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Kiri A Sandler, Sandra A Mitchell, Ethan Basch, Ann C Raldow, Michael L Steinberg, Jamal Sharif, Ryan R Cook, Patrick A Kupelian, Susan A McCloskey
PURPOSE: To improve assessment of symptomatic toxicity in cancer clinical trials and complement clinician-based toxicity reporting, the US National Cancer Institute developed a measurement system called the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE). The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of PRO-CTCAE in patients undergoing radiation therapy and to establish anatomic site-specific item sets for implementation in cancer research...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Shanley B Deal, Mackenzie R Cook, Dorothy Hughes, Michael Sarap, Tyler G Hughes, Karen Brasel, Adnan A Alseidi
OBJECTIVE: The current shortage of surgeons in rural and smaller communities is predicted to get worse. In this study, we solicited practicing rural surgeons' opinions about the skill set needed in a rural practice in order to inform curriculum development for general surgery residents who intend to embark on rural careers. DESIGN: We developed an online survey consisting of demographic questions and closed- and open-ended questions regarding current practice environment and scope of practice...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Elisabeth M Oehrlein, Eleanor M Perfetto, T Rose Love, Yujin Chung, Parima Ghafoori
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a Pilot Clinical Outcome Assessment Compendium (COA Compendium) intended to foster patient-focused drug development (PFDD). However, it is unclear whether patient perspectives were solicited during development or validation of the included patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. OBJECTIVE: To examine the pedigree of a sample of measures included in the COA Compendium. METHODS: PROs included in chapters 1 or 2 of the COA Compendium were extracted and three reviewers independently searched PubMed and Google to identify information on measure pedigree...
August 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Nichole M Chapel, Jeffrey R Lucas, Scott Radcliffe, Kara R Stewart, Donald C Lay
Though many studies focused on piglet crushing utilizing piglet vocalizations to test sow response, none have verified the properties of test vocalizations against actual crushing events. Ten sows were observed 48 h after parturition, and crushing events were recorded from all sows. When a crushing event occurred, a second piglet within the same litter was used to solicit a vocalization through manual restraint to compare restrained piglets' call properties to those of crushed piglets'. A total of 659 Restrained calls and 631 Crushed calls were collected...
August 8, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Stefanie Lopriore, Amanda LeCouteur, Katie Ekberg, Stuart Ekberg
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper explores the accomplishment of physical examination on a health helpline. By focusing on the ways in which callers are asked to examine themselves and report information to nurses, we aim to provide insight into how physical examination at a distance is achieved. BACKGROUND: Physical examination is a routine feature of healthcare encounters. In face-to-face settings, patients are subject to professional scrutiny through talk, touch and observation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Liana E Chase, Kedar Marahatta, Kripa Sidgel, Sujan Shrestha, Kamal Gautam, Nagendra P Luitel, Bhogendra Raj Dotel, Reuben Samuel
Background: The World Health Organization's 'building back better' approach advocates capitalizing on the resources and political will elicited by disasters to strengthen national mental health systems. This study explores the contributions of the response to the 2015 earthquake in Nepal to sustainable mental health system reform. Methods: We systematically reviewed grey literature on the mental health and psychosocial response to the earthquake obtained through online information-sharing platforms and response coordinators (168 documents) to extract data on response stakeholders and activities...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Brenna Shearer, Sheila Ng, Drena Dunford, I Fan Kuo
Current literature demonstrates the positive impact of pharmacists prescribing medication on patient outcomes and pharmacist perceptions of the practice. The aim of this study was to understand the factors affecting prescribing practices among Manitoba pharmacists and identify whether additional training methods would be beneficial for a practice behavior change. A web-based survey was developed and participation was solicited from pharmacists in Manitoba. Descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize the frequency of demographic characteristics...
August 4, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Kate Hames, Michael Patlas, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: The study sought to identify and characterise barriers to research for Canadian diagnostic radiology residents and suggest potential solutions to enhance future research success. METHODS: Institutional research board approval was obtained. Electronic surveys were solicited from all postgraduate year 2-5 diagnostic radiology residents at all 16 programs across Canada. The survey focused on key factors inhibiting research during training. RESULTS: Of all 400 Canadian diagnostic radiology residents, 88 (22%) responded...
August 2018: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
Alaina P Boyer, Alecia M Fair, Yvonne A Joosten, Rowena J Dolor, Neely A Williams, Lisa Sherden, Sarah Stallings, Duane T Smoot, Consuelo H Wilkins
OBJECTIVES: To ensure meaningful engagement of stakeholders (patients, clinicians, and communities) in developing the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network (MS-CDRN), we implemented a comprehensive, multilevel approach: (1) identify barriers to involving stakeholders in governance, network design, and implementation; (2) engage stakeholders in priority setting and research topic generation; (3) develop strategies to fully integrate stakeholders in CDRN governance and oversight; and (4) solicit guidance on patient-centered tools and strategies for recruiting research participants...
August 2, 2018: Medical Care
Gabriella Mondini, Patricia Emilia Braga, Marta Heloisa Lopes, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Karina Takesaki Miyaji, Vanessa Infante, Bruno Azevedo Randi, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Juliana Caires de Oliveira Achili Ferreira, Neusa Keico Sakita, Alexander Roberto Precioso
Annual vaccination is the most effective way to prevent seasonal influenza illness. Instituto Butantan (IB) performed clinical studies with its 2013, 2014 and 2015 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines (inactivated split-virion). Prospective cohort studies were carried out to describe the safety and immunogenicity of Instituto Butantan influenza vaccines, in healthy adults and elderly, from 2013 to 2015. Immediately after the informed consent was signed, participants underwent blood collection followed by vaccination...
July 30, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Issaka Sagara, Sara A Healy, Mahamadoun H Assadou, Erin E Gabriel, Mamady Kone, Kourane Sissoko, Intimbeye Tembine, Merepen A Guindo, M'Bouye Doucoure, Karamoko Niaré, Amagana Dolo, Kelly M Rausch, David L Narum, David L Jones, Nicholas J MacDonald, Daming Zhu, Rathy Mohan, Olga Muratova, Ibrahima Baber, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Michael P Fay, Charles Anderson, Yimin Wu, Sekou F Traore, Ogobara K Doumbo, Patrick E Duffy
BACKGROUND: Pfs25H-EPA is a protein-protein conjugate transmission-blocking vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum that is safe and induces functional antibodies in malaria-naive individuals. In this field trial, we assessed Pfs25H-EPA/Alhydrogel for safety and functional immunogenicity in Malian adults. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, comparator-controlled, dose-escalation trial in Bancoumana, Mali, was done in two staggered phases, an initial pilot safety assessment and a subsequent main phase...
July 27, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Nicholas Meo, Evan Paul, Christopher Wilson, Janice Powers, Marinette Magbual, Kari Mae Miles
Background: Inefficient coordination of care around discharge can increase length of stay, lead to ineffective transitions and contribute an unnecessary cost burden to patients and hospital systems. Multidisciplinary discharge rounds can improve situational awareness among team members leading to more efficient and better coordinated care. This project aimed to standardise the daily discharge rounds occurring on a medicine service to reduce length of stay. Participants included physicians, nurses and social workers...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Victoria A Statler, Frank R Albano, Jolanta Airey, Daphne C Sawlwin, Alison Graves Jones, Vince Matassa, Esther Heijnen, Jonathan Edelman, Gary S Marshall
BACKGROUND: In the Southern Hemisphere 2010 influenza season, Seqirus' split-virion, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was associated with increased reports of fevers and febrile reactions in young children. A staged clinical development program of a quadrivalent vaccine (Seqirus IIV4 [S-IIV4]; Afluria® Quadrivalent/Afluria Quad™/Afluria Tetra™), wherein each vaccine strain is split using a higher detergent concentration to reduce lipid content (considered the cause of the increased fevers and febrile reactions), is now complete...
July 26, 2018: Vaccine
David A Smith
Falls are common in nursing homes (NHs) and may result in serious injury to the resident as well as legal and regulatory liability for the NH. Some of these falls and injuries might be avoided if attending physicians were involved in risk reduction. I developed a communication tool to solicit from attending physicians specific risks for patients most likely to experience a fall and injury, and to consider strategies to reduce those risks. The communication tool addresses medications, osteopenia, vitamin D deficiency, vision, hearing, gait/balance/peripheral sensation, injury mitigation, altered mental status, restraints, and philosophy of treatment...
