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Non linear analysis

Marissa M Maier, Ina Gylys-Colwell, Elliott Lowy, Puja Van Epps, Michael Ohl, Maggie Chartier, Lauren A Beste
To quantify health care facility-level variation in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in the Veteran's Health Administration (VHA); to identify facility characteristics associated with PrEP use. Retrospective analysis of the health care facility-level rate of PrEP initiation in VHA through June 30, 2017. Standardized PrEP initiation rates were used to rank facilities. Characteristics of facilities, prescribers, and PrEP recipients were examined within quartiles. Multiple linear regression was used to identify associations between facility characteristics and PrEP use...
December 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Thomas Elmqvist, José Siri, Erik Andersson, Pippin Anderson, Xuemei Bai, Pranab Kishore Das, Tatu Gatere, Andrew Gonzalez, Julie Goodness, Steven N Handel, Ellika Hermansson Török, Jessica Kavonic, Jakub Kronenberg, Elisabet Lindgren, David Maddox, Raymond Maher, Cheikh Mbow, Timon McPhearson, Joe Mulligan, Guy Nordenson, Meggan Spires, Ulrika Stenkula, Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Coleen Vogel
Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives...
2018: Sustainability science
Xi Chen, Wu Chen, Yanwen Wang, Yiqun Han, Tong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise benefits health but increases inhalation of fine particles (PM2.5 ) in ambient air. Acute cardiopulmonary responses to PM2.5 exposure in individuals with different exercise habits, especially in areas with severe air pollution, are not well understood. METHODS: To examine acute cardiopulmonary responses to PM2.5 exposure modified by exercise habits, a panel of 20 healthy non-smoking male subjects, recruited in Beijing, China, completed seven visits...
December 13, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Maria Eugenia Leone Gold, Akinobu Watanabe
BACKGROUND: In comparative neurobiology, major transitions in behavior are thought to be associated with proportional size changes in brain regions. Bird-line theropod dinosaurs underwent a drastic locomotory shift from terrestrial to volant forms, accompanied by a suite of well-documented postcranial adaptations. To elucidate the potential impact of this locomotor shift on neuroanatomy, we first tested for a correlation between loss of flight in extant birds and whether the brain morphology of these birds resembles that of their flightless, non-avian dinosaurian ancestors...
December 13, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Michael E Holmstrup, Michael A Kelley, Kyla R Calhoun, Caleb L Kiess
This study quantified and compared unilateral farmer's walk (UFW) performance in recreationally active males and females, and determined if additional variables allowed for the prediction of a maximal safe load. Anthropometric (height, body weight (BW), body mass index, body fat percentage, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass), muscular endurance (maximal duration side bridge), and balance (Balance Error Scoring System (BESS)) tests were completed. Participants performed a series of 20 s UFW trials (non-dominant side) at a cadence of 66 beats/min...
December 8, 2018: Sports
Yazhen Sun, Bincheng Gu, Lin Gao, Linjiang Li, Rui Guo, Qingqing Yue, Jinchang Wang
In order to represent the mechanical response laws of high-modulus asphalt pavement (HMAP) faithfully and objectively, the viscoelasticity of high-modulus asphalt mixture (HMAM) was considered, and the viscoelastic mechanical responses were calculated systematically based on moving load by numerical simulations. The performances of the HMAP in resistance to the deformation and the cracking at the bottom layer were compared with the ordinary asphalt pavement. Firstly, Lubao and Honeywell 7686 (H7686) were selected as the high modulus modifiers...
December 7, 2018: Materials
Ruili Li, Chunhua Yan, Yunxia Zhao, Pei Wang, Guo Yu Qiu
Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, the only drought-resistant, leguminous, evergreen shrub in the desert region of China, is endangered due to climate change and its growth stages urgently need to be non-destructively detected. Although many spectral indexes have been proposed for characterizing vegetation, the relationships are often inconsistent, making it challenging to characterize the status of vegetation across all growth stages. This study investigated the Spectral Features of the endangered desert plant A. mongolicus at different growth stages, and extracted the identified Spectral Features for the establishment of detection and discrimination models using Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Fisher Linear Discriminate Analysis (FLDA), respectively...
