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Shaobin Shang, Dina Kats, Liang Cao, Eva Morgun, Diana Velluto, Ying He, Qichen Xu, Chyung-Ru Wang, Evan A Scott
Mycolic acid (MA), a major lipid component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall, can be presented by the non-polymorphic antigen presenting molecule CD1b to T cells isolated from Mtb-infected individuals. These MA-specific CD1b-restricted T cells are cytotoxic, produce Th1 cytokines, and form memory populations, suggesting that MA can be explored as a potential subunit vaccine candidate for TB. However, the controlled elicitation of MA-specific T cell responses has been challenging due to difficulties in the targeted delivery of lipid antigens and a lack of suitable animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hayley M Reynolds, Scott Williams, Price Jackson, Catherine Mitchell, Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks, Declan G Murphy, Annette Haworth
OBJECTIVES: To develop a registration framework for correlating positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histology of the prostate, thereby enabling voxel-wise analysis of imaging parameters. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective proof-of-concept study, nine patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy underwent mpMRI and PET/CT imaging prior to surgery. One had PET imaging using 18 F-fluoromethylcholine (FCH), five using 68 Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-HBED-CC (PMSA-11) and three using a trial 68 Ga-labelled THP-PSMA tracer...
December 10, 2018: BJU International
Derrick C Scott, LaTia Scott, Kiesha Wilson, Keshawn Ross, Damyen Ingram, Tajah Lewter, Jasmine Herring, LaTrice Linton, David Duncan, Anthea Aikins, Bert Ely
The complete genome of Caulobacter vibrioides strain CB2 consists of a 4,123,726-bp chromosome, a GC content of 67.2%, and 3,896 coding DNA sequences. It has no rearrangements but numerous indels relative to the reference NA1000 genome. This will allow us to study the impact of horizontal gene transfer on caulobacter genomes.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Scott L Carnahan, Bryan J Lampkin, Pranjali Naik, Michael P Hanrahan, Igor I Slowing, Brett VanVeller, Gang Wu, Aaron J Rossini
The ubiquity of oxygen in organic, inorganic, and biological systems has stimulated the application and development of 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a probe of molecular structure and dynamics. Unfortunately, 17O solid-state NMR experiments are often hindered by the combination of broad NMR signals and low sensitivity. Here, it is demonstrated that fast MAS and proton detection with the D-RINEPT pulse sequence can be generally applied to enhance the sensitivity and resolution of 17O solid-state NMR experiments...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Patrick T LaBreck, Gregory K Rice, Adrian C Paskey, Emad M Elassal, Regina Z Cer, Natasha N Law, Carey D Schlett, Jason W Bennett, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, Theron Hamilton, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Some S. aureus strains harbor plasmids that carry genes that affect resistance to biocides. Among these genes, qacA encodes the QacA Multidrug Efflux Pump that imparts decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine, a biocide used ubiquitously in healthcare facilities. Furthermore, chlorhexidine has been considered as a S. aureus decolonization strategy in community settings. We previously conducted a chlorhexidine-based SSTI prevention trial among Ft...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Scott William Kirkland, Amir Soleimani, Brian H Rowe, Amanda S Newton
OBJECTIVES: Diverting patients away from the emergency department (ED) has been proposed as a solution for mitigating overcrowding. This systematic review examined the impact of interventions designed to either bypass the ED or direct patients to other alternative care after ED presentation. METHODS: Seven electronic databases and the grey literature were searched. Eligible studies included randomised/controlled trials or cohort studies that assessed the effectiveness of pre-hospital or ED-based diversion interventions...
December 3, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Meghan B Lane-Fall, Jose L Pascual, Hannah G Peifer, Laura J Di Taranti, Meredith L Collard, Juliane Jablonski, Jacob T Gutsche, Scott D Halpern, Frances K Barg, Lee A Fleisher
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of standardizing operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU) handoffs in a mixed surgical population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Standardizing OR to ICU handoffs improves information transfer after cardiac surgery, but there is limited evidence in other surgical contexts. METHODS: This prospective interventional cohort study (NCT02267174) was conducted in 2 surgical ICUs in 2 affiliated hospitals...
