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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538216/the-emerging-view-of-aging-as-a-reversible-epigenetic-process
#1
Micaela López-León, Rodolfo G Goya
The achievement of animal cloning and subsequent development of cell reprogramming technology are having a profound impact on our view of the mechanisms of aging in complex organisms. The experimental evidence showing that an adult somatic nucleus implanted into an enucleated oocyte can give rise to a whole new individual strongly suggests that the integrity of the genome of an adult nucleus is fully preserved. Here, we will review recent experimental evidence showing that pluripotency gene-based cell reprogramming can erase the epigenetic marks of aging and rejuvenate cells from old individuals reversing most signs of aging and that when induced pluripotent stem cells are differentiated back to the cell type of origin, the rejuvenated cells share many of the features of wild-type counterparts from young donors...
May 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534597/metabolomics-for-improving-pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#2
REVIEW
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#3
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534057/the-effect-of-thawing-protocols-on-follicle-conservation-in-human-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation
#4
T Morewood, N Getreu, B Fuller, J Morris, P Hardiman
BACKGROUND: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation has the potential to improve fertility preservation for a growing number of patients undergoing sterilising therapy, particularly where oocyte or embryo cryopreservation is not suitable. However, its success is limited by significant follicular apoptosis upon thawing, and there is wide variation in thawing protocols used with little evidence of efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the best warming rates to maintain tissue viability...
March 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533957/pld2-regulates-microtubule-stability-and-spindle-migration-in-mouse-oocytes-during-meiotic-division
#5
Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaoyun Liu, Dandan Chen, Xiuying Jiang, Wei Ma
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell cycle progression, transcriptional control and vesicle trafficking. There is no evidence about PLD2 function in oocytes during meiosis. Herein, we analyzed PLD2 expression and its relationship with spindle formation and positioning in mouse oocyte meiosis. High protein level of PLD2 was revealed in oocytes by Western blot, which remained consistently stable from prophase I with intact germinal vesicle (GV) up to metaphase II (MII) stage...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533904/-this-is-where-it-all-started-the-pivotal-role-of-plc%C3%AE-within-the-sophisticated-process-of-mammalian-reproduction-a-systemic-review
#6
Itai Gat, Raoul Orvieto
Mammalian reproduction is one of the most complex and fascinating biological phenomenon, which aims to transfer maternal and paternal genetic material to the next generation. At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing individual. The mature oocyte and spermatozoa remain in a quiescent state, during which the oocyte is characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic arrest, while the spermatozoa necessitates further maturation within the epididymis and female reproductive track prior to egg fertilization...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533542/regulation-of-gvbd-in-mouse-oocytes-by-mir-125a-3p-and-fyn-kinase-through-modulation-of-actin-filaments
#7
Hadas Grossman, Efrat Har-Paz, Natalie Gindi, Mattan Levi, Irit Miller, Nava Nevo, Dalia Galiani, Nava Dekel, Ruth Shalgi
Meiotically arrested oocytes are characterized by the presence of the nuclear structure known as germinal-vesicle (GV), the breakdown of which (GVBD) is associated with resumption of meiosis. Fyn is a pivotal factor in resumption of the first meiotic division; its inhibition markedly decreases the fraction of oocytes undergoing GVBD. Here, we reveal that in mouse oocytes Fyn is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-125a-3p. We demonstrate that in oocytes resuming meiosis miR-125a-3p and Fyn exhibit a reciprocal expression pattern; miR-125a-3p decreases alongside with an increase in Fyn expression...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533163/grin2b-gain-of-function-mutations-are-sensitive-to-radiprodil-a-negative-allosteric-modulator-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#8
Brice Mullier, Christian Wolff, Zara Amanda Sands, Philippe Ghisdal, Pierandrea Muglia, Rafal Marian Kaminski, Véronique Marie André
De novo gain of function mutations in GRIN2B encoding the GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor have been linked with epileptic encephalopathies, including infantile spasms. We investigated the effects of radiprodil, a selective GluN2B negative allosteric modulator and other non-selective NMDA receptor inhibitors on glutamate currents mediated by NMDA receptors containing mutated GluN2B subunits. The experiments were performed in Xenopus oocytes co-injected with the following human mRNAs: GRIN1/GRIN2B, GRIN1/GRIN2B-R540H, GRIN1/GRIN2B-N615I and GRIN1/GRIN2B-V618G...
