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J R Scott
Microchimerism refers to the persistence of low levels of fetal cells in the mother's circulation after pregnancy. The bidirectional flow of both fetal and maternal cells during pregnancy is well documented, and Rh(D) positive fetal erythrocytes transferred to an Rh(D) negative mother results in Rh(D) immunization. Since erythrocytes have an average life span of 120 days, they are soon cleared. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 13, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pierre Blévin, Scott A Shaffer, Paco Bustamante, Frédéric Angelier, Baptiste Picard, Dorte Herzke, Børge Moe, Geir Wing Gabrielsen, Jan Ove Bustnes, Olivier Chastel
In birds, incubation-related behaviors and brood patch formation are influenced by hormonal regulation like prolactin secretion. Brood patch provides efficient heat transfer between the incubating parent and the developing embryo in the egg. Importantly, several environmental contaminants are already known to have adverse effects on avian reproduction. However, relatively little is known about the effect of contaminants on incubation temperature (Tinc ) for wild birds. By using temperature thermistors placed into artificial eggs, we investigated whether the most contaminated parent birds are less able to provide appropriate egg warming and thus less committed in incubating their clutch...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Shu Zhu, Bradley A Herbig, Xinren Yu, Jason Chen, Scott L Diamond
Microfluidic thrombosis assays allow the control of anticoagulation, hemodynamics, pharmacology, and procoagulant surfaces containing collagen ± tissue factor (TF). With corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) ranging from low (1-4 μg/mL) to high levels (40-60 μg/mL), the function of Factor XIIa (FXIIa) can be modulated in the presence of low or high surface TF. With high CTI and no collagen/TF in the assay, no thrombin is generated during 15-min microfluidic perfusion. At low CTI (no TF), the generation of FXIa leads to fibrin polymerization at ~300 s after the initiation of flow over collagen, an onset time shortened at zero CTI and prolonged at high CTI...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Emily A Sprague-Klein, Bogdan Negru, Lindsey R Madison, Scott C Coste, Brandon K Rugg, Alanna M Felts, Michael O McAnally, Mayukh Banik, Vartkess A Apkarian, Michael R Wasielewski, Mark A Ratner, Tamar Seideman, George C Schatz, Richard P Van Duyne
Continuous wave (CW) pump-probe surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is used to examine a range of plasmon-driven chemical behavior in the molecular SERS signal of trans-1,2-bis-(4-pyridyl)-ethylene (BPE) adsorbed on individual Au nanosphere oligomers (viz., dimers, trimers, tetramers, etc.). Well-defined new transient modes are caused by high fluence CW pumping at 532 nm and are monitored on the seconds time-scale using a low intensity CW probe field at 785 nm. Comparison of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the experimental data leads to the conclusion that three independent chemical processes are operative: (1) plasmon-driven electron transfer to form the BPE anion radical; (2) BPE hopping between two adsorption sites; and (3) trans-to-cis BPE isomerization...
August 2, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Som G Nanjappa, Srinivasu Mudalagiriyappa, J Scott Fites, M Suresh, Bruce S Klein
Fungal infections in CD4+ T cell immunocompromised patients have risen sharply in recent years. Although vaccines offer a rational avenue to prevent infections, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available. Inactivated vaccines are safer but less efficacious and require adjuvants that may undesirably bias toward poor protective immune responses. We hypothesized that reducing the TCR signaling threshold could potentiate antifungal CD8+ T cell responses and immunity to inactivated vaccine in the absence of CD4+ T cells...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Christian Lopez Ramos, Michael G Brandel, Robert C Rennert, Arvin R Wali, Jeffrey A Steinberg, David R Santiago-Dieppa, Brittany N Burton, Jeffrey S Pannell, Scott E Olson, Alexander A Khalessi
BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission is a key surgical quality metric associated with financial penalties and higher healthcare costs. We examined clinical risk factors and postoperative complications associated with 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions after cranial neurosurgery. METHODS: We queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2011-2016 for adult patients that underwent a cranial neurosurgical procedure...
July 24, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Tao Lin, Brandon L Scott, Adam D Hoppe, Suvobrata Chakravarty
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool to study macromolecular interactions such as protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Fluorescent protein (FP) fusions enable FRET-based PPI analysis of signaling pathways and molecular structure in living cells. Despite FRET's importance in PPI studies, FRET has seen limited use in quantifying the affinities of PPIs in living cells. Here, we have explored the relationship between FRET efficiency and PPI affinity over a wide range when expressed from a single plasmid system in E...
