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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923120/long-oskar-controls-mitochondrial-inheritance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Thomas Ryan Hurd, Beate Herrmann, Julia Sauerwald, Justina Sanny, Markus Grosch, Ruth Lehmann
Inherited mtDNA mutations cause severe human disease. In most species, mitochondria are inherited maternally through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Genes that specifically control the inheritance of mitochondria in the germline are unknown. Here, we show that the long isoform of the protein Oskar regulates the maternal inheritance of mitochondria in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that, during oogenesis, mitochondria accumulate at the oocyte posterior, concurrent with the bulk streaming and churning of the oocyte cytoplasm...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922944/oocyte-vitrification-for-elective-fertility-preservation-the-past-present-and-future
#2
Vinay Gunnala, Glenn Schattman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oocyte cryopreservation is no longer experimental and one of its rapidly growing indications is elective fertility preservation. Currently there is no sufficient evidence to support its practice and therefore its place in IVF remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitrification has superior post-thaw survival and fertilization outcomes compared with oocytes that were frozen with the slow-freeze technique. Oocyte vitrification produces similar IVF outcomes compared with fresh oocytes and is not associated with further obstetrical or perinatal morbidity...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922120/regulation-of-human-cardiac-potassium-channels-by-full-length-kcne3-and-kcne4
#3
Geoffrey W Abbott
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels comprise pore-forming α subunits and a multiplicity of regulatory proteins, including the cardiac-expressed and cardiac arrhythmia-linked transmembrane KCNE subunits. After recently uncovering novel, N-terminally extended (L) KCNE3 and KCNE4 isoforms and detecting their transcripts in human atrium, reported here are their functional effects on human cardiac Kv channel α subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. As previously reported for short isoforms KCNE3S and KCNE4S, KCNE3L inhibited hERG; KCNE4L inhibited Kv1...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920998/short-term-organ-culture-of-mouse-ovary-in-the-medium-supplemented-with-bone-morphogenetic-protein-15-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-a-morphological-hormonal-and-molecular-study
#4
Mojdeh Salehnia, Mojdeh Pajokh, Nassim Ghorbanmehr
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) is a growth factor derived from oocyte and is essential for in vivo ovarian follicular growth and in this study, its effects on the improvement of growth and development of follicles during in vitro culture of neonatal mouse ovaries was investigated. METHODS: Two week old mice were cultured for 7 days in the basic culture media with or without follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMP15 as four experimental groups; FSH(-)/BMP15(-), FSH(+)/BMP15(-), FSH(-)/BMP15(+) and FSH(+)/BMP15(+)...
October 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920997/cyclic-variation-of-cellular-clock-proteins-in-the-mouse-estrous-ovary
#5
George Wiggins, Michael Legge
BACKGROUND: The mammalian ovary is controlled by a number of biological rhythms, which regulate the recruitment and release of mature oocytes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of cellular clock proteins during follicle maturation in the mouse estrous ovary. METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies were performed on ovaries from 50 estrous staged mice culled at two time points of 09:00 [day] and 01:00 [mid-point of the dark cycle]. Six antibodies were used to identify the expression of core cellular clock proteins (BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1 and PER2) within the ovary and four follicle stages, primordial, primary, antral and corpus lutea...
October 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919266/arrest-at-the-diplotene-stage-of-meiotic-prophase-i-is-delayed-by-progesterone-but-is-not-required-for-primordial-follicle-formation-in-mice
#6
Sudipta Dutta, Deion M Burks, Melissa E Pepling
BACKGROUND: In mammalian females, reproductive capacity is determined by the size of the primordial follicle pool. During embryogenesis, oogonia divide mitotically but cytokinesis is incomplete so oogonia remain connected in germ cell cysts. Oogonia begin to enter meiosis at 13.5 days postcoitum in the mouse and over several days, oocytes progress through the stages of meiotic prophase I arresting in the diplotene stage. Concurrently, germ cell cysts break apart and individual oocytes become surrounded by granulosa cells forming primordial follicles...
