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Ultrasound review

Tracy L Leong, Paula M Loveland, Alexandra Gorelik, Louis Irving, Daniel P Steinfort
BACKGROUND: Performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for staging the radiologically normal mediastinum has been reported with inconsistent findings. We assessed the sensitivity of systematic staging using EBUS-TBNA for detection of radiologically occult mediastinal metastases in cN0/N1 lung cancer. METHODS: Studies evaluating EBUS-TBNA for systematic mediastinal staging in cN0/N1 lung cancer were identified by systematic review...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Nathan R Blue, Meghan E Beddow, Mariam Savabi, Vivek R Katukuri, Conrad R Chao
BACKGROUND: The fetal growth standard in widest use was published by Hadlock more than 25 years ago and was derived from a small, homogeneous cohort. In 2015, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Study published updated standards that are specific to race/ethnicity. These do not allow for precise estimated fetal weight (EFW) percentile calculation, however, and their effectiveness to predict neonatal morbidity and small for gestational age (SGA) has not yet been compared to the longstanding Hadlock standard...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Basil K Williams, Maura Di Nicola, Sandor Ferenczy, Jerry A Shields, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and imaging findings and treatment options in a series of patients with iris microhemangiomatosis. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Setting: Single institution. STUDY POPULATION: Twenty-two eyes of 14 consecutive patients with iris microhemangiomatosis were reviewed. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Clinical examination and slit lamp photography were performed on every patient...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Dong Wook Kim, Hee Mang Yoon, Ah Young Jung, Jin Seong Lee, Seak Hee Oh, Kyung Mo Kim, Young Ah Cho
OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic performance of ultrasound (US) elastography in evaluating portal hypertension in children and compare the liver and spleen stiffness values between the portal hypertension and control groups. METHODS: Studies in the MEDLINE and Embase databases were selected that investigated the diagnostic performance of US elastography in children with portal hypertension up to December 21, 2017. Pooled sensitivity and specificity data were assessed by hierarchical logistic regression modeling...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Glenmore Lasam, Jaimin Dudhia, Sharen Anghel, Jeffrey Brensilver
Background: Although guidelines suggest that the best strategy for evaluating syncope is clinical history and physical examination, the inappropriate utilization of diagnostic imaging is common. Methods: A single center retrospective analysis conducted in adult patients admitted for evaluation and management of syncope for a period of 12 months. Charts were reviewed to abstract demographic data, admitting and discharge diagnosis, diagnostic investigatory tests including imaging modalities (echocardiogram, carotid ultrasound, and cranial computed tomography (CT)) ordered, subspecialty consultation requested, treatment rendered and hospital length of stay (LOS)...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Benjamin Dk Leong, Ariffin A Zainal, Hussein Hanif, Hafizan M Tajri, Naresh Govindarajantran, Kumaraguru Pillay, Kia L Tan, Ahmad Faidzal Othman
Objective : Native fistula creation for hemodialysis in patients who have exhausted all their superficial veins presents a challenge to vascular practice. We review our experience in transposed basilic vein fistula (BVT) creation and its usage for hemodialysis. Materials and Methods : We analyzed the hospital operative registry from January 2009 till June 2012 to identify the total number of BVT created in our center. Medical records of all patients were traced, and patients were interviewed using a standard proforma...
June 25, 2018: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Lara C Kovell, Mays T Ali, Allison G Hays, Thomas S Metkus, Jose A Madrazo, Mary C Corretti, Susan A Mayer, Theodore P Abraham, Edward P Shapiro, Monica Mukherjee
Echocardiography is the foundation for diagnostic cardiac testing, allowing for direct identification and management of various conditions. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has emerged as an invaluable tool for bedside diagnosis and management. The objective of this review is to address the current use and clinical applicability of POCUS to identify, triage, and manage a wide spectrum of cardiac conditions. POCUS can change diagnosis and management decisions of various cardiovascular conditions in a range of settings...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Jun Tsugawa, Thanuja Dharmadasa, Yan Ma, William Huynh, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the frequency and intensity of fasciculations with clinical measures of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive patients with ALS underwent clinical review and neuromuscular ultrasound assessment to detect intensity of fasciculations. Results were correlated with clinical markers of disease severity, as measured by the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R) and rate of disease progression (ΔFS), in addition to assessment of cortical motor function...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Bao Ngoc N Tran, Arthur R Celestin, Bernard T Lee, Jonathan Critchlow, Leo Tsai, Beau Toskich, Dhruv Singhal
Quantifying lymph nodes in vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) has been performed using preoperative percutaneous ultrasound. The higher resolution and accuracy of intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) over transcutaneous ultrasound has been demonstrated in the radiology literature for the identification and characterization of finer structures including hepatic lesions, pancreatic lesions, and biliary or pancreatic ducts. We hypothesize that IOUS during VLNT would be a superior method to quantify and map lymph nodes in our flaps...
