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Ultrasound review

Kusum Kapila, Preetha Alath, Govind H Hebbar, Mohammed Jaragh, Sara S George, Ayesha AlJassar
OBJECTIVE: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (USG-FNAC) is used for the detection of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis in patients with breast carcinoma (BC). US findings have a good diagnostic accuracy with high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study is to correlate the detection of ALN metastases on US with FNAC in BC patients. STUDY DESIGN: In 75 BC patients, over a period of 9 months (January to September 2017), the size, cortical thickness (CT), presence or absence of hilar fat, and length/width ratio of ALN on US were reviewed and correlated with FNAC findings...
December 5, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Yilai Chen, Weiwei Zhan, Wei Zhou, Yijie Dong
This research investigates the application of high-frequency ultrasound (US) examination and US-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) in diagnosing low-volume metastatic lateral lymph nodes (LLNs) from papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. This study reviewed the medical records of 996 LLNs from 858 patients with suspicious thyroid nodules or after thyroidectomy from January 2013 to January 2016. All patients took US-FNA. The US characteristics and the malignancy rate of LLNs classified into group A and group B based on size were analyzed and compared (group A, ≥6 mm; group B, <6 mm)...
December 3, 2018: Ultrasound Quarterly
O Kenechi Nwawka
This review describes techniques for sonographic evaluation of the brachial plexus and multiple regional nerve branches in the neck, essential for successful implementation of neurosonology in the neck. High-frequency ultrasound transducers have the ability to produce superior, high-resolution images, allowing for superb depiction of nerve fascicular anatomy. Sonographic appearances of normal nerve anatomy and nerve-specific pathology are reviewed. Benefits and limitations of ultrasound nerve imaging compared with magnetic resonance imaging are discussed...
December 3, 2018: Ultrasound Quarterly
Tessa N Hudspeth, Kyungmin Shin, Gildy V Babiera, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Piyanoot Woodtichartpreecha, Niloofar Karbasian, Gary J Whitman
This pictorial essay reviews and illustrates benign and malignant features of intramammary lymph nodes on mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, including a review of the clinical and the prognostic significance in patients with known breast cancer. This pictorial essay discusses management suggestions for intramammary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer.
December 3, 2018: Ultrasound Quarterly
Richard G Barr, Ravi A Managuli
OBJECTIVE: Strain ratio (SR) is a semiquantitative parameter in differentiating benign from malignant tumors in breast ultrasound elastography. Currently, SR is computed manually and, thus, user dependent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new tool assist strain ratio (ASR) and determine how it performs compared with an expert sonologist. METHODS: Ninety-one patients scheduled for breast biopsy were included in this institutional review board-approved/Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study...
December 3, 2018: Ultrasound Quarterly
Ahmad Iyad Mubarak, Ajaykumar C Morani, Jessica Samuel, Jia Sun, Wei Wei, Priya R Bhosale
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the ability of ultrasound to predict survival and detect more aggressive tumors in women with ovarian masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained. A total of 167 patients who presented with adnexal mass/masses were included. These were documented as benign or malignant on ultrasound. Age, date of diagnosis and date of death, type of tumor, and tumor marker cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) values were recorded...
December 3, 2018: Ultrasound Quarterly
Sheena Chung, Tara Rosewall, Ravi Menezes, Tuula Kalliomäki
INTRODUCTION: Hundreds of thousands of Ontario women receive breast screening imaging each year. The patient's medical history is a vital tool used to personalize breast screening approaches. This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported medical and imaging history in patients about to receive breast imaging procedures in a large urban Canadian hospital. The patient experience with using a blank screening form vs. a novel prefilled screening form was also evaluated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study was conducted in two phases...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Fausto Meriggi
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural effusion, which is a common clinical problem in patients with cancer, may be due to both primary thoracic tumours or to a metastatic spread in the chest and constitutes the first sign of disease in approximately 10% of patients. Almost all cancers can potentially produce a pleural effusion. The presence of malignant tumour cells in the pleural fluid is generally indicative of advanced disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality with reduced therapeutic options...
December 3, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Marieke van Son, Max Peters, Marinus Moerland, Linda Kerkmeijer, Jan Lagendijk, Jochem van der Voort van Zyp
Over the last decades, primary prostate cancer radiotherapy saw improving developments, such as more conformal dose administration and hypofractionated treatment regimens. Still, prostate cancer recurrences after whole-gland radiotherapy remain common, especially in patients with intermediate- to high-risk disease. The vast majority of these patients are treated palliatively with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which exposes them to harmful side-effects and is only effective for a limited amount of time...
December 3, 2018: Cancers
Tsia-Shu Lo, Sandy Chua, Yiap Loong Tan, Ma Clarissa Patrimonio, Leng Boi Pue
OBJECTIVE: To compare the ultrasonographic positional changes of mid-urethral sling(MUS) tape in relation to symphysis pubis, and the different clinical outcomes among women who underwent MUS insertion with MiniArcTM or MonarcTM for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence 3 years after. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study on patients with clinically confirmed stress urodynamic incontinence and urodynamic stress incontinence who had undergone MiniArc or Monarc surgery...