December 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiao Ouyang, Qinglong Shao, Xiang Zhu, Qingyun He, Chao Xiang, Guoen Wei
Particles with a diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) have serious adverse-effects on human health, which have caused widespread public concern in recent decades. Currently, most of the existing research on PM2.5 have used linear regression analysis; very few studies on the subject have been conducted using non-linear models. This study adopts a panel threshold model, which is seldom used in environmental studies, to examine the non-linear effects of environmental regulation and economic growth on PM2.5 in 30 OECD countries, and we also explore the key driving socio-economic factors for PM2...
December 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guillem Feixas, Clara Paz, Eugeni García-Grau, Adrián Montesano, Joan C Medina, Arturo Bados, Adriana Trujillo, Eliana Ortíz, Victoria Compañ, Marta Salla, Mari Aguilera, Víctor Guasch, Jordi Codina, David A Winter
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is aimed to counteract cognitions and behaviours that are considered as dysfunctional. The aim of the study is to test whether the inclusion of a non-counteractive approach (dilemma-focused intervention, DFI) in combination with CBT group therapy will yield better short- and long-term outcomes than an intervention conducted entirely using CBT. METHOD: A total of 128 patients with depression and at least one cognitive conflict, of six health community centres in Barcelona, participated from November of 2011 to December of 2014 in seven weekly group CBT sessions and were then randomly allocated to either DFI or CBT (eight individual sessions each) by an independent researcher...
2018: PloS One
Tanwei Yuan, Hongbo Zhang, Bin Chen, Hong Zhang, Shasha Tao
High dose arsenic in drinking water (≥100 μg L-1 ) is known to induce lung cancer, but lung cancer risks at low to moderate arsenic levels and its dose-response relationship remains inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review of cohort and case-control studies that quantitatively reported the association between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and lung cancer risks by searching the PubMed database till June 14, 2018. Pooled relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer associated with full range (10 μg L-1 -1000 μg L-1 ) and low to moderate range (<100 μg L-1 ) of water arsenic concentrations were calculated using random-effects models...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Jia Mi, Zudong Yin, Xinyi Zhang, Wushi Han, Xiangsen Jiang, Changbin Wang, Xiaobao Li, Zhangzhu Li, Lei Yu, Liang Yin, Lin Cheng
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between the parameters of non-contrast helical computed tomography (NCHCT) and the total energy of holmium laser lithotripsy, and establish a correlative mathematical model. From March 2016 to February 2017, 120 patients with a single urinary calculus were examined by NCHCT prior to holmium laser lithotripsy. The calculus location was confirmed, the CT value was measured and the volume of the calculus in the established three-dimensional reconstruction model was calculated...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Nariman Moradi, Reza Fadaei, Zahra Zandieh, Parisa Shabani, Akram Vatannejad
Altered production of adipokines is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) play diverse roles in regulation of metabolism in physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the present study, we assessed serum concentrations of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 in individuals with PCOS and those without PCOS. We also evaluated the possible association of these adipokines with metabolic and hormonal variables. A total of 171 premenopausal women (86 with PCOS and 85 without PCOS) enrolled in this study...
