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Non linear analysis

Jacob B Salyers, Yue Dong, Yan Gai
OBJECTIVE: Human body movements can be reflected in brain signals and collected non-invasively with Electroencephalography (EEG). Motor-related signals include sensory motor rhythms (also known as the Mu wave) in the upper-alpha band of 8 to 13 Hz and slow cortical potentials (SCPs) in the low frequency range of 0.1 to 5 Hz. This study compares the two signals for decoding finger movements. METHOD: Human subjects were asked to individually lift each of the five digits of their right hand, at the rate of one every 10 s...
October 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Ahmed A Khalil, Kersten Villringer, Vivien Filleböck, Jiun-Yiing Hu, Andrea Rocco, Jochen B Fiebach, Arno Villringer
Relative delays in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal oscillations can be used to assess cerebral perfusion without using contrast agents. However, little is currently known about the utility of this method in detecting clinically relevant perfusion changes over time. We investigated the relationship between longitudinal BOLD delay changes, vessel recanalization, and reperfusion in 15 acute stroke patients with vessel occlusion examined within 24 h of symptom onset (D0) and one day later (D1). We created BOLD delay maps using time shift analysis of resting-state functional MRI data and quantified perfusion lesion volume changes (using the D1/D0 volume ratio) and severity changes (using a linear mixed model) over time...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Matthew S Tenan, Addison W Bohannon, Duncan J Macfarlane, Scott E Crouter
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We sought to understand the day-to-day variability of human indirect calorimetry during rest and exercise. Previous work has been unable to separate human day-to-day variability from measurement error and within-trial human variability. We developed models accounting for different levels of human- and machine-level variance and compared the probability density functions using total variation distance. What is the main finding and its importance? After accounting for multiple levels of variance, the average human day-to-day variability of minute ventilation, CO2 output and O2 uptake is 4...
October 17, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Yeyi Zhu, Monique M Hedderson, Charles P Quesenberry, Juanran Feng, Assiamira Ferrara
Background: Liver enzymes may be implicated in glucose homeostasis; liver enzymes progressively change during pregnancy but longitudinal data during pregnancy in relation to insulin resistance and gestational diabetes (GDM) risk are lacking. We investigated longitudinal associations of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with insulin secretion and resistance markers across early to mid-pregnancy and subsequent GDM risk. Methods: Within the prospective Pregnancy Environment and Lifestyle Study cohort, 117 GDM cases were ascertained and matched to 232 non-GDM controls in a nested case-control study...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hoi-Kwan Lau, Aashish A Clerk
Unconventional properties of non-Hermitian systems, such as the existence of exceptional points, have recently been suggested as a resource for sensing. The impact of noise and utility in quantum regimes however remains unclear. In this work, we analyze the parametric-sensing properties of linear coupled-mode systems that are described by effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Our analysis fully accounts for noise effects in both classical and quantum regimes, and also fully treats a realistic and optimal measurement protocol based on coherent driving and homodyne detection...
October 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Sihyung Park, Seung Hyun Ahn, Eun Sol Cho, You Kyung Cho, Eun-Sook Jang, Sung Wook Chi
High-throughput sequencing of RNAs isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP, also called CLIP-Seq) has been used to map global RNA-protein interactions. However, a critical caveat of HITS-CLIP results is that they contain non-linear background noise-different extent of non-specific interactions caused by individual transcript abundance-that has been inconsiderately normalized, resulting in sacrifice of sensitivity. To properly deconvolute RNA-protein interactions, we have implemented CLIPick, a flexible peak calling pipeline for analyzing HITS-CLIP data, which statistically determines the signal-to-noise ratio for each transcript based on the expression-dependent background simulation...
October 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Daniela Bassi, Aldair Darlan Santos-de-Araújo, Patrícia Faria Camargo, Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho, Moyrane Abreu da Fonseca, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Audrey Borghi-Silva
Heart rate variability (HRV) among other methods can be used to assess diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy by cardiac intervals were recorded. However, the amount of error depending on this measurement methodology is unclear. To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability to calculate HRV indices, comparing different times and by different trained examiners in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty individuals of both genders, aged between 18 and 45 years, with T2DM. The RR interval (RRi) were recorded during a 10 min period on supine position using a portable heart rate monitor (Polar® S810i model)...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Aline Lefebvre, Richard Delorme, Catherine Delanoë, Frederique Amsellem, Anita Beggiato, David Germanaud, Thomas Bourgeron, Roberto Toro, Guillaume Dumas
Background: There is no consensus in the literature concerning the presence of abnormal alpha wave profiles in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This may be due to phenotypic heterogeneity among patients as well as the limited sample sizes utilized. Here we present our results of alpha wave profile analysis based on a sample larger than most of those in the field, performed using a robust processing pipeline. Methods: We compared the alpha waves profiles at rest in children with ASD to those of age-, sex-, and IQ-matched control individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Peter G Vaughan-Shaw, Katherine Gash, Katie Adams, Abigail E Vallance, Sophie A Pilkington, Jared Torkington, Julie A Cornish
INTRODUCTION: A defunctioning ileostomy is often formed during rectal cancer surgery to reduce the potentially fatal sequelae of anastomotic leak. Once the ileostomy is closed and bowel continuity restored, many patients can suffer poor bowel function, that is, low anterior resection syndrome (LARS). It has been suggested that delay to closure can increase incidence of LARS which is known to significantly reduce quality of life. Despite this, within the UK, time to closure of ileostomy is not subject to national targets within the National Health Service and delay to closure exceeds 18 months in one-third of patients...
