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Doug Fraedrich
INTRODUCTION: Whilst the US Navy has been very systematic about validating Navy dive computer algorithms, there has been little documented or published evidence of rigorous testing of the algorithms in commercial off-the-shelf dive computers. This paper reports the evaluation of four algorithms used in these - Bühlmann ZHL-16C; VPM-B; Suunto-RGBM; EMC-20H - by comparison with US Navy experimental dives with known decompression sickness outcomes. METHODS: Three specific tests were developed to test the algorithms' ability to mitigate decompression sickness: Total decompression time; no stop times and first stop depth...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Srijeeb Karmakar, Laipubam Gayatri Sharma, Abhishek Roy, Anjali Patel, Lalit Mohan Pandey
SNARE (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Receptor) complex is a trimeric supramolecular organization of SNAP25, syntaxin, and VAMP which mediates fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. The functioning of this entire protein assembly is dependent on its tetrahelical coiled coil structure alongside its interaction with a large spectrum of regulatory proteins like synaptotagmin, complexin, intersectin, etc. Defects arising in SNARE complex assembly due to mutations or faulty post-translational modifications are associated to severe synaptopathies like Schizophrenia and also proteopathies like Alzheimer's disease...
December 2, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Burak Tepe, Matthew C Hill, Brandon T Pekarek, Patrick J Hunt, Thomas J Martin, James F Martin, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Cellular heterogeneity within the mammalian brain poses a challenge toward understanding its complex functions. Within the olfactory bulb, odor information is processed by subtypes of inhibitory interneurons whose heterogeneity and functionality are influenced by ongoing adult neurogenesis. To investigate this cellular heterogeneity and better understand adult-born neuron development, we utilized single-cell RNA sequencing and computational modeling to reveal diverse and transcriptionally distinct neuronal and nonneuronal cell types...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Sile Hu, Davide Ciliberti, Andres D Grosmark, Frédéric Michon, Daoyun Ji, Hector Penagos, György Buzsáki, Matthew A Wilson, Fabian Kloosterman, Zhe Chen
Uncovering spatial representations from large-scale ensemble spike activity in specific brain circuits provides valuable feedback in closed-loop experiments. We develop a graphics processing unit (GPU)-powered population-decoding system for ultrafast reconstruction of spatial positions from rodents' unsorted spatiotemporal spiking patterns, during run behavior or sleep. In comparison with an optimized quad-core central processing unit (CPU) implementation, our approach achieves an ∼20- to 50-fold increase in speed in eight tested rat hippocampal, cortical, and thalamic ensemble recordings, with real-time decoding speed (approximately fraction of a millisecond per spike) and scalability up to thousands of channels...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Anindya Biswas, Semanti Ghosh, Debabrata Sinha, Anindya Dutta, Soham Seal, Anshuman Bagchi, Subrata Sau
The lysogenic growth of phage ф11 in Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a repressor (CI) that harbors an N-terminal domain (NTD), and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Previously, NTD, like CI, showed DNA binding activity and dimerized in the aqueous solution. To precisely understand the folding mechanism, function, and the stability of CI, NTD, and CTD, we have investigated their recombinant forms, rCI, rNTD, and rCTD, using various probes. The data reveal that rCTD, like rCI and rNTD, is a well-structured protein and produces dimers in the aqueous environment...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Joseph T Hicks, Lu-Yu Hwang, Sarah Baraniuk, Margaret White, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Nkechi Onwuka, Michael W Ross, Alan G Nyitray
Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk of developing anal cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) than the rest of the general population. Currently, there are no formal national guidelines in the US advising men how and when to get anal cancer screening. We sought to assess differences in demographics, familiarity and anxiety about anal cancer among men who report having had anal cancer screening (i.e. anal cytology and/or a digital anorectal examination (DARE)). Methods: MSM were recruited to participate in a study to assess the feasibility of teaching self and partner anal examinations as a means of screening for anal cancer...