July 27, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Maegan Capitano, Liang Zhao, Scott Cooper, Chelsea Thorsheim, Aae Suzuki, Xinxin Huang, Alexander L Dent, Michael S Marks, Charles S Abrams, Hal E Broxmeyer
We hypothesized that megakaryocyte (MK) phosphoinositide signaling mediated by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein(s) (Pitp) contributes to hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor (HPC) cell regulation. Conditional knockout mice lacking Pitps specifically in MKs and platelets (pitpα-/- and pitpα-/- /β-/- ) bone marrow (BM) manifested decreased numbers of HSC, megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors, and cycling HPC. Further, pitpα-/- /β-/- BM had significantly reduced engrafting capability in competitive transplantation and limiting dilution analysis...
July 24, 2018: Blood
Samuel P Haddad, Andreas Luek, W Casan Scott, Gavin N Saari, S Rebekah Burket, Lauren A Kristofco, Jone Corrales, Joseph B Rasmussen, C Kevin Chambliss, Michael Luers, Clint Rogers, Bryan W Brooks
Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic organisms is increasingly reported in the peer-reviewed literature. However, seasonal instream dynamics including occurrence and bioaccumulation across trophic positions are rarely studied, particularly in semiarid streams with flows influenced by seasonal snowmelt and municipal effluent discharges. Thus, we selected East Canyon Creek in Park City, Utah, USA to examine spatio-temporal bioaccumulation of select ionizable pharmaceuticals across trophic positions using trophic magnification factors calculated at incremental distances (0...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Gregory David Scott, Cary Schrandt, Chandler C Ho, Michael C Chung, Daniel Zhou, Run Zhang Shi
Background: Implementing a laboratory-developed test sometimes requires incorporating an unconventional device into the laboratory information system (LIS) and customizing an interface to reduce transcription error and improve turnaround time. Such a custom interface is a necessity for complicated high-volume tests such as 25-OH Vitamin D by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) when there is no vendor-or LIS-supplied interface available. Here, we describe our work and experience interfacing a API 5000 LC-MS/MS instrument with our newly implemented LIS, Epic Beaker, using a combination of in-house scripting software and a middleware vendor, Data Innovations...
2018: Journal of Pathology Informatics
Amy Z Mundorff, Sylvain Amory, René Huel, Ana Bilić, Audrey L Scott, Thomas J Parsons
In mass fatality events, the need to identify large numbers of deceased persons using DNA can be a significant drain on already overburdened forensic practitioners, both in the field setting and the laboratory. The laboratory may be required to extract DNA from a variety of postmortem sample types, family or direct reference samples related to the missing, and perform matching of these results in a short period of time. While most forensic institutions are well equipped to handle both family and direct reference samples, postmortem samples such as bone or heterogeneous tissue samples can be difficult for labs to analyze...
July 10, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Justin Scott Buro
Doximity, Inc. has done an excellent job combining their massive medical network with in app features that attempt to streamline the workflow of all healthcare professionals. From easy communication with colleagues, access to a treasure trove of relevant information, and the ability to call patients without the fear of giving away one's private cell phone, all from a clean and simple UI, Doximity is truly an essential tool in the workplace. Unfortunately, the Doximity app cannot be accessed unless you are a healthcare professional...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Matthew J Mogle, Scott A Kimball, William R Miller, Richard D McKown
Terrestrial tardigrades, commonly known as "water bears", are part of a phylum of microscopic, aquatic invertebrates famous for cryptobiosis and space travel, but little is known about their modes of dispersal on Earth. Wind is assumed, but not truly demonstrated, to be the major method of global dispersal. Yet, some water bear distribution patterns cannot be explained by patterns of prevailing winds. Mammals and birds have been proposed as potential animal vectors. Importantly, most nearctic-neotropical migrant birds move north and south, with many crossing the equator, whereas prevailing winds move west to east or east to west but do not cross the equator...