2018: PloS One
Karen Y Oh, Thomas J Gibson, Joseph Pinter, David Pettersson, Brian L Shaffer, Nathan R Selden, Roya Sohaey
OBJECTIVES: When identified prenatally, the imaging triad of asymmetric ventriculomegaly, interhemispheric cyst, and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum (AVID) can indicate a more serious congenital brain anomaly. In this follow-up series of 15 fetuses, we present the neurodevelopmental outcomes of a single institution cohort of children diagnosed prenatally with AVID. METHODS: Our fetal ultrasound database was queried for cases of AVID between 2000 and 2016. All available fetal MR imaging studies were reviewed for the presence of (1) interhemispheric cysts or ventricular diverticula and (2) dysgenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum...
December 4, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Chen-Yang Zhao, Na Su, Yu-Xin Jiang, Meng Yang
Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare tumour that often occurs in soft tissues of the female genital tract. Eight cases of AAM are reported in this article, and the clinical features and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of the eight cases are reviewed and summarized. The main complaints of all the patients were palpable and painless masses in the vulva or scrotum. The lesions were mainly located in the vulva, pelvis, and perineal region, with a large scope of involvement. The sonographic features of AAM were characteristic...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Armin S Razavi, Stephen T Chasen
Objective  To determine the rate of unsuspected noncardiac abnormalities in newborns suspected to have isolated cardiac abnormalities in the second trimester. Study Design  A review of the ultrasound database from the Weill Cornell Medical Center identified fetuses with a suspected cardiac abnormality from January 2006 to November 2016. Cases with prenatally suspected noncardiac structural abnormalities, abnormal fetal or neonatal karyotype or microarray, and those who delivered at an outside institution or underwent abortion were excluded...
October 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
J Ricoy, N Rodríguez-Núñez, J M Álvarez-Dobaño, M E Toubes, V Riveiro, L Valdés
The diaphragm is the main breathing muscle and contraction of the diaphragm is vital for ventilation so any disease that interferes with diaphragmatic innervation, contractile muscle function, or mechanical coupling to the chest wall can cause diaphragm dysfunction. Diaphragm dysfunction is associated with dyspnoea, intolerance to exercise, sleep disturbances, hypersomnia, with a potential impact on survival. Diagnosis of diaphragm dysfunction is based on static and dynamic imaging tests (especially ultrasound) and pulmonary function and phrenic nerve stimulation tests...
November 30, 2018: Pulmonology
David C Mackenzie, Aftab M Azad, Vicki E Noble, Andrew S Liteplo
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine test performance characteristics of emergency physician ultrasound for the identification of gastric contents. METHODS: Subjects were randomized to fast for at least 10 h or to consume food and water. A sonologist blinded to the patient's status performed an ultrasound of the stomach 10 min after randomization and oral intake, if applicable. The sonologist recorded their interpretation of the study using three sonographic windows...
January 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Cédric Gasse, Kim Paquette, Suzanne Demers, Stéphanie Roberge, Emmanuel Bujold, Amélie Boutin
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a complication of pregnancy associated with major neonatal morbidity and commonly diagnosed at birth based on birth weight below the 5th or the 10th centile. There is no consensus on the use of routine third-trimester ultrasound for the detection of FGR in a general population. This systematic review aims to estimate the performance of third-trimester ultrasound markers in the screening for babies who are small for gestational age in low-risk or general population...
December 3, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Yun-Lei Guo, Li-Tao Ruan, Qiu-Ping Wang, Jie Lian
RATIONALE: Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (UC-OGCs) of the pancreas is an extremely rare and aggressive pancreatic malignancy. To our knowledge, the computed tomography (CT) findings of this disease have rarely been analyzed. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old man who experienced weight loss of about 4 kg over 3 months presented to our clinic. The abdominal ultrasound (US) detected a 5.8 × 5.5 cm well-defined, cystic-solid mass in the head of the pancreas, which had been present for 1 month...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fernando Chamorro, Cristóbal Briones, Cristóbal Loézar, Álex León, Marcelo Arancibia, Jana Stojanova, Eva Madrid
Introduction: Phacoeresis is the procedure through which the lens is surgically removed to treat cataracts. A corneal endothelial loss is a recognized sequel. Although several factors associated with this harm have been described, the surgeon’s prior experience has been scarcely evaluated. Objectives: To assess the association between the surgeon’s experience and other variables associated with a corneal endothelial cell loss in the context of phacoeresis. Methods: Clinical records of 198 patients undergoing cataract operations were prospectively reviewed...
October 29, 2018: Medwave
Jen-Yin Chen, Li-Kai Wang, Yao-Tsung Lin, Kuo-Mao Lan, El-Wui Loh, Chih-Heng Chen, Ka-Wai Tam
BACKGROUND: Internal jugular venous catheterization (IJVC) is performed for numerous therapeutic interventions. Although ultrasound-guided IJVC is the gold standard for this procedure, complications can still occur. Various scanning axes, namely the short axis (SA), long axis (LA), and oblique axis (OA), have been developed to ameliorate these complications. This study compared the efficacy and safety of SA, LA, and OA approaches. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published before September 2018...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Sherif Assaad, Wolf B Kratzert, Albert C Perrino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Excessive accumulation of extravascular lung water (EVLW) resulting in pulmonary edema is the most feared complication following thoracic surgery and lung transplant. ICUs have long relied on chest radiography to monitor pulmonary status postoperatively but the increasing recognition of the limitations of bedside plain films has fueled development of newer technologies, which offer earlier detection, quantitative assessments, and can aide in preoperative screening of surgical candidates...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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