May 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532829/quercetin-supplemented-diet-improves-follicular-development-oocyte-quality-and-reduces-ovarian-apoptosis-in-rabbits-during-summer-heat-stress
#9
Zahid Naseer, Ejaz Ahmad, Erkmen Tuğrul Epikmen, Uğur Uçan, Murat Boyacioğlu, Emrah İpek, Melih Akosy
The present study was designed to test the modulatory effect of dietary quercetin on follicle population, apoptosis, in vitro maturation rate and quality of oocytes in heat stressed female rabbits. A total of thirty-four New Zealand White heat stress (HS) exposed female rabbits were either fed with quercetin supplemented diet (QU-HS) or non-supplemented (HS) diet. Firstly, laparotomy was performed for oocyte retrieval and then, oocyte grading and COCs dimensional assessments were conducted. The A and B-grade oocytes were submitted for in vitro maturation...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532828/expression-of-apelin-and-apelin-receptor-apj-in-porcine-ovarian-follicles-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-effect-of-apelin-on-steroidogenesis-and-proliferation-through-apj-activation-and-different-signaling-pathways
#10
A Rak, E Drwal, Ch Rame, K Knapczyk-Stwora, M Słomczyńska, J Dupont, E L Gregoraszczuk
Apelin was thought to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies indicate a link between apelin and female reproductive function. Using real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA, we demonstrated expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) in ovarian follicles of different sizes from mature pigs. Apelin concentration in the follicular fluid, and expression of both apelin and APJ, increased with follicular growth; greatest values were found in large follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed the positive staining for apelin and APJ in membranes of granulosa, than theca cells...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532826/seasonal-infertility-in-gilts-and-sows-aetiology-clinical-implications-and-treatments
#11
REVIEW
Fabio De Rensis, Adam J Ziecik, Roy N Kirkwood
In gilts and sows, the summer-autumn period often is characterized by reduced fertility. Heat stress and long photoperiods during the warm season can cause a reduction in feed intake and an imbalance of the hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian axis. The increased variability in the interval between oestrus onset and ovulation results in an increased number of poorly timed inseminations. The altered endocrine activity compromises follicular and corpora luteal development, reduces oocyte quality and increases embryo mortality...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532679/the-functional-interaction-between-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-ly-6-neurotoxin-proteins-in-locusta-migratoria
#12
Haibo Bao, Yixi Zhang, Yang Liu, Na Yu, Zewen Liu
Failures in expressing insect nAChRs (nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) limit the understanding of their functional properties, although insect nAChRs have been developed as insecticide targets for decades. Some accessory proteins can modulate nAChRs, but only a few have been identified in insects, including lynx from Ly-6/neurotoxin superfamily. Until now, only one to three lynx were identified in one insect species. Here, 11 lynx were identified in Locusta migratoria with common features of Ly-6/neurotoxin members...
May 19, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532660/bio-equivalent-doses-of-recombinent-hcg-and-recombinent-lh-during-ovarian-stimulation-result-in-similar-oestradiol-output-a-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Birgit Alsbjerg, Helle Olesen Elbaek, Rita Jakubcionyte Laursen, Betina Boel Povlsen, Thor Haahr, Claus Yding Andersen, Peter Humaidan
In nature, HCG is secreted by the implanting embryo from peri-implantation and onwards. In contrast, LH is mandatory for steroidogenesis and follicular development during the follicular phase, working in synergy with FSH. Moreover, LH is mandatory for the function of the corpus luteum. Although LH and HCG bind to the same receptor, significant molecular, structural and functional differences exist, inducing differences in bioactivity. This randomized controlled study compared the effect of recombinent FSH stimulation combined with daily either micro-dose recombinent HCG or recombinent LH supplementation in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio from day 1 of stimulation in a long gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist down regulation protocol...
May 11, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532517/expression-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-in-hen-ovary
#14
Pengfei Li, Xuejing Yu, Jianshan Xie, Xiaolei Yao, Wenzhong Liu, Jianbo Yao, Zhiwei Zhu, Lihua Lyu
BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered initially by via differential display RT-PCR analysis of brains of rats administered cocaine, is expressed mainly in central nervous system or neuronal origin cells, and is involved in a wide range of behaviors, such as regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction. The hens egg-laying rate mainly depends on the developmental status of follicles, expression of CART have not been identified from hen follicles, the regulatory mechanisms of CART biological activities are still unknown...