December 6, 2018: Sexual Health
Florence Jeny, Pierre-Yves Brillet, Young-Wouk Kim, Olivia Freynet, Hilario Nunes, Dominique Valeyre
High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has revolutionized the diagnosis, prognosis, and in some cases the prediction of therapeutic response in interstitial lung disease (ILD). HRCT represents an essential second step to a patient's clinical history, before considering any other investigation, including lung biopsy. Areas covered: This review describes the current place of HRCT in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of ILD. It also lists some perspectives for the near future. Expert commentary: Since the 1980s, HRCT and its interpretation have improved, the diagnosis value of patterns, and the integration of bio-clinical elements to HRCT have been better standardized...
December 5, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
B Kamala Latha, V S S Sastry
The presence of stable topological defects in a two-dimensional (d=2) liquid crystal model allowing molecular reorientations in three dimensions (n=3) was largely believed to induce a defect-mediated Berzenskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type transition to a low temperature phase with quasi-long-range order. However, earlier Monte Carlo (MC) simulations could not establish certain essential signatures of the transition, suggesting further investigations. We study this model by computing its equilibrium properties through MC simulations, based on the determination of the density of states of the system...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
David J Wales, Matthew D Disney, Ilyas Yildirim
Mutations in the human tau gene result in alternative splicing of the tau protein, which cause frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism. One disease mechanism is linked to the stability of a hairpin within microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mRNA, which contains an A-bulge. Here we employ computational methods to investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of several A-bulge RNAs with different closing base-pairs. We find that the current amber RNA force field has a preference to overstabilize base-triple over stacked states, even though some of the A-bulges are known to prefer stacked states according to NMR studies...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Paolo Armando Gagliardi, Luca Primo
Activation of Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and myotonic dystrophy kinase-related CDC42-binding kinase alpha (MRCKα) by caspases during apoptosis in vertebrates represents a prototypical example of co-option of kinases by proteases. How caspases acquired the ability to control these proteins during evolution of vertebrates is still unknown. Here, we report a phylogenetic and molecular study on the acquisition of caspase-cleavage sites in the family of Rho-activated kinases (RaKs). We demonstrate that the acquisition of such sites has more frequently occurred in identifiable intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) within or flanking the coiled-coil domain...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Marius Gheorghe, Geir Kjetil Sandve, Aziz Khan, Jeanne Chèneby, Benoit Ballester, Anthony Mathelier
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the most popular assay to identify genomic regions, called ChIP-seq peaks, that are bound in vivo by transcription factors (TFs). These regions are derived from direct TF-DNA interactions, indirect binding of the TF to the DNA (through a co-binding partner), nonspecific binding to the DNA, and noise/bias/artifacts. Delineating the bona fide direct TF-DNA interactions within the ChIP-seq peaks remains challenging. We developed a dedicated software, ChIP-eat, that combines computational TF binding models and ChIP-seq peaks to automatically predict direct TF-DNA interactions...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Lex Flagel, Yaniv Brandvain, Daniel R Schrider
Population-scale genomic datasets have given researchers incredible amounts of information from which to infer evolutionary histories. Concomitant with this flood of data, theoretical and methodological advances have sought to extract information from genomic sequences to infer demographic events such as population size changes and gene flow among closely related populations/species, construct recombination maps, and uncover loci underlying recent adaptation. To date most methods make use of only one or a few summaries of the input sequences and therefore ignore potentially useful information encoded in the data...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Roya Ostovar, Martin Hartrumpf, Ralf-Uwe Kuehnel, Filip Schroeter, Magdalena Laux, Michael Erb, Thomas Claus, Johannes Maximilian Albes
OBJECTIVES: The invention of new surgical procedures requires testing at different stages including animal models. To facilitate this process, we have developed a computer-controlled extracorporeal circulation system for testing of an explanted porcine heart simulating a variety of physiological parameters. Mitral valve function can be assessed before and after induced valve insufficiency and after valve repair. Accordingly, techniques and instruments can be modified at early stages of prototype development...