November 29, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Caitlin J Cotter, A John Tufa, Stephanie Johnson, Mary Matai'a, Rebecca Sciulli, Kyle R Ryff, W Thane Hancock, Christian Whelen, Tyler M Sharp, Magele Scott Anesi
The U.S. territory of American Samoa has experienced recent outbreaks of illnesses caused by viruses transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus. In November 2016, a traveler from the Solomon Islands tested positive for infection with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Additional dengue cases were identified in the subsequent weeks through passive and active surveillance. Suspected dengue cases were tested locally with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)...
November 30, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Bert Ely, Kiesha Wilson, Keshawn Ross, Damyen Ingram, Tajah Lewter, Jasmine Herring, David Duncan, Anthea Aikins, Derrick Scott
Since previous interspecies comparisons of Caulobacter genomes have revealed extensive genome rearrangements, we decided to compare the nucleotide sequences of four C. crescentus genomes, NA1000, CB1, CB2, and CB13. To accomplish this goal, we used PacBio sequencing technology to determine the nucleotide sequence of the CB1, CB2, and CB13 genomes, and obtained each genome sequence as a single contig. To correct for possible sequencing errors, each genome was sequenced twice. The only differences we observed between the two sets of independently determined sequences were random omissions of a single base in a small percentage of the homopolymer regions where a single base is repeated multiple times...
November 27, 2018: Current Microbiology
André Fonseca, Scott Kerick, Jung-Tai King, Chin-Teng Lin, Tzyy-Ping Jung
The analysis of neurophysiological changes during driving can clarify the mechanisms of fatigue, considered an important cause of vehicle accidents. The fluctuations in alertness can be investigated as changes in the brain network connections, reflected in the direction and magnitude of the information transferred. Those changes are induced not only by the time on task but also by the quality of sleep. In an unprecedented 5-month longitudinal study, daily sampling actigraphy and EEG data were collected during a sustained-attention driving task within a near-real-world environment...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Scott Davis, James Dylewski, Pratik B Shah, John Holmen, Zhiying You, Michel Chonchol, Jessica Kendrick
BACKGROUND: We examined the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in primiparous kidney donors compared to matched controls. METHODS: Fifty-nine women with a history of kidney donation prior to their first pregnancy with normal renal function and no history of kidney disease, diabetes or chronic hypertension were matched 1:4 by age (within 2 years) and race to women with two kidneys using data from an integrated healthcare delivery system. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were defined as preterm delivery (delivery < 37 weeks), delivery via cesarean section, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, length of stay in the hospital > 3 days, infant death/transfer to acute facility and low birth weight (<2,500 gm)...
November 25, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Dileepa Madushanka Jayawardena, Scott Alan Heckathorn, Deepesh Raj Bista, Jennifer Kay Boldt
Limited evidence indicates that moderate leaf hyponasty can be induced by high temperatures or un-naturally-high CO2 . Here we report that the combination of warming plus elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) induces severe leaf hyponasty in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To characterize this phenomenon, tomato plants were grown at two levels of CO2 (400 vs. 700 ppm) and two temperature regimes (30 vs. 37o C) for 16-18 days. Leaf hyponasty increased dramatically with warming plus eCO2 , but increased only slightly with either factor alone, and was slowly reversible upon transfer to control treatments...
November 25, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Scott A Borden, Hannah N Damer, Erik T Krogh, Chris G Gill
Existing mass spectrometric methods for the analysis of fatty acids often require derivatization, chromatographic separations, and/or extensive sample preparation. Direct mass spectrometry strategies can avoid these requirements, but may also suffer from poor quantitation and/or lack of sensitivity. Condensed phase-membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS) provides direct quantitative measurements of analytes in complex samples with little or no sample preparation. CP-MIMS uses a semipermeable membrane to transfer neutral, hydrophobic compounds from real-world samples to a mass spectrometer...
November 23, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
K Ina Ly, Bella Vakulenko-Lagun, Kyrre E Emblem, Yangming Ou, Xiao Da, Rebecca A Betensky, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Dan G Duda, Rakesh K Jain, Andrew S Chi, Scott R Plotkin, Tracy T Batchelor, Gregory Sorensen, Bruce R Rosen, Elizabeth R Gerstner
Functional MRI may identify critical windows of opportunity for drug delivery and distinguish between early treatment responders and non-responders. Using diffusion-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI, as well as pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory blood markers, we prospectively studied the physiologic tumor-related changes in fourteen newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients during standard therapy. 153 MRI scans and blood collection were performed before chemoradiation (baseline), weekly during chemoradiation (week 1-6), monthly before each cycle of adjuvant temozolomide (pre-C1-C6), and after cycle 6...
