AIM: To investigate the molecular forms of salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 in relation to periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular forms, degree of activation, and fragmentation of neutrophilic and mesenchymal type MMP-8 isoforms were analyzed from salivary samples of 81 subjects with generalized periodontitis, 63 subjects with localized periodontitis, and 79 subjects without pocket teeth, by using western-immunoblots with computer quantitation...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
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