2018: PeerJ
Scott M Baliban, Jessica C Allen, Brittany Curtis, Mohammed N Amin, Andrew Lees, R Nageswara Rao, Gangadhara Naidu, Ramasamy Venkatesan, D Yogeswara Rao, Vadrevu Krishna Mohan, Krishna M Ella, Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections caused by serovars Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (STm) are major pediatric health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Typhoid has high complication rates, and iNTS infections have high case fatality rates; moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is diminishing treatment options. Vi capsule-based typhoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV™), licensed in India and pre-qualified by the World Health Organization, elicits durable immunity when administered to infants, but no iNTS vaccines are licensed or imminent...
July 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Helen Yu, Hoa Truong, Scott A Mitchell, Albert Liclican, John J Gosink, Wanying Li, Julie Lin, Joy Y Feng, Juliane M Jürgensmeier, Andrew Billin, Ren Xu, Scott Patterson, Nikos Pagratis
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a clinically validated target for B-cell leukemias and lymphomas with FDA-approved small-molecule inhibitors ibrutinib and acalabrutinib. Tirabrutinib (GS-4059/ONO-4059, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA) is a second-generation, potent, selective, irreversible BTK inhibitor in clinical development for lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). An accurate pharmacodynamic assay to assess tirabrutinib target coverage in phase 1/2 clinical studies will inform dose and schedule selection for advanced clinical evaluation...
July 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
S J Morin, G Patounakis, C R Juneau, S A Neal, R T Scott, E Seli
STUDY QUESTION: Do infertile women aged <38 years with quantitative evidence of diminished ovarian reserve and/or poor response to stimulation also exhibit poor oocyte quality as measured by blastulation rates, aneuploidy rates, and live birth rates? SUMMARY ANSWER: Young women with evidence of accelerated follicular depletion, either by precycle ovarian reserve testing or postcycle evidence of low oocyte yield, exhibit equivalent blastulation rates, aneuploidy rates and live birth rates per euploid embryo transfer as age-matched controls with normal precycle and postcycle parameters...
July 11, 2018: Human Reproduction
Aaron Tabor, Scott Bateman, Erik Scheme
While training is critical for ensuring initial success as well as continued adoption of a myoelectric powered prosthesis, relatively little is known about the amount of training that is necessary. In previous studies, participants have completed only a small number of sessions, leaving doubt about whether findings necessarily generalize to a longer-term clinical training program. Furthermore, a heavy emphasis has been placed on functional prosthesis use when assessing the effectiveness of myoelectric training...
July 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gabriel M Rubinstein, Israel M Scott, Gina L Lipscomb, Farris L Poole Ii, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is an extremely thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium with great potential for consolidated bioprocessing of renewable plant biomass. Since it does not natively produce ethanol, metabolic engineering is required to create strains with this capability. Previous efforts involved the heterologous expression of the gene encoding a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase, AdhE, which uses NADH as the electron donor to reduce acetyl-CoA to ethanol. Acetyl-CoA produced from sugar oxidation also generates reduced ferredoxin but there is no known pathway for the transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin to NAD in C...
December 2018: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Christoph R Englert, John M Harlander, Charles M Brown, Kenneth D Marr, Ian J Miller, J Eloise Stump, Jed Hancock, James Q Peterson, Jay Kumler, William H Morrow, Thomas A Mooney, Scott Ellis, Stephen B Mende, Stewart E Harris, Michael H Stevens, Jonathan J Makela, Brian J Harding, Thomas J Immel
The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution imaging of the Thermosphere and Ionosphere (MIGHTI) instrument was built for launch and operation on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission. The instrument was designed to measure thermospheric horizontal wind velocity profiles and thermospheric temperature in altitude regions between 90km and 300km, during day and night. For the wind measurements it uses two perpendicular fields of view pointed at the Earth's limb, observing the Doppler shift of the atomic oxygen red and green lines at 630...
October 2017: Space Science Reviews
Jagannathan Alagurajan, Navjot Singh Athwal, Mark S Hargrove
Phytoglobins are plant hexacoordinate hemoglobins with reversible coordination of a histidine side chain to the ligand binding site of the heme iron. They mediate electron transfer reactions such as nitric oxide scavenging and are particularly efficient at reducing nitrite and hydroxylamine. Previous work with phytoglobins has focused only on single turnovers of these reactions and has not revealed whether structural features, such as histidine hexacoordination, play a prominent role in the complete catalytic cycle...
July 26, 2018: Biochemistry
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