December 5, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919073/mitochondrial-replacement-in-human-oocytes-carrying-pathogenic-mitochondrial-dna-mutations
#7
Eunju Kang, Jun Wu, Nuria Marti Gutierrez, Amy Koski, Rebecca Tippner-Hedges, Karen Agaronyan, Aida Platero-Luengo, Paloma Martinez-Redondo, Hong Ma, Yeonmi Lee, Tomonari Hayama, Crystal Van Dyken, Xinjian Wang, Shiyu Luo, Riffat Ahmed, Ying Li, Dongmei Ji, Refik Kayali, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Susan Olson, Jeffrey Jensen, David Battaglia, David Lee, Diana Wu, Taosheng Huang, Don P Wolf, Dmitry Temiakov, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Paula Amato, Shoukhrat Mitalipov
Maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt)DNA mutations can cause fatal or severely debilitating syndromes in children, with disease severity dependent on the specific gene mutation and the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA (heteroplasmy) in each cell and tissue. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations are relatively common, with an estimated 778 affected children born each year in the United States. Mitochondrial replacement therapies or techniques (MRT) circumventing mother-to-child mtDNA disease transmission involve replacement of oocyte maternal mtDNA...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919026/hindered-cytoplasmic-diffusion-of-inositol-trisphosphate-restricts-its-cellular-range-of-action
#8
George D Dickinson, Kyle L Ellefsen, Silvina Ponce Dawson, John E Pearson, Ian Parker
The range of action of intracellular messengers is determined by their rates of diffusion and degradation. Previous measurements in oocyte cytoplasmic extracts indicated that the Ca(2+)-liberating second messenger inositol trisphosphate (IP3) diffuses with a coefficient (~280 μm(2) s(-1)) similar to that in water, corresponding to a range of action of ~25 μm. Consequently, IP3 is generally considered a "global" cellular messenger. We reexamined this issue by measuring local IP3-evoked Ca(2+) puffs to monitor IP3 diffusing from spot photorelease in neuroblastoma cells...
November 8, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918485/somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-followed-by-cripsr-cas9-microinjection-results-in-highly-efficient-genome-editing-in-cloned-pigs
#9
Timothy P Sheets, Chi-Hun Park, Ki-Eun Park, Anne Powell, David M Donovan, Bhanu P Telugu
The domestic pig is an ideal "dual purpose" animal model for agricultural and biomedical research. With the availability of genome editing tools such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and associated nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9), it is now possible to perform site-specific alterations with relative ease, and will likely help realize the potential of this valuable model. In this article, we investigated for the first time a combination of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and direct injection of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoprotein complex targeting GRB10 into the reconstituted oocytes to generate GRB10 ablated Ossabaw fetuses...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917907/ecat1-is-essential-for-human-oocyte-maturation-and-pre-implantation-development-of-the-resulting-embryos
#10
Changyu Liu, Min Li, Tianjie Li, Hongcui Zhao, Jin Huang, Yun Wang, Qian Gao, Yang Yu, Qinghua Shi
ECAT1 is a subunit of the subcortical maternal complex that is required for cell cycle progression during pre-implantation embryonic development; however, its exact function remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the expression of ECAT1 in human ovarian tissue, oocytes and pre-implantation embryos and assessed its function by using RNA interference (RNAi) in oocytes. ECAT1 mRNA was highly expressed in human oocytes and zygotes, as well as in two-cell, four-cell and eight-cell embryos, but declined significantly in morulae and blastocysts...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916207/integrating-insulin-into-single-step-culture-medium-regulates-human-embryo-development-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Mohamed Fawzy, Mohamed Sabry, Mohamed Nour, Mohamed Y Abdelrahman, Eman Roshdy, Yasmin Magdi, Hazem Abdelghafar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplementing single-step embryo culture medium with insulin on human embryo development. DESIGN: Comparative study. SETTING: Two private centers. PATIENT(S): The study involved a sibling oocyte split of 5,142 retrieved oocytes from 360 patients. INTERVENTION(S): Sibling oocytes split after intracytoplasmic sperm injection for culture from day 0 through day 5 or 6 in insulin-supplemented or control medium...
December 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916206/how-many-oocytes-are-optimal-to%C3%A2-achieve-multiple-live-births-with%C3%A2-one-stimulation-cycle-the%C3%A2-one%C3%A2-and-done-approach
#12
Denis A Vaughan, Angela Leung, Nina Resetkova, Robin Ruthazer, Alan S Penzias, Denny Sakkas, Michael M Alper
OBJECTIVE: To study how many infertility patients would complete an average-sized family (achieve ≥2 live births) after a single, complete in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University-affiliated private infertility practice. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing IVF. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The outcome of 1 or ≥2 live births after a single retrieval cycle, followed by use of all embryos in subsequent frozen cycles in relation to oocyte number...
