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Anna Müller, Vesalio Mora, Edwin Rojas, Jorge Díaz, Obdulio Fuentes, Estuardo Giron, Ada Gaytan, Jacob van Etten
Drills are an important element of disaster management, helping to increase preparedness and reduce the risk of real-time failure. Yet, they are not applied systematically to slow-onset disasters such as a drought, which causes damage that is not instantly apparent and thus does not solicit immediate action. This case study evaluates how drills inform institutional responses to slow-onset disasters. It spotlights Guatemala, a country where drought has severe impacts on livelihoods and the food security of small farmers...
December 5, 2018: Disasters
Chioma Amadi, Emma K Tsui
BACKGROUND: Limited access to essential medicines for maternal and child health is a preventable cause of pregnancy-related deaths. This remains a predominant challenge in Nigeria, where sub-standard and falsified medications have historically been associated with maternal mortality. An in-depth understanding of perceptions surrounding quality assurance of essential medicines is pertinent for developing effective and sustainable interventions. OBJECTIVE: To examine stakeholder perspectives on quality control of essential medicines for maternal and child health, while characterizing pharmaceutical distribution of medicines in Nigeria...
November 26, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Dani M Moffit, Robin Lindbeck
Technology education in higher education and the health care professions is found throughout the literature. Athletic training education (ATE) should mirror that of other health care professions. The purpose of this study was exploratory in nature to determine a) how ATE faculty are integrating technology into their classrooms, b) which they find to be most effective and why, and c) which technologies they hope to use in the future. A 16-item online survey regarding technology use in their ATE classrooms was sent to professional and post-professional degree CAATE-accredited programs soliciting participants from ATE educators...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
J Jones, B Carter, R Wilkerson, C Kramer
This study assessed attitudes toward HIV and awareness of previous HIV prevention campaigns among young black men in the United States of America (USA). The study also ascertained the appropriateness of HIV testing messages for young black men and explored the use of social networking sites to deliver HIV testing messages for social media marketing campaigns. Nineteen (n = 19) black male college students attending a public university in Atlanta, GA, USA from September 2016 to October 2016 participated in three focus groups...
December 1, 2018: Health Education Research
Hope O Olusanya, M van Zyll de Jong
Freshwater fish populations are rapidly declining globally due to the impacts of rapid climate change and existing non-climatic anthropogenic stressors. In response to these drivers, freshwater fishes are responding by shifting their distribution range, altering the timing of migration and spawning and through demographic processes. By 2050, the mean daily air temperature is predicted to increase by 2 to 3 degrees C in insular Newfoundland and by 3 to 4 degrees C in Labrador. Mean daily precipitation is also projected to increase in all locations, with increased intensity projected for several regions...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth A Rohan, Nina Miller, Floyd Bonner, Kristi Fultz-Butts, Mandi L Pratt-Chapman, Catherine M Alfano, Kristen Cox Santiago, Kendall Bergman, Eric Tai
PURPOSE: As of 2016, an estimated 15.5 million cancer survivors were living in the United States and the number of cancer survivors is expected to increase to 20.3 million by 2026. Numerous clinical studies have shown that comorbidities, such as obesity and diabetes, and unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as physical inactivity and heavy smoking, negatively influence overall quality of life and long-term survival of cancer survivors. Accordingly, survivorship programs seek to focus on overall wellness, including symptom management, monitoring for late effects of treatment, monitoring for recurrence, helping patients adapt healthy behaviors, and quality of life...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Praveen Sridhar, Sabrina E Sanchez, Peter J DiPasco, Lawrence Novak, Tracey Dechert, Tejal S Brahmbhatt
BACKGROUND: The necessity of a nonclinical education for surgery residents is a topic of exploration. We examine chief resident (CR) and program director (PD) perspectives on the need for a standardized nonclinical curriculum. METHODS: PDs and CRs from accredited general surgery programs were solicited to partake in an anonymous survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: There were 42 PD and 68 CR responses. Half or more CRs lack confidence to independently determine their own worth, find a job, negotiate a contract, select disability insurance, and formulate retirement plans...