2018: PloS One
Stefan Momčilović, Jasmina R Milovanović, Slobodan M Janković, Andriana Jovanović, Suzana Tasić-Otašević, Dragana Stanojević, Miroslav Krstić, Sonja Šalinger-Martinović, Danijela Djordjević Radojković, Miodrag Damjanović, Milan Živković, Bojan Maričić, Goran Ranković, Aleksandar Mihajlović, Valentina N Nikolić
To date, many questions about the extent and cause of pharmacokinetic variability of even the most widely studied and prescribed β1-adrenergic receptor blockers, such as metoprolol and bisoprolol, remain unanswered. Given that there are still no published population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analyses of bisoprolol in routinely treated patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the aim of this study was to determine its PK variability in 71 Serbian patients with ACS. PopPK analysis was carried out using a non-linear mixed effects model (NONMEM), version 7...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Gary Tse, Yimei Du, Guoliang Hao, Ka Hou Christien Li, Fiona Yin Wah Chan, Tong Liu, Guangping Li, George Bazoukis, Konstantinos P Letsas, William K K Wu, Shuk Han Cheng, Wing Tak Wong
Background: Beat-to-beat variability in action potential duration (APD) is an intrinsic property of cardiac tissue and is altered in pro-arrhythmic states. However, it has never been examined in mice. Methods: Left atrial or ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts during regular 8 Hz pacing. Time-domain, frequency-domain and non-linear analyses were used to quantify APD variability. Results: Mean atrial APD (90% repolarization) was 23.5 ± 6.3 ms and standard deviation (SD) was 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ina Mishra, Clinton Jones, Vipulkumar Patel, Sneha Deodhar, David P Cistola
Background: The ability to use frozen biobanked samples from cohort studies and clinical trials is critically important for biomarker discovery and validation. Here we investigated whether plasma and serum water transverse relaxation times (T2 ) from frozen biobanked samples could be used as biomarkers for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its underlying conditions, specifically insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and subclinical inflammation. Methods: Plasma and serum aliquots from 44 asymptomatic, non-diabetic human subjects were biobanked at -80°C for 7-9 months...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Jitka Vanderpol, Leon Jonker
OBJECTIVE: Greater occipital nerve (GON) block is a treatment option applied for a variety of primary headache disorders. Although a patient's body position is known to have an impact on the effect of local anaesthetics, this has not before been investigated for patients undergoing GON block. Therefore, the clinical effectiveness of either a sitting or supine position was assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This evaluative prospective study took place in a single neurology department in the UK...
December 3, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Zhangyan Lyu, Ni Li, Gang Wang, Xiaoshuang Feng, Shuohua Chen, Kai Su, Fang Li, Luopei Wei, Xin Li, Shuanghua Xie, Lanwei Guo, Yuheng Chen, Fengwei Tan, Jian Yin, Hong Cui, Hongda Chen, Jiang Li, Jiansong Ren, Jufang Shi, Shouling Wu, Min Dai, Jie He
To investigate the independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males, a prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 109,798 males with baseline information on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and non-HDL were prospectively observed from 2006 to 2015 for cancer incidence. Cox proportional hazards models and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
H-G Ding, H-F Zhou, M-Y Diao, Y Xu, Q-M Pan, X-H Shen
OBJECTIVE: Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein (HRG) has been reported to be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cancer, and sepsis as a novel biomarker. However, there is limited evidence regarding its value in diagnosing or prognosis evaluating of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 186 patients intubated in ICU and 65 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into VAP group (n = 116), non-VAP group (n = 70) and control group (n = 65)...
November 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ashok Zakkula, Vinay Kiran, Umesh Todmal, Suresh P Sulochana, Ramesh Mullangi
A simple, specific and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method has been developed and validated for the quantitation of second generation antiandrogens and their active metabolites namely apalutamide, enzalutamide, N -desmethylenzalutamide (active metabolite of enzalutamide), darolutamide and ORM-15341 (active metabolite of darolutamide) in mice plasma. The method involves extraction of apalutamide, enzalutamide, N -desmethylenzalutamide, darolutamide and ORM-15341 along with internal standard (IS) from 100 µL mice plasma through a simple protein precipitation process...
December 10, 2018: Drug Research
Georgy Malinovsky, Ilia Yarmoshenko, Aleksey Vasilyev
Indoor exposure to natural radon is a factor that influences lung cancer risk worldwide. The present study includes a meta-analysis of epidemiological data on the relationship between lung cancer and indoor radon. Altogether, 31 case-control studies with 20,703 cases, 34,518 controls and 140 individual odds ratio (OR) estimates are included in the meta-analysis. Weighted median OR was calculated for five radon intervals. The following parameters were used for the weighting: standard error of OR, duration of radon concentration measurement, and relative number of controls in reference intervals...
December 8, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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