December 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915039/uterine-immune-profiling-for-increasing-live-birth-rate-a-one-to-one-matched-cohort-study
#13
Nathalie Lédée, Laura Prat-Ellenberg, Lucie Chevrier, Richard Balet, Cynthia Simon, Clarisse Lenoble, Elie El Irani, Dominique Bouret, Guy Cassuto, Dominique Vitoux, Katia Vezmar, Armand Bensussan, Gérard Chaouat, Marie Petitbarat
BACKGROUND: Embryo implantation remains the main limiting factor in IVF/ICSI program. Endometrial immune remodeling events begin before implantation and are a vital process for pregnancy, preparing future maternal immune tolerance and regulating the placentation process. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, 193 patients (analyzed group) enrolled in our IVF program benefitted of an endometrial immune profiling to determine if their uterus was immunologically ready to accept an embryo and, if not, the specific immune mechanisms involved...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914918/epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#14
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Kirk Gosik, Sujuan Xing, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Rongling Wu
Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing...
November 9, 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914037/expression-of-mrna-and-protein-of-il-18-and-its-receptor-in-human-follicular-granulosa-cells
#15
A Salmassi, A Fattahi, M Nouri, J Hedderich, A G Schmutzler
PURPOSE: There is no information available about the IL-18 receptor in ovarian follicles, so the present study attempts to demonstrate the expression of IL-18 and its receptor in human granulosa cells (GCs). METHODS: To evaluate the concentration of IL-18 in serum and follicular fluid (FF), we collected serum and FF from 102 women undergoing oocyte retrieval. Also, to detect expression of IL-18 and its receptor by luteinized GCs, these cells were pooled six times from a total of twenty individual patients with 5-16 follicles each...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913778/effect-of-deslorelin-acetate-treatment-in-oocyte-recovery-and-in-vitro-embryo-production-in-domestic-cats
#16
Camila Louise Ackermann, Eduardo Trevisol, Leticia Ferrari Crocomo, Tatiana da Silva Rascado, Rodrigo Volpato, Carlos Renato de Freitas Guaitolini, Carlize Lopes, Talita de Almeida Costa, Maria Denise Lopes
OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the effect of contraceptive treatment with deslorelin acetate on in vitro embryo production and oocyte recovery in domestic queens. METHODS: Twenty-one mature domestic cats were used. Eleven queens (treated group) and one tom were kept in an experimental cattery, and 10 queens were privately owned (control group). When in interestrus or diestrus (day 0) a deslorelin acetate implant (Suprelorin, 4.7 mg/animal) was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the interscapular region in all queens in the treated group...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913641/translation-repression-by-maternal-rna-binding-protein-zar1-is-essential-for-early-oogenesis-in-zebrafish
#17
Liyun Miao, Yue Yuan, Feng Cheng, Junshun Fang, Fang Zhou, Weirui Ma, Yan Jiang, Xiahe Huang, Yingchun Wang, Lingjuan Shan, Dahua Chen, Jian Zhang
Large numbers of maternal RNAs are deposited in oocytes and are reserved for later development. Control of maternal RNA translation during oocyte maturation has been extensively investigated and its regulatory mechanisms are well documented. However, translational regulation of maternal RNAs in early oogenesis is largely unexplored. In this study, we generated zebrafish zar1 mutants which result in early oocyte apoptosis and fully penetrant male development. Loss of p53 suppresses the apoptosis in zar1 mutants and restores oocyte development...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913150/juvenile-hormone-titers-ovarian-status-and-epicuticular-hydrocarbons-in-gynes-and-workers-of-the-paper-wasp-belonogaster-longitarsus
#18
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912901/individualized-versus-conventional-ovarian-stimulation-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-assessor-blinded-phase-3-noninferiority-trial
#19
Anders Nyboe Andersen, Scott M Nelson, Bart C J M Fauser, Juan Antonio García-Velasco, Bjarke M Klein, Joan-Carles Arce
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of follitropin delta, a new human recombinant FSH with individualized dosing based on serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and body weight, with conventional follitropin alfa dosing for ovarian stimulation in women undergoing IVF. DESIGN: Randomized, multicenter, assessor-blinded, noninferiority trial (ESTHER-1). SETTING: Reproductive medicine clinics. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,329 women (aged 18-40 years)...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912163/reproduction-impairment-and-endocrine-disruption-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-after-waterborne-exposure-to-tboep
#20
Qinglong Xu, Ding Wu, Yao Dang, Liqin Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Jianghua Wang
Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is widely used as a substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). It has been frequently measured at concentrations of micrograms per liter (μg/L) in surface waters and waste water. However, limited information is available about the reproduction toxicology of TBOEP. In this study, adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, and 500μg/L for 21days. The effects on reproduction, hormone concentration, transcription of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and gonadal development were investigated...
November 24, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
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