January 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Jin Xu, Jon E Stek, Eddy Ziani, G Frank Liu, Andrew W Lee
BACKGROUND: DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully-liquid, hexavalent vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component; approved since 2016 in Europe (Vaxelis™) for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The comparator vaccine (control) was INFANRIX™ hexa (DTaP3-IPV-HepB/Hib) in European studies and PENTACEL™ (DTaP5-IPV/Hib) in US studies...
November 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Lili Huang, Zhen Chen, Yuansheng Hu, Zhiqiang Xie, Ping Qiu, Lang Zhu, Manli Bao, Yaru Quan, Ji Zeng, Yanxia Wang, Xiaoyu Cui, Liyong Yuan, Shengli Xia, Fanhong Meng
The study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated varicella vaccine in Chinese population aged 1-3 years. The double-blind, randomized phase III trial was conducted in Henan Province, China. In total, 1197 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups in a 2:2:2:1 ratio to receive one of the three lots of commercial scale (CS) vaccine or the licensed pilot scale (LPS) vaccine. Seroconversion rate and neutralizing antibody titers (NATb) were assessed at day 0 pre-vaccination and at day 30 post-vaccination...
November 27, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Safwan S Halabi, Luciano M Prevedello, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Artem B Mamonov, Alexander Bilbily, Mark Cicero, Ian Pan, Lucas Araújo Pereira, Rafael Teixeira Sousa, Nitamar Abdala, Felipe Campos Kitamura, Hans H Thodberg, Leon Chen, George Shih, Katherine Andriole, Marc D Kohli, Bradley J Erickson, Adam E Flanders
Purpose The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Pediatric Bone Age Machine Learning Challenge was created to show an application of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) in medical imaging, promote collaboration to catalyze AI model creation, and identify innovators in medical imaging. Materials and Methods The goal of this challenge was to solicit individuals and teams to create an algorithm or model using ML techniques that would accurately determine skeletal age in a curated data set of pediatric hand radiographs...
November 27, 2018: Radiology
Anna M Martin, Jessica J Zakrzewski, Chia-Ying Chou, Soo Y Uhm, R Michael Gause, Joanne Chan, Monika Eckfield, Mark Salazar, Ofilio Vigil, David Bain, Sandra J Stark, R Scott Mackin, Eduardo Vega, Kevin L Delucchi, Janice Y Tsoh, Carol A Mathews
This study compares the effectiveness of approaches used to recruit a diverse sample for a randomized clinical trial for Hoarding Disorder (HD) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of the 632 individuals who inquired about the study, 313 were randomized and 231 completed treatment. Most participants heard about the study via flyering (N = 161), followed by advocacy groups (N = 113), word of mouth (N = 84), health care professionals (N = 78), online (N = 68), and media (N = 11). However, those that heard about the study via advertising methods, such as flyers, were less likely to complete the study, p = ...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Francesca M Nicosia, Linda G Park, Caroline P Gray, Maayan J Yakir, Dorothy Y Hung
As hospitals around the world increasingly face pressure to improve efficiency, "Lean" process improvement has become a popular approach to improving patient flow. In this article, we examine nurses' perspectives on the implementation of Lean redesigns to the inpatient discharge process. We found that nurses experienced competing demands and tensions related to their time and professional roles and responsibilities as a result of Lean. Four main themes included (a) addressing the needs of individual patients, while still maintaining overall patient flow; (b) meeting discharge efficiency targets while also achieving high patient satisfaction scores; (c) "wasting time" to save time; and (d) the "real" work of providing clinical care versus the "Lean" work of process improvement...
January 2018: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
Sharon S Weir, J Peter Figueroa, Marion Scott, Lovette Byfield, Carol Jones Cooper, Marcia C Hobbs
INTRODUCTION: HIV prevention strategies often include outreach to female sex workers at social venues identified as places where people meet new sexual partners. Patrons and staff at these venues may include female sex workers, their clients, as well as others who have high rates of new sexual partnerships. Few studies have compared HIV/STI among venue-based and general populations, across types of venues, or by sub-group of the venue population. Program planners often assume that the prevalence of infection is highest among female sex workers and considerably lower among other people at these venues, but there are few empiric studies assessing the prevalence of infection by sex worker status and type of venue...
