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E A Elgindy, H Sibai, M I Mostafa, A Gibreel, E Darwish, H Maghraby
STUDY QUESTION: In ICSI patients with high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), are antagonist cycles triggered by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH) agonist with a specialized luteal support regimen associated with comparable ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and less OHSS than those triggered by hCG? SUMMARY ANSWER: In antagonist ICSI cycles, GnRH agonist triggering with a specialized luteal support regimen is associated with comparable OPR to those triggered by hCG but may be less likely to be associated with OHSS...
March 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
Boworn Soonthornsumrith, Jirawat Saetan, Thanapong Kruangkum, Tipsuda Thongbuakaew, Thanyaporn Senarai, Ronnarong Palasoon, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa
The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean species which has also been extensively used as a model in neuroscience research. The crustacean central nervous system is a highly complex structure, especially the brain. However, little information is available on the brain structure, especially the three-dimensional organization. In this study, we demonstrated the three-dimensional structure and histology of the brain of M. rosenbergii together with the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain and ovary as well as its effects on ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 20, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Katarina Harasimov, Melina Schuh
Contractile actin networks take on various functions in cells. How disordered actin networks contract is still poorly understood. A recent study proposes a contractile mechanism that is driven by actin disassembly and required to prevent chromosome losses in starfish oocytes.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Maria Portia B Nagata, Kenji Endo, Kazuko Ogata, Kenichi Yamanaka, Junki Egashira, Naoto Katafuchi, Tadayuki Yamanouchi, Hideo Matsuda, Yuki Goto, Miki Sakatani, Takuo Hojo, Hirofumi Nishizono, Kenji Yotsushima, Naoki Takenouchi, Yutaka Hashiyada, Kenichi Yamashita
Selection of functional spermatozoa plays a crucial role in assisted reproduction. Passage of spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract requires progressive motility to locate the oocyte. This preferential ability to reach the fertilization site confers fertility advantage to spermatozoa. Current routine sperm selection techniques are inadequate and fail to provide conclusive evidence on the sperm characteristics that may affect fertilization. We therefore developed a selection strategy for functional and progressively motile bovine spermatozoa with high DNA integrity based on the ability to cross laminar flow streamlines in a diffuser-type microfluidic sperm sorter (DMSS)...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kai Luo, Shuhuan Zhang, Dongdong Tang, Lihai Xia, Weihua Gao, Guangming Tian, Zhitao Qi, Qiaoqing Xu, Wenbing Zhang
Teleost fish have more complex interferon receptor systems than mammals. In the present study, genes encoding four cytokine receptor family B (CRFBs) and two interferon gamma receptors (IFNGRs) in Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) were identified by RNA-sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that the Dabry's sturgeon CRFBs and IFNGRs contained several conserved characteristics features, including signal peptides and a transmembrane domain. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that they belong to the CRFB3, CRFB5, and IFNGR protein families, and were named CRFB3a, CRFB3b, CRFB5a, CRFB5b, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2...
March 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Briony D Smith, Krystal J Vail, Gwendolyn L Carroll, Maggie C Taylor, Nicholas D Jeffery, Tracy H Vemulapalli, James J Elliott
Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomidate (15, 22.5, and 30 mg/L) and in 3 doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) compared with the 'gold standard,' tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222; 2 g/L). We then chose an optimal dose for each alternative anesthetic according to induction time, duration of surgical plane, and time to complete recovery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Seon-Ung Hwang, Kyu-Jun Kim, Eunhye Kim, Junchul David Yoon, Kyu Mi Park, Minghui Jin, Yongquan Han, Mirae Kim, Gabsang Lee, Sang-Hwan Hyun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule with biological activities, such as stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In the present study, we examined the effect of LPA on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). During IVM, the maturation medium was supplemented with various concentrations of LPA (0, 10, 30, and 60 μM). After 42 h of IVM, the 30 μM LPA-treated group showed a significant (P <0...