October 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Ashley M Hopkins, Anh-Minh Nguyen, Christos S Karapetis, Andrew Rowland, Michael J Sorich
Afatinib is an effective therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but it is associated with a relatively high incidence of severe diarrhea. The association between pre-treatment candidate predictors (age, sex, race, performance status, renal function, hemoglobin, and measures of body mass) and severe (grade ≥ 3) diarrhea was evaluated using logistic regression with pooled individual participant data from seven clinical studies. A risk score was developed based on the count of major risk factors...
October 15, 2018: Cancers
Heng Zhou, Degang Zhang, Zhehao Jiang, Peng Sun, Hailong Xiao, Yuxing Wu, Jiangang Chen
The alpine steppe at Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is an important area for conserving water source and grassland productivity; however, knowledge about the microbial community structure and function and the risk to human health due to alpine plant-soil ecosystems is limited. Thus, we used prediction methods, such as Tax4Fun, and performed a metagenome pre-study using 16S rRNA sequencing reads for a small scale survey of the microbial communities at degraded alpine steppes (i.e., non-degraded (ND), lightly degraded (LD), moderately degraded (MD), heavily degraded (HD), and extremely degraded (ED) steppes) by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology...
October 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Erik Kowalski, Danilo S Catelli, Mario Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Various methods exist when comparing gait data between groups and include the analysis of a single limb, or taking an average of both limbs. Evidence exists suggesting that both limbs are not symmetrical, so statistical differences may exist in biomechanical variables when comparing gait with different limb-matching methods. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does limb-matching method have an effect on statistical outcome when comparing biomechanical variables during a gait task? METHODS: This retrospective study compared forty participants separated into a younger and older group as they completed a gait task...
October 9, 2018: Gait & Posture
E J Growcott, T A Cariaga, L Morris, X Zang, S Lopez, D A Ansaldi, J Gold, L Gamboa, T Roth, R L Simmons, C S Osborne
Objectives: The neutropenic murine thigh infection model and a dose-fractionation approach were used to determine the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of LYS228, a novel monobactam antibiotic with activity against Enterobacteriaceae including carbapenem-resistant strains. Methods: Mice (n = 4 per group) were inoculated with Enterobacteriaceae strains via intramuscular injection. Two hours post-bacterial inoculation, treatment with LYS228 was initiated...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Luis Fernando Aranguren, Arun K Dhar
Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a bacterial disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium classified as Hepatobacter penaei. H. penaei affects cultured penaeid shrimp in several countries from the western hemisphere, including the USA, and most Central and South American countries that farm shrimp. The current PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays based on the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene developed at the University of Arizona Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory (UAZ-APL) are the only techniques recommended in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) manual for H...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
C J Lai, K C Yeh, M L Wang, W H Tai, Ya-Jung Cheng
PURPOSE: In patients receiving non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery (NIVATS), transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) has been applied instead of oxygen mask for better oxygenation. However, the THRIVE effects on intraoperative temperature decrease have not been investigated. METHODS: Pre- and postoperative temperatures, measured by an infrared tympanic ear thermometer, taken before sending patients to the operation room and immediately upon their arrival in the postoperative anesthesia unit, were collected from medical records of patients who received NIVATS either with oxygen mask or THRIVE...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Sikandar Hayat Khan, Farah Sobia, Najmusaqib Khan Niazi, Syed Mohsin Manzoor, Nadeem Fazal, Fowad Ahmad
Background: Metabolic syndrome over the years have structured definitions to classify an individual with the disease. Literature review suggests insulin résistance is hallmark of these metabolic clustering. While measuring insulin resistance directly or indirectly remains technically difficult in general practice, along with multiple stability issues for insulin, various indirect measures have been suggested by authorities. Fasting triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index is one such marker, which is recently been suggested as a useful diagnostic marker to predict metabolic syndrome...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Li-Shan Huang, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Christopher Cox, Sally W Thurston, Conrad F Shamlaye, Gene E Watson, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Grazyna Zareba, J J Strain, Gary J Myers, Philip W Davidson
Background: The Seychelles Child Development Study has been examining the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure from consuming fish during pregnancy and child development. This study re-analyzes seven outcomes in the 17 year Main Cohort data to determine if there are nonlinear or non-homogeneous (subgroup) associations that were not identified in the linear analysis. Methods: We adopted two statistical approaches. First, we carried out an additive nonlinear analysis assuming homogeneous prenatal MeHg-outcome relationships to explore overall associations...
April 2018: Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment: Research Journal
Rani Sauriasari, Mia Yuliana Pratiwi
Background: Several clinical studies have shown increased level of urinary TGF-β1 in diabetic nephropathy patients and its correlation with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), but other studies showed different results. Because of this contradiction, this study aims to analyze the correlation between urinary TGF-β1 concentration and UACR, and also estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients by controlling some confounding factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, and the samples were obtained using consecutive sampling technique...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
J P Agarwal, R Krishnatry, G Panda, R Pathak, C Vartak, R A Kinhikar, S James, S V Khobrekar, S K Shrivastava, A K D'Cruz, D D Deshpande
AIMS: To report the findings of an audit for radiotherapy errors from a low-middle-income country (LMICs) centre. This would serve as baseline data for radiotherapy error rates, their severity and causes, in such centres where modern error reporting and learning processes still do not exist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A planned cross-sectional weekly audit of electronic radiotherapy charts at the radiotherapy planning and delivery step for all patients treated with curative intent was conducted...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Sophie Neugebauer, Christina Wichmann, Sibylle Bremer-Streck, Stefan Hagel, Michael Kiehntopf
BACKGROUND: Adequate antibiotic treatment is a prerequisite for the successful treatment of systemic infections. Based on accumulating scientific evidence, a fixed dosage regimen can lead to insufficient and ineffective antibiotic therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a simplified, but sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of antimicrobials by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the development of personalized therapy regimens using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)...
October 12, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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