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Scott A Hinger, Diana J Cha, Jeffrey L Franklin, James N Higginbotham, Yongchao Dou, Jie Ping, Lihua Shu, Nripesh Prasad, Shawn Levy, Bing Zhang, Qi Liu, Alissa M Weaver, Robert J Coffey, James G Patton
The regulation and functional roles of secreted coding and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs; >200 nt) are largely unknown. We previously showed that mutant KRAS colorectal cancer (CRC) cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing distinct proteomes, microRNAs (miRNAs), and circular RNAs. Here, we comprehensively identify diverse classes of CRC extracellular long RNAs secreted in EVs and demonstrate differential export of specific RNAs. Distinct noncoding RNAs, including antisense transcripts and transcripts derived from pseudogenes, are enriched in EVs compared to cellular profiles...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Shelby A Neal, Scott J Morin, Jason M Franasiak, Linnea R Goodman, Caroline R Juneau, Eric J Forman, Marie D Werner, Richard T Scott
OBJECTIVE: To determine if preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) is cost-effective for patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: Decision analytic model comparing costs and clinical outcomes of two strategies: IVF with and without PGT-A. SETTING: Genetics laboratory. PATIENTS: Women ≤ 42 years of age undergoing IVF. INTERVENTION(S): Decision analytic model applied to the above patient population utilizing a combination of actual clinical data and assumptions from the literature regarding the outcomes of IVF with and without PGT-A...
October 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Roger Murray, Yuan-Ching Tien, Andrew Scott, Edward Topp
Biosolids were obtained from four Ontario municipalities that vary in how the sewage sludge is treated. These included a Class B biosolids that was anaerobically digested, a Class A biosolids that were heat treated and pelletized (Propell), and two Class A biosolids that were stabilized using either the N-Viro (N-Rich) or Lystek (LysteGro) processes. Viable enteric indicator or pathogenic bacteria in the biosolids were enumerated by plate count, gene targets associated with antibiotic resistance or horizontal gene transfer were detected by PCR, and a subset of these gene targets were quantified by qPCR...
October 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Eliana B Saltzman, Schneider K Rancy, Darryl B Sneag, Joseph H Feinberg Md, Dale J Lange, Scott W Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid myelitis is associated with enterovirus D68 induced inflammation and destruction of cervical anterior horn cells. To date, no medical intervention has altered the disease course. METHODS: We report two pediatric patients who were treated with nerve transfer in three limbs with sustained upper extremity neuropathy. Postoperative outcomes included muscle strength, graded on the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) scale, range of motion, and electromyography...
August 20, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Liana C Chan, Maura Rossetti, Lloyd S Miller, Scott G Filler, Colin W Johnson, Hong K Lee, Huiyuan Wang, David Gjertson, Vance G Fowler, Elaine F Reed, Michael R Yeaman
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and skin structure infection (SSSI), a primary portal of entry for invasive infection. Our prior studies discovered a role for protective innate memory against recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) SSSI. In the present study, the dynamics and mechanisms of this response were explored in recurrent SSSI in WT mice. Priming by prior infection reduced skin lesion severity and MRSA burden, and protected against dissemination at day 7 but not day 2. Cytokine and cellular signatures in SSSI differed at day 2 versus 7, and were distinct in skin versus blood or spleen...
October 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lauren R Walling, J Scott Butler
Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a protein toxin and its cognate antitoxin. These systems are abundant in bacteria and archaea and play an important role in growth regulation. During favorable growth conditions, the antitoxin neutralizes the toxin's activity. However, during conditions of stress or starvation, the antitoxin is inactivated, freeing the toxin to inhibit growth and resulting in dormancy. One mechanism of growth inhibition used by several TA systems results from targeting transfer RNAs (tRNAs), either through preventing aminoacylation, acetylating the primary amino group, or endonucleolytic cleavage...