March 2, 2018: Theriogenology
Grace H Hwang, Jessica L Hopkins, Philip W Jordan
Chromatin spread techniques have been widely used to assess the dynamic localization of various proteins during gametogenesis, particularly for spermatogenesis. These techniques allow for visualization of protein and DNA localization patterns during meiotic events such as homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and DNA repair. While a few protocols have been described in the literature, general chromatin spread techniques using mammalian prophase oocytes are limited and difficult due to the timing of meiosis initiation in fetal ovaries...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Federica Cavalera, Mario Zanoni, Valeria Merico, Thi Thu Hien Bui, Martina Belli, Lorenzo Fassina, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
Infertility clinics would benefit from the ability to select developmentally competent vs. incompetent oocytes using non-invasive procedures, thus improving the overall pregnancy outcome. We recently developed a classification method based on microscopic live observations of mouse oocytes during their in vitro maturation from the germinal vesicle (GV) to the metaphase II stage, followed by the analysis of the cytoplasmic movements occurring during this time-lapse period. Here, we present detailed protocols of this procedure...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rebecca R Payton, Louisa A Rispoli, Kimberly A Nagle, Cedric Gondro, Arnold M Saxton, Brynn H Voy, J Lannett Edwards
Hyperthermia during estrus has direct consequences on the maturing oocyte that carries over to the resultant embryo to compromise its ability to continue in development. Because early embryonic development is reliant upon maternal transcripts and other ooplasmic components, we examined impact of heat stress on bovine oocyte transcripts using microarray. Oocytes were matured at 38.5ºC for 24 h or 41.0ºC for the first 12 h of in vitro maturation; 38.5ºC thereafter. Transcriptome profile was performed on total (adenylated + deadenylated) RNA and polyadenylated mRNA populations...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan
Recent studies challenge the previous view that apoptosis within the granulosa cells of the maturing ovarian follicle is a reflection of aging and consequently a marker for poor quality of the contained oocyte. On the contrary, apoptosis within the granulosa cells is an integral part of normal development and has limited predictive capability regarding oocyte quality or the ensuing pregnancy rate in in vitro fertilization programs. This review article covers our revised understanding of the process of apoptosis within the ovarian follicle, its three phenotypes, the major signaling pathways underlying apoptosis as well as the associated mitochondrial pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Dmitry S Bogolyubov
The karyosphere, aka the karyosome, is a meiosis-specific structure that represents a "knot" of condensed chromosomes joined together in a limited volume of the oocyte nucleus. The karyosphere is an evolutionarily conserved but morphologically rather "multifaceted" structure. It forms at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase in many animals, from hydra and Drosophila to human. Karyosphere formation is generally linked with transcriptional silencing of the genome. It is believed that karyosphere/karyosome is a prerequisite for proper completion of meiotic divisions and further development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
D J Miller
Millions or billions of sperm are deposited by artificial insemination or natural mating into the cow reproductive tract but only a few arrive at the site of fertilization and only one fertilizes an oocyte. The remarkable journey that successful sperm take to reach an oocyte is long and tortuous, and includes movement through viscous fluid, avoiding dead ends and hostile immune cells. The privileged collection of sperm that complete this journey must pass selection steps in the vagina, cervix, uterus, utero-tubal junction and oviduct...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Zi-Yi Li, Min Huang, Xiu-Kun Wang, Ying Zhu, Jin-Song Li, Catherine Cl Wong, Qun Fang
Single cell proteomic analysis provides crucial information on cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. Herein, we describe a nanoliter-scale oil-air-droplet (OAD) chip for achieving multi-step complex sample pretreatment and injection for single cell proteomic analysis under the shotgun mode. By using miniaturized stationary droplet microreaction and manipulation techniques, our system allows all sample pretreatment and injection procedures to be performed in a nanoliter-scale droplet with minimum sample loss and a high sample injection efficiency (> 99%), thus substantially increasing the analysis sensitivity for single cell samples...
March 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Takemasa Hidaka, Yutaka Fukumoto, Satoshi Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Ogata, Toshitaka Horiuchi
Variations in embryo production between individual oocyte donors represent a serious problem in cattle production, when implementing ovum pick-up (OPU) and in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes. However, the precise cause of this problem is unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the glutathione (GSH) concentration in IVM oocytes and embryo development to explore a potential cause of the variations between individual donors. First, we found a high positive correlation (r = 0.80) between the GSH concentration in IVM oocytes and the blastocyst development rate of oocytes collected in the same OPU session for each donor (N = 11)...
March 10, 2018: Theriogenology
Julia S Gauer, Sarka Tumova, Jonathan D Lippiat, Asimina Kerimi, Gary Williamson
Only limited data are available on the inhibition of the sugar transporter GLUT5 by flavonoids or other classes of bioactives. Intestinal GLUT7 is poorly characterised and no information exists concerning its inhibition. We aimed to study the expression of GLUT7 in Caco-2/TC7 intestinal cells, and evaluate inhibition of glucose transport by GLUT2 and GLUT7, and of fructose transport by GLUT2, GLUT5 and GLUT7, by flavonoids. Differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers were used to investigate GLUT7 expression, as well as biotinylation and immunofluorescence to assess GLUT7 location...
March 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Yan-Guang Wu, David H Barad, Vitaly A Kushnir, Qi Wang, Lin Zhang, Sarah K Darmon, David F Albertini, Norbert Gleicher
BACKGROUND: Highly Individualized Egg Retrieval (HIER), defined as age-specific early oocyte retrieval (ER), has been demonstrated to avoid premature luteinization in women ≥43. We here investigated whether HIER also applies to younger women with premature ovarian aging (POA), and what best lead follicle size should be for administration of ovulation-triggers. METHODS: Fifty-six women ≥43, and 37 POA patients underwent IVF cycles. Granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated, cultures were established, RNA was extracted and real-time PCR analyses performed, with gene expressions at mRNA level investigated for FSH receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCPR), P450 aromatase (CYP19a1) and progesterone receptor (PGR)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Luis Anel-López, Olga Garcia-Álvarez, Tatiana Tarantini, David Del Olmo, Jose Antonio Ortiz, Sergio Ledda, Emilio Arsenio Martinez, Ana J Soler, Jordi Roca, María R Fernández Santos, Juan Maria Vázquez, Inmaculada Parrilla, Jose Julián Garde
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of insemination timing on pregnancy rates in red deer (Cervus elaphus) when using sex-sorted sperm samples. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 8 mature stags and processed to obtain: Conventional samples, following standard freezing procedures for commercial purposes; Control sorted samples, diluted and handled as per sorted samples but without being submitted to the sorter passage; and Y Sex Sorted (YSS) samples. Hinds were synchronized via intravaginal CIDR (Controlled Internal Drug Release) placement and given eCG (Folligon® PMSG Serum Gonadotrophin) on day 12, upon CIDR removal...
March 9, 2018: Theriogenology
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
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