May 22, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531369/should-high-bmi-be-a-reason-for-ivf-treatment-denial
#15
S Friedler, O Cohen, G Liberty, B Saar-Ryss, S Meltzer, T Lazer
Our aim was to examine the influence of BMI on the live-birth rate following IVF/ICSI and evaluate its specific contribution among other factors thus enabling accurate reproductive policy development. All patients that underwent IVF/ICSI at our center during January 2012-July 2015 were included in this retrospective study. A total of 1654 ICSI cycles were divided into four groups according to the patient's BMI (kg/m(2)): group I (normal weight): <25 (943 cycles); group II (overweight): 25-30 (403 cycles); group III (obese): 30-35 (212 cycles); group IV (morbid obesity): >35 (96 cycles)...
May 20, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531193/raman-microscopy-investigation-of-vitrification-induced-structural-damages-in-mature-bovine-oocytes
#16
Giulia Rusciano, Carolina De Canditiis, Gianluigi Zito, Marcello Rubessa, Maria Serena Roca, Rosa Carotenuto, Antonio Sasso, Bianca Gasparrini
Although oocyte cryopreservation has great potentials in the field of reproductive technologies, it still is an open challenge in the majority of domestic animals and little is known on the biochemical transformation induced by this process in the different cellular compartments. Raman micro-spectroscopy allows the non-invasive evaluation of the molecular composition of cells, based on the inelastic scattering of laser photons by vibrating molecules. The aim of this work was to assess the biochemical modifications of both the zona pellucida and cytoplasm of vitrified/warmed in vitro matured bovine oocytes at different post-warming times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529453/the-role-of-germ-cell-loss-during-primordial-follicle-assembly-a-review-of-current-advances
#17
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Xiao-Feng Sun, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
In most female mammals, early germline development begins with the appearance of primordial germ cells (PGCs), and develops to form mature oocytes following several vital processes. It remains well accepted that significant germ cell apoptosis and oocyte loss takes place around the time of birth. The transition of the ovarian environment from fetal to neonatal, coincides with the loss of germ cells and the timing of follicle formation. All told it is common to lose approximately two thirds of germ cells during this transition period...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528817/tracing-and-characterizing-the-development-of-transplanted-female-germline-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vivo
#18
Changqing Wu, Bo Xu, Xiaoyong Li, Wenzhi Ma, Ping Zhang, Xuejin Chen, Ji Wu
It has long been believed that most female mammalian species lose the ability to generate oocytes in postnatal ovaries. Recent evidence has demonstrated the isolation and culture of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) from adult mice and humans. However, the process and mechanisms of FGSC differentiation in vivo following transplantation have not yet been studied. Here, we isolated and characterized FGSCs from a single EGFP-transgenic mouse, and traced the development and behavior of transplanted FGSCs (F-TFs) in vivo...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528388/fertility-sparing-for-young-patients-with-gynecologic-cancer-how-mri-can-guide-patient-selection-prior-to-conservative-management
#19
REVIEW
Sinead H McEvoy, Stephanie Nougaret, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Hebert Alberto Vargas, Elizabeth A Sadowski, Christine O Menias, Fuki Shitano, Shinya Fujii, Ramon E Sosa, Joanna G Escalon, Evis Sala, Yulia Lakhman
Historically, cancer treatment has emphasized measures for the "cure" regardless of the long-term consequences. Advances in cancer detection and treatment have resulted in improved outcomes bringing to the fore various quality of life considerations including future fertility. For many young cancer patients, fertility preservation is now an integral component of clinical decision-making and treatment design. Optimal fertility-sparing options for young patients with gynecologic cancer are influenced by patient age, primary cancer, treatment regimens, and patient preferences...
May 20, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527703/sperm-oocyte-contact-induces-outside-in-signaling-via-pyk2-activation
#20
Huizhen Wang, Jinping Luo, Carol Carlton, Lynda K McGinnis, William H Kinsey
Fertilization is a multi-step process that begins with plasma membrane interactions that enable sperm - oocyte binding followed by fusion of the sperm and oocyte plasma membranes. Once membrane fusion has occurred, sperm incorporation involves actin remodeling events within the oocyte cortex that allow the sperm head to penetrate the cortical actin layer and gain access to the ooplasm. Despite the significance for reproduction, the control mechanisms involved in gamete binding, fusion, and sperm incorporation are poorly understood...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
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