September 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Scott B Thompson, Eric J Wigton, Sai Harsha Krovi, Jeffrey W Chung, Robert A Long, Jordan Jacobelli
Leukemias typically arise in the bone marrow and then spread to the blood and into other tissues. To disseminate into tissues, leukemia cells migrate into the blood stream and then exit the circulation by migrating across vascular endothelial barriers. Formin proteins regulate cytoskeletal remodeling and cell migration of normal and malignant cells. The Formin mDia1 is highly expressed in transformed lymphocytes and regulates lymphocyte migration. However, the role of mDia1 in regulating leukemia progression in vivo is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Vincenzo Calabrese, Juan C Muñoz-García, Julien Schmitt, Marcelo A da Silva, Janet L Scott, Jesús Angulo, Yaroslav Z Khimyak, Karen J Edler
A novel mechanism of heat-triggered gelation for oxidised cellulose nanofibrils (OCNF) is reported. We demonstrate that a synergistic approach combining rheology, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and saturation transfer difference NMR (STD NMR) experiments enables a detailed characterisation of gelation at different length scales. OCNF dispersions experience an increase in solid-like behaviour upon heating as evidenced by rheological studies, associated with enhanced interfibrillar interactions measured using SAXS...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Damian Kokkin, Maxim Ivanov, John Loman, Jin-Zhe Cai, Brandon Uhler, Neil Reilly, Rajendra Rathore, Scott A Reid
Studies of exciton and hole stabilization in multichromophoric systems underpin our understanding of electron transfer and transport in materials and biomolecules. The simplest model systems are dimeric, and recently we compared the gas-phase spectroscopy and dynamics of van der Waals dimers of fluorene, 9-methylfluorene (MF), and 9,9'-dimethylfluorene (F1) to assess how sterically controlled facial encumbrance modulates the dynamics of excimer formation and charge resonance stabilization (CRS). Dimers of fluorene and MF show only excimer emission upon electronic excitation, and significant CRS as evidenced in a reduced ionization potential for the dimer relative the monomer...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Amy L Vāvere, Kiel D Neumann, Elizabeth R Butch, Bao Hu, Stephen G DiMagno, Scott E Snyder
6-[18 F] fluorodopamine ([18 F]F-DA) is taken into cells via the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Recent [18 F]F-DA PET-CT imaging of adult neuroendocrine tumors shows a dramatic improvement in sensitivity over the standard-of-care, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) SPECT-CT. A new precursor (ALPdopamine™) allows no-carrier-added synthesis resulting in high molar activity [18 F]F-DA. Automated synthesis of [18 F]F-DA was performed in a single reactor using a two-step procedure; fluorination and thermolysis of a diaryliodonium salt precursor followed by acid hydrolysis...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Ariane L Martin, Pongsarun Satjaritanun, Sirivatch Shimpalee, Blake A Devivo, John Weidner, Scott Greenway, J Michael Henson, Charles E Turick
Microbes have a wide range of metabolic capabilities available that makes them industrially useful organisms. Monitoring these metabolic processes is a crucial component in efficient industrial application. Unfortunately, monitoring these metabolic processes can often be invasive and time consuming and expensive, especially within an anaerobic environment. Electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) offer a non-invasive approach to monitor microbial activity and growth...
October 4, 2018: AMB Express
Richard J Mellanby, Jamie I Scott, Iris Mair, Antonio Fernandez, Louise Saul, Jochen Arlt, Monica Moral, Marc Vendrell
Herein tricarbocyanine N -triazoles are first described as a rationally-designed near-infrared (NIR) structure overcoming the brightness and photostability limitations of tricarbocyanines for long-term in vivo imaging. The straightforward synthetic approach and the wide availability of alkynes makes this strategy a versatile methodology for the preparation of highly stable N -substituted tricarbocyanines. Furthermore, we validated CIR38M as a non-transferable marker to monitor the fate of therapeutic T cells non-invasively in vivo , showing enhanced performance over conventional NIR fluorophores ( i...
September 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Madlen A Prang, Stephen T Trumbo, Heiko Vogel, Anne-Katrin Eggert, Scott K Sakaluk, Sandra Steiger
Background: Immature stages of many animals can forage and feed on their own, whereas others depend on their parents' assistance to obtain or process food. But how does such dependency evolve, and which offspring and parental traits are involved? Burying beetles ( Nicrophorus ) provide extensive biparental care, including food provisioning to their offspring. Interestingly, there is substantial variation in the reliance of offspring on post-hatching care among species. Here, we examine the proximate mechanisms underlying offspring dependence, focusing on the larvae of N...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Rutulkumar Patel, Luchang Zhang, Amar Desai, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Lucy H Kennedy, Tomas Radivoyevitch, Yuguang Ban, Xi Steven Chen, Stanton L Gerson, Scott M Welford
Cancer-causing genome instability is a major concern during space travel due to exposure of astronauts to potent sources of high-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are particularly susceptible to genotoxic stress, and accumulation of damage can lead to HSC dysfunction and oncogenesis. Our group recently demonstrated that aging human HSCs accumulate microsatellite instability coincident with loss of MLH1, a DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) protein, which could reasonably predispose to radiation-induced HSC malignancies...