August 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Yuan Cheng, Manni Wang, Buyun Ma, Xuelei Ma
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating malignant and benign gallbladder lesions. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library for all potential relevant articles published before December 2017. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve (AUC) of summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) were calculated by Meta-Disc Version 1...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maria E Miscia, Valerio Cecinati, Mario Fusillo, Antonello Persico, Giuseppe Lauriti, Gabriele Lisi, Pierluigi Lelli Chiesa
BACKGROUND: Paratesticular fibrous pseudotumor (PFP) is a rare benign tumor that can mimic malignant tumors; thus, radical orchiectomy was the standard treatment in the past. OBSERVATION: A 15-year-old boy came to our attention for a hard right inguinal swelling. An ultrasound showed a highly vascularized mass. The boy underwent a gonadal-sparing excision of the mass that was diagnosed to be a PFP. The patient recovered well, without recurrences at the follow-up...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Juan Luis Alcázar, Laura Bonilla, Julia Marucco, Ana Isabel Padilla, Enrique Chacón, Nabil Manzour, Aina Salas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk of endometrial cancer and/or endometrial hyperplasia with atypia in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial thickness ≥ 11 mm. METHODS: Systematic review of literature using database search (PubMed and Web of Science) of articles published between January 1990 and December 2016 evaluating the correlation between endometrial thickness as measured by transvaginal ultrasound (double layer) and histopathological findings in asymptomatic postmenopausal women, using the following terms: "endometrial thickness," "postmenopausal," "postmenopause," and "asymptomatic...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Amelia Y Merrill, Daniela Ochoa, V Suzanne Klimberg, Erica L Hill, Michael Preston, Kristen Neisler, Ronda S Henry-Tillman
BACKGROUND: Localization of nonpalpable breast lesions for breast-conserving surgery (BCS) remains highly variable and includes needle/wire localization (NL), radioactive seed localization, radar localization, and hematoma-directed ultrasound-guided (HUG) lumpectomy. The superiority of HUG lumpectomy over NL has been demonstrated repeatedly in terms of safety, accuracy, low positive margin rates, cosmesis, and patient satisfaction. In this study, we evaluate the cost effectiveness of HUG lumpectomy over NL for nonpalpable breast lesions...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Sarah Z Wennmacker, Mark P Lamberts, Marcello Di Martino, Joost Ph Drenth, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Cornelis Jhm van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND: Approximately 0.6% to 4% of cholecystectomies are performed because of gallbladder polyps. The decision to perform cholecystectomy is based on presence of gallbladder polyp(s) on transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), or both. These polyps are currently considered for surgery if they grow more than 1 cm. However, non-neoplastic polyps (pseudo polyps) do not need surgery, even when they are larger than 1 cm. True polyps are neoplastic, either benign (adenomas) or (pre)malignant (dysplastic polyps/carcinomas)...
August 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Annie Heffernan Rominger, Gerardo Antonio Aguilar Gomez, Patrick Elliott
BACKGROUND: Medical care in resource limited settings is challenging, particularly with limited access to diagnostic and imaging studies. The most portable and cost effective diagnostic imaging in these areas is ultrasound. Ultrasound is a very teachable skill with a short, single intensive training course and hands-on teaching; however, there are limited data on a longitudinal point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) curriculum in resource limited settings. The goal of this intervention is to develop an effective longitudinal POCUS curriculum for local physicians working in rural clinics in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and evaluate its effectiveness on patient care...
August 15, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Somoshree Sengupta, Vamsi K Balla
Current popular cancer treatment options, include tumor surgery, chemotherapy, and hormonal treatment. These treatments are often associated with some inherent limitations. For instances, tumor surgery is not effective in mitigating metastases; the anticancer drugs used for chemotherapy can quickly spread throughout the body and is ineffective in killing metastatic cancer cells. Therefore, several drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to target tumor cells, and release active biomolecule at specific site to eliminate the side effects of anticancer drugs...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Yiwen Chen, Chengxiang Guo, Qi Zhang, Yinan Shen, Yuwei Li, Xiang Li, Xueli Bai, Tingbo Liang
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a spectrum of neoplasms that can be benign or malignant. The accuracy of diagnosis is critical for this disease since different types of PCNs are treated differently using various modalities. The use of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) has been shown to improve the management and outcomes of various diseases. We aimed to determine the performance of MDT in the management of PCNs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 167 pathologically-proven PCN patients and divided them among three groups according to their surgical data and treatment modalities: 1) historical control group (HC group); 2) concurrent control group (CC group); and 3) MDT group...
July 31, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Lydia Giannitrapani, Walter Granà, Anna Licata, Cosima Schiavone, Giuseppe Montalto, Maurizio Soresi
OBJECTIVE: Non-selective β-blockers (NSBBs) are used in liver cirrhosis (LC) to prevent variceal bleeding because they decrease portal pressure. A main risk factor for the development of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in LC is decreased portal vein inflow velocity. The aim of our study was to examine retrospectively the incidence of PVT and its correlation with the use of β-blockers in a cohort of LC patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from 230 LC patients (90% Child-Pugh class A), who had been followed up for at least 5 years, were reviewed...
August 14, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Shawn L Shah, Manuel Perez-Miranda, Michel Kahaleh, Amy Tyberg
The last decade has seen a dramatic rise in the possibilities of therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). From EUS fine needle aspiration of cancerous lesion to pseudocyst drainage, it has now not only replaced some of the percutaneous techniques but has permitted to bypass all together laparoscopic approach for patient with altered anatomy or malignant gastric outlet obstruction. This review will emphasize the novel therapeutic EUS procedures added to our arsenal.
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
David W Swenson, Rama S Ayyala, Cassandra Sams, Edward Y Lee
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing pediatric appendicitis is difficult because clinical findings are nonspecific. Improved accuracy can be obtained with ultrasound (US), CT, or MRI, despite considerable variation in their use at different institutions. This article reviews the evidence for best practices in imaging pediatric appendicitis. CONCLUSION: When each modality is optimally used, a stepwise imaging approach that begins with graded compression US and proceeds to CT or MRI in select cases is currently best practice...
August 14, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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