November 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matt J Cook, Scott P Delbecq, Thomas P Schweppe, Miklos Guttman, Rachel E Klevit, Peter S Brzovic
SspH/IpaH bacterial effector E3 ubiquitin ligases, unrelated in sequence or structure to eukaryotic E3s, are utilized by a wide variety of gram-negative bacteria during pathogenesis. These E3s function in a eukaryotic environment, utilize host cell E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes of the Ube2D family, and target host proteins for ubiquitylation. Despite several crystal structures, details of Ube2D~Ub binding and the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer are poorly understood. Here we show that the catalytic E3 ligase domain of SspH1 can be divided into two subdomains; an N-terminal subdomain that harbors the active site cysteine, and a C-terminal subdomain containing the Ube2D~Ub binding site...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Scott H Saunders, Dianne K Newman
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) allows microbes to drive their metabolism through interactions with minerals or electrodes. In recent work, Light et al. (2018) discover a specialized EET pathway in Listeria monocytogenes with homologs in pathogens and gut commensals, suggesting that EET plays important roles in diverse environments.
November 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Jinjin Cai, Karla M Pires, Maroua Ferhat, Bhagirath Chaurasia, Márcio A Buffolo, Rana Smalling, Ashot Sargsyan, Donald L Atkinson, Scott A Summers, Timothy E Graham, Sihem Boudina
Autophagy is a homeostatic cellular process involved in the degradation of long-lived or damaged cellular components. The role of autophagy in adipogenesis is well recognized, but its role in mature adipocyte function is largely unknown. We show that the autophagy proteins Atg3 and Atg16L1 are required for proper mitochondrial function in mature adipocytes. In contrast to previous studies, we found that post-developmental ablation of autophagy causes peripheral insulin resistance independently of diet or adiposity...
November 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Mohsen Saidinejad, Audrey Paul, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Dale Woolridge, Alan Heins, William Russell Scott, Phillip Friesen, David Rayburn, Gregory Conners, Emory Petrack, Timothy Horeczko, Michael Stoner, Elizabeth Edgerton, Madeline Joseph
This article provides recommendations for pediatric readiness, scope of services, competencies, staffing, emergency preparedness, and transfer of care coordination for urgent care centers (UCCs) and retail clinics that provide pediatric care. It also provides general recommendations for the use of telemedicine in these establishments.With continuing increases in wait times and overcrowding in the nation's emergency departments and the mounting challenges in obtaining timely access to primary care providers, a new trend is gaining momentum for the treatment of minor illness and injuries in the form of UCCs and retail clinics...
November 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Jennifer M Bauer, Petya Yorgova, Geraldine Neiss, Kenneth Rogers, Peter F Sturm, Paul D Sponseller, Scott Luhmann, Jeff B Pawelek, Suken A Shah
BACKGROUND: Modern treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS) includes implantation of traditional growing rods (TGR) or magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) for posterior-based distraction if nonoperative treatment plans failed. The recent MCGR innovation has largely been expected to improve patient and family burden by avoiding frequent return to the operating room. At least one study has shown no HRQoL difference between TGR and MCGR, but none have specifically investigated a cohort of conversion patients whose families have experienced both...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Travis T Gilbert, Rachel J Arfstrom, Scott W Mihalovic, Ala S Dababneh, Bharath Raj Varatharaj Palraj, Ross A Dierkhising, Kristin C Mara, Sarah R Lessard
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy with a macrolide and β-lactam or a fluoroquinolone for the empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in an inpatient non-intensive care setting is recommended per guidelines. Studies show that these treatments have similar outcomes, including death, adverse effects, and bacterial eradication. However, a comparison of 30-day readmission rates between these treatments is limited. STUDY QUESTION: To determine whether 30-day readmissions for patients treated for CAP in a regional hospital differed between a fluoroquinolone monotherapy and a β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
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