October 1, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Natalie S Omattage, Zengqin Deng, Jerome S Pinkner, Karen W Dodson, Fredrik Almqvist, Peng Yuan, Scott J Hultgren
Chaperone-usher pathway pili are extracellular proteinaceous fibres ubiquitously found on Gram-negative bacteria, and mediate host-pathogen interactions and biofilm formation critical in pathogenesis in numerous human diseases1 . During pilus assembly, an outer membrane macromolecular machine called the usher catalyses pilus biogenesis from the individual subunits that are delivered as chaperone-subunit complexes in the periplasm. The usher orchestrates pilus assembly using all five functional domains: a 24-stranded transmembrane β-barrel translocation domain, a β-sandwich plug domain, an amino-terminal periplasmic domain and two carboxy-terminal periplasmic domains (CTD1 and CTD2)2-6 ...
October 1, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Christopher Scott Brunt
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physician characteristics associated with pharmaceutical industry transfers and prescribing behavior after public reporting under the Sunshine Act. DATA SOURCES: 2014-2016 secondary data on industry transfers to physicians from the Open Payments Dataset supplemented with Medicare Part D prescription data, Medicare service data, and practice attributes from the Physician Compare Database. STUDY DESIGN: Using regression analysis with county/physician fixed effects, this study examines characteristics associated with the probability/magnitude of transfers and the association between transfers and prescriptions...
October 1, 2018: Health Services Research
Scott M Reid, Sharon M Brookes, Alejandro Núñez, Jill Banks, C Daniel Parker, Vanessa Ceeraz, Christine Russell, Amanda Seekings, Saumya S Thomas, Anita Puranik, Ian H Brown
A 12-month pilot project for notifiable avian disease (NAD) exclusion testing in chicken and turkey flocks in Great Britain (GB) offered, in partnership with industry, opportunities to carry out differential diagnosis in flocks where NAD was not suspected, and to identify undetected or undiagnosed infections. In May 2014, clinical samples received from a broiler breeder chicken premises that had been experiencing health and production problems for approximately one week tested positive by avian influenza (AI) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR)...
October 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Scott D Nash, Aisha E P Stewart, Tigist Astale, Eshetu Sata, Mulat Zerihun, Demelash Gessese, Berhanu Melak, Gedefaw Ayenew, Zebene Ayele, Belay Bayissasse, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E Kelly Callahan
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends conducting trachoma surveillance surveys in districts where the elimination targets have been met and following a minimum 2-year period after cessation of mass drug administration (MDA) in order to determine the sustainability of low trachoma levels. Methods: In 2015, population-based surveillance surveys were conducted in five districts of Amhara, Ethiopia. All five districts had a prior trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) prevalence among children 1-9 y of age of <5% determined by an impact survey and had not received MDA for ≥2 y...
September 28, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kunal Karamchandani, Karima Fitzgerald, David Carroll, Mary E Trauger, Lisa A Ciccocioppo, Wendell Hess, Jansie Prozesky, Scott B Armen
OBJECTIVE: Critically ill patients are at high risk for adverse events on transfer between intensive care unit and operating room. Patient safety concerns were raised within our institution during such transfers, and absence of a standardized patient handoff process was identified as an area of concern. METHODS: The current state of the patient transfer processes between the intensive care units (ICUs) and the operating rooms (ORs) was mapped and failure modes were identified...
October 2018: Quality Management in Health Care
Anja Mottok, George Wright, Andreas Rosenwald, German Ott, Colleen Ramsower, Elias Campo, Rita M Braziel, Jan Delabie, Dennis D Weisenburger, Joo Y Song, Wing C Chan, James R Cook, Kai Fu, Tim Greiner, Erlend Smeland, Harald Holte, Kerry J Savage, Betty J Glinsmann-Gibson, Randy D Gascoyne, Louis M Staudt, Elaine S Jaffe, Joseph M Connors, David W Scott, Christian Steidl, Lisa M Rimsza
Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification. Currently, diagnosis relies on consensus of histopathology, clinical variables and presentation, giving rise to diagnostic inaccuracy in routine practice. Previous studies have demonstrated that PMBCL can be distinguished from subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) based on gene expression signatures. However, requirement of fresh-frozen biopsy material has precluded the transfer of gene expression-based assays to the clinic...
September 26, 2018: Blood
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