December 4, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Camila Gerszewski, Francielle Topolski, Gisele M Correr, Rodrigo A P Gomes, Nathaly D Morais, Alexandre Moro
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the Herbst appliance on the proclination and protrusion of the lower incisors, and to verify if the device causes alveolar bone loss in the anterior region of the mandible. This is a retrospective study. The sample consisted of 35 individuals. The treatment group consisted of 22 individuals (8 girls and 14 boys; initial mean age of 8.2 years) who used the Cantilever Herbst appliance for a period of 12 months. The control group consisted of 13 individuals (3 girls and 10 boys; initial mean age of 8...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Mike R Bueno, Carlos Estrela, Brunno C Azevedo, Anibal Diogenes
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has promoted changes in approaches in Endodontics, and enhanced decision-making in complex clinical cases. Despite the technological advancements in CBCT hardware, the interpretation of the acquired images is still compromised by viewing software packages that often have limited navigational tools and lack adequate filters to overcome some challenges of the CBCT technology such as artefacts. This study reviews the current limitations of CBCT and the potential of a new CBCT software package (e-Vol DX, CDT- Brazil) to overcome these aspects and support diagnosing, planning and managing of endodontic cases...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Andreia Barcelos Teixeira Macedo, Caren de Oliveira Riboldi, Karen Schein da Silva, Thiane Mergen, Isabel Cristina Echer, Sônia Beatriz Cócaro de Souza
OBJECTIVE: To propose parameters to qualify the filling of the Patient Classification System proposed by Perroca. METHOD: Validation study by consensus held in 2014, in a university hospital. The sample included 10 specialist nurses, four teachers and a computer science professional, all knowledgeable in the Classification System. The information was collected and analyzed through meetings registration, where strategies were discussed to enable the systematic application of the instrument in the institution...
November 29, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
P L da Luz, D Favarato, E H Moriguchi, W de Carli, N Bruscato, R I Mochiduky, P Schwartzman, C E Rochitte, F R Laurindo
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with atherosclerotic complications. However, elevated CAC may not always imply a worse prognosis. Herein, we report the clinical evolution of long-term red wine (RW) drinkers in relation to CAC. We followed 200 healthy male habitual RW drinkers and compared them to 154 abstainers for a period of 5.5 years. The initial evaluation included coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), clinical, demographics, and laboratory data. CAC was quantified by the Agatston score...
November 29, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Ali Ahmet Arıkan
This paper presents a case study of a patient that underwent surgery for a ruptured abdominal aneurysm. The postoperative course was complicated by resistant hypertension and tachycardia. A suprarenal mass was detected in the computed tomography scan with radiological suspicion of pheochromocytoma. Few cases of pheochromocytoma coexisting with aneurysms have been reported. Management of cardiovascular stability is crucial in such cases. Despite the lack of evidence, pheochromocytomas might have a role in the etiology of aortic aneurysms...
September 2018: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Eduardo Nascimento Gomes, Ricardo Ribeiro Dias, Bruno Aragão Rocha, José Augusto Duncan Santiago, Fabrício José de Souza Dinato, Eduardo Keller Saadi, Walter J Gomes, Fabio B Jatene
INTRODUCTION: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has become an affordable tool for assisting heart surgeons in the aorta endovascular field, both in surgical planning, education and training of residents and students. This technique permits the construction of physical prototypes from conventional medical images by converting the anatomical information into computer aided design (CAD) files. OBJECTIVE: To present the 3D printing feature on developing prototypes leading to improved aortic endovascular surgical planning, as well as transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and mainly enabling training of the surgical procedure to be performed on patient's specific condition...
September 2018: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Ludivine Launay, Elodie Guillaume, Guy Launoy, Henrique Barros
Socioeconomic inequalities are major health determinants. To monitor and understand them at local level, ecological indexes of socioeconomic deprivation constitute essential tools. In this study, we describe the development of the updated version of the European Deprivation Index for Portuguese small-areas (EDI-PT), describe its spatial distribution and evaluate its association with a general health indicator-all-cause mortality in the period 2009-2012. Using data from the 2011 European Union-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Survey (EU-SILC), we obtained an indicator of individual deprivation...
2018: PloS One
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