2018: PloS One
Nancy Darling, Lauree Tilton-Weaver
This article used a sample of 2 adolescents per family to (a) examine the extent to which parental monitoring and adolescent information management are characteristics of families or of dyads and (b) replicate past research on parental monitoring and adolescent information management using models that distinguish differences between families from differences within them. Within- and between-family differences were examined as a function of parents (positive and negative parenting, immigration status), individual and peer-reported problem behavior, and adolescent characteristics (age, gender) in a sample of 300 Swedish families with 2 siblings each (aged 10 to 19)...
November 26, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Azza Shoaibi, Jihad S Obeid, Jim C Oates, Melissa L Habrat, Leslie A Lenert
Objective: Obtaining patient permissions for research contact and for surplus tissue use as part of routine clinical practice can improve research participation. This study aims to investigate the difference in patient permissions for use of surplus tissues, and for direct contact for research, using 2 different methods of solicitation. Methods: An opt-in, population-based approach for gathering research permissions was implemented in 2 methods. The first method, applied a 2-item patient questionnaire delivered through the electronic health record patient portal...
October 2018: JAMIA open
Tahsin Khan, Teresa M Chan
Objectives There are few high-quality free open-access medical (FOAM) education resources to guide medical students in the development of key non-medical expert skills and competencies during their emergency medicine (EM) clerkship core rotation. In our endeavor to develop a novel online educational EM curriculum for medical students, a needs assessment is required to effectively address needs specifically focused on aptitudes that are deemed to be imperative by educators in the EM academia. Methods An online needs assessment survey was developed and shared with residents, staff, nurses, and program/clerkship directors of Canadian emergency medicine programs by email correspondence and embedding the form on CanadiEM...
September 17, 2018: Curēus
Beth Stuart, Geraldine Leydon, Catherine Woods, Elizabeth Gennery, Christopher Elsey, Rachael Summers, Fiona Stevenson, Carolyn Chew-Graham, Rebecca Barnes, Paul Drew, Michael Moore, Paul Little
OBJECTIVE: To describe the nature of patient concerns and to explore if, when and how they are addressed by GPs in the UK. METHODS: Detailed coding and descriptive analysis of 185 video recordings from the EPaC study (Elicitation of Patient Concerns, EPaC) RESULTS: An average of 2.1 concerns were raised per consultation and the most common concerns were musculoskeletal, administrative (e.g. test results and medication related issues), and skin symptoms. GPs who had been trained as part of the EPaC intervention to solicit for additional concerns in the opening phase of the consultation did so 92...
November 14, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Paolo Visca, Federica Pisa, Francesco Imperi
The rise in antibacterial resistance jeopardizes current therapeutic strategies to control infections, soliciting the development of novel antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action. In this work we report the discovery of a potent and selective anti-staphylococcal activity of 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), an antimetabolite in preclinical development phase as an anticancer drug. 3BP showed bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with active concentrations comparable to those reported to be effective against cancer cells...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
E Merlot, H Pastorelli, A Prunier, M-C Père, I Louveau, L Lefaucheur, M-H Perruchot, M C Meunier-Salaün, D Gardan-Salmon, F Gondret, H Quesnel
In pig husbandry, pregnant females are often exposed to stressful conditions, and their outcomes on maternal and offspring health have not been well evaluated. The present study aimed at testing whether improving the welfare of gestating sows could be associated with a better maternal health during gestation, changes in the composition of lacteal secretions and improvement in piglet survival. Two contrasted group-housing systems for gestating sows were used, that is, a French conventional system on slatted floor (C, 49 sows) and an enriched system using larger pens on deep straw (E, 57 sows)...
November 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Christian J Gronbeck, Mark P Cote, Mohamad J Halawi
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has solicited comments regarding the removal of total hip arthroplasty (THA) from its inpatient-only list. The goal of this study is to develop and internally validate a risk stratification nomogram to aid in the identification of optimal inpatient candidates in this patient population. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was utilized to identify all patients >65 years of age who underwent primary THA between 2006 and 2015...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
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