August 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Samuel O Clarke, Jaime Jordan, Lalena M Yarris, Emilie Fowlkes, Jaqueline Kurth, Daniel Runde, Wendy C Coates
Education scholarship continues to grow within emergency medicine (EM) and in academic medicine in general. Despite a growing interest, would-be education scholars often struggle to find adequate mentorship, research training, funding, and protected time to produce rigorous scholarship. The ways in which individual academic EM departments can support this mission remains an area in need of description. Objectives: We sought to describe academic EM department chairs' perceptions of education scholarship and facilitators and barriers to producing high-quality education scholarship...
January 2018: AEM education and training
Rania Bouneb, Menel Mellouli, Maha Dardouri, Houda Ben Soltane, Imed Chouchene, Mohamed Boussarsar
Introduction: intensive care unit (ICU) beds are a scarce resource, and admissions may require prioritization when demand exceeds supply. However, there are few data regarding both outcomes of admitted patients to intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison with outcomes of not admitted patients. The aim of this study was to assess reasons and factors associated to refusal of admission to ICU as well as the impact on mortality at 28 days and patients' outcomes. Methods: Single-center, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 8-bed Medical ICU at a Tunisian University hospital...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Leeba Rezaie, David Phillips, Habibolah Khazaie
Purpose: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). CPAP acceptance and adherence are critical issues for optimal treatment outcome. Identifying barriers to acceptance and adherence can improve intervention development and outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the barriers to CPAP acceptance/adherence in patients with OSA in western Iran. Patients and methods: Patients with OSA, who had been prescribed CPAP by the Sleep Disorders Research Center of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, were recruited...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Dan H Barouch, Frank L Tomaka, Frank Wegmann, Daniel J Stieh, Galit Alter, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Lauren Peter, Joseph P Nkolola, Erica N Borducchi, Abishek Chandrashekar, David Jetton, Kathryn E Stephenson, Wenjun Li, Bette Korber, Georgia D Tomaras, David C Montefiori, Glenda Gray, Nicole Frahm, M Juliana McElrath, Lindsey Baden, Jennifer Johnson, Julia Hutter, Edith Swann, Etienne Karita, Hannah Kibuuka, Juliet Mpendo, Nigel Garrett, Kathy Mngadi, Kundai Chinyenze, Frances Priddy, Erica Lazarus, Fatima Laher, Sorachai Nitayapan, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Stephan Bart, Thomas Campbell, Robert Feldman, Gregg Lucksinger, Caroline Borremans, Katleen Callewaert, Raphaele Roten, Jerald Sadoff, Lorenz Scheppler, Mo Weijtens, Karin Feddes-de Boer, Daniëlle van Manen, Jessica Vreugdenhil, Roland Zahn, Ludo Lavreys, Steven Nijs, Jeroen Tolboom, Jenny Hendriks, Zelda Euler, Maria G Pau, Hanneke Schuitemaker
BACKGROUND: More than 1·8 million new cases of HIV-1 infection were diagnosed worldwide in 2016. No licensed prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine exists. A major limitation to date has been the lack of direct comparability between clinical trials and preclinical studies. We aimed to evaluate mosaic adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26)-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates in parallel studies in humans and rhesus monkeys to define the optimal vaccine regimen to advance into clinical efficacy trials. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2a trial (APPROACH)...
July 21, 2018: Lancet
Nolwenn Fresneau, Arne Iserbyt, Carsten Lucass, Wendt Müller
It is commonly observed in many bird species that dependent offspring vigorously solicit for food transfers provided by their parents. However, the likelihood of receiving food does not only depend on the parental response, but also on the degree of sibling competition, at least in species where parents raise several offspring simultaneously. To date, little is known about whether and how individual offspring adjusts its begging strategy according to the entwined effects of need, state and competitive ability of itself and its siblings...
2018: PeerJ
Alejandra Fernandez, Alexandra Loukas, Keryn E Pasch
Research indicates that parents' solicitation and adolescents' disclosure of information are negatively associated with adjustment problems (depressive symptoms and conduct problems). However, few studies examine the bidirectional associations between these variables with early adolescents in the United States or the race/ethnic group differences in these bidirectional associations. We examined cross-lagged associations and race/ethnic group differences between parents' solicitation, adolescents' disclosure and adjustment problems among 209 non-Hispanic White (61...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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