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Cerebral mapping

Ryosuke Mihara, Akira Takasu, Kentaro Maemura, Toshiaki Minami
Aim: To examine whether prolonged hemorrhagic shock (HS) at a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg leads to brain damage. Methods: Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane. The HS model consisted of the following phases: I, pressure-controlled HS at a MAP of 40 mmHg; II, fluid resuscitation to normalize blood pressure; III, observations with outcome evaluations in terms of survival, overall performance categories, and neurological deficit scores, as well as evaluation of apoptosis in the hippocampus at 96 h...
October 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Ahmed A Khalil, Kersten Villringer, Vivien Filleböck, Jiun-Yiing Hu, Andrea Rocco, Jochen B Fiebach, Arno Villringer
Relative delays in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal oscillations can be used to assess cerebral perfusion without using contrast agents. However, little is currently known about the utility of this method in detecting clinically relevant perfusion changes over time. We investigated the relationship between longitudinal BOLD delay changes, vessel recanalization, and reperfusion in 15 acute stroke patients with vessel occlusion examined within 24 h of symptom onset (D0) and one day later (D1). We created BOLD delay maps using time shift analysis of resting-state functional MRI data and quantified perfusion lesion volume changes (using the D1/D0 volume ratio) and severity changes (using a linear mixed model) over time...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Giacomo Gattoni, Violetta Insolia, Graziella Bernocchi
Pulmonate gastropods provide unique opportunities to examine physiological and biochemical adaptation strategies when cellular metabolic activity is reduced. In this study, cytochemical changes in metacerebral neurons of the cerebral ganglia were investigated in the garden snail Cornu aspersum during the hibernation phase. The immunocytochemical expression of three cytoskeletal markers: microtubule-associate protein 2-like (MAP-2-li), phosphorylated form of tau-like (P-Tau-li) and heavy subunit of neurofilaments-like (NF-H-li), and of two calcium-binding proteins: calmodulin-like (CaM-li) and parvalbumin-like (PV-li) was compared in active and hibernated snails...
October 17, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Benjamin J Heller, Pranav Deshpande, Joshua A Heller, Patrick McCormick, Hung-Mo Lin, Ruiqi Huang, Gregory Fischer, Menachem M Weiner
Background: Cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has well-documented benefits during cardiac surgery. The authors tested the hypothesis that NIRS technology can be used at other sites as a tissue oximeter during cardiac surgery and in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Aims: To establish feasibility of monitoring tissue oximetry during and after cardiac surgery, to examine the correlations between tissue oximetry values and cerebral oximetry values, and to examine correlations between oximetry values and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to test whether cerebral oximetry can be used as an index organ...
October 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Nachiket A Nadkarni, Salma Bougacha, Clément Garin, Marc Dhenain, Jean-Luc Picq
The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a small prosimian of growing interest for studies of primate biology and evolution, and notably as a model organism of brain aging. As brain atlases are essential tools for brain investigation, the objective of the current work was to create the first 3D digital atlas of the mouse lemur brain. For this, a template image was constructed from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 34 animals. This template was then manually segmented into 40 cortical, 74 subcortical and 6 cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) regions...
October 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Hideki Ota, Hajime Tamura, Ryo Itabashi, Yukako Yazawa, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Kenji Hisamatsu, Manabu Takamatsu, Hidenori Endo, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Yukiko Enomoto, Tatsuo Nagasaka, Kimihiro Kajita, Mika Watanabe, Shinichi Yoshimura, Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of parametric MR mapping to characterize carotid plaques associated with cerebral ischemic events. PURPOSE: To explore the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and longitudinal relaxation rates (R1 ) of carotid plaques, including areas of hemorrhage, lipid-rich/necrotic core (LR/NC) without hemorrhage, and fibrous tissue (Fbr) STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Twelve patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Franca Wagner, Lorenz Grunder, Arsany Hakim, Nicole Kamber, Michael P Horn, Julia Muellner, Robert Hoepner, Roland Wiest, Imke Metz, Andrew Chan, Anke Salmen
Objective: Differential diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) or mimics can be challenging, especially in patients with atypical presentations and negative serostatus for aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). This brief research report describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings focusing on quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis as a potential tool to differentiate NMOSD from MS. Methods: Longitudinal MRI data obtained during routine clinical examinations were retrospectively analyzed in a patient with histologically determined cerebral NMOSD, a patient with an acute tumefactive MS lesion, and a patient with ischemic stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek
Neuropathological studies revealed the propagation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a sequence of four separate disease-related regional patterns. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based analysis was established for the individual mapping of sequential disease spreading in ALS as the in vivo transfer to neuroimaging. The aim of this review is to summarize cross-sectional and longitudinal results of these technical approaches in ALS as an in vivo tool to image ALS propagation stages. This concept was also applied to restricted phenotypes of ALS, e...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shaozhen Yan, Zhigang Qi, Yanhong An, Mo Zhang, Tianyi Qian, Jie Lu
BACKGROUND: Vascular factors contributing to cerebral hypoperfusion are implicated in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). PURPOSE: To investigate the time-shift mapping created time-shift value of the brain by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and to determine the differences in time-shift value among AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal control (NC) groups to better understand the disease. STUDY TYPE: Prospective...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Masafumi Sanefuji, Yuko Ichimiya, Noriyuki Kaku, Momoko Sasazuki, Kosuke Yonemoto, Michiko Torio, Soichi Mizuguchi, Yoshitomo Motomura, Mamoru Muraoka, Sooyoung Lee, Haruhisa Baba, Kazuhiro Ohkubo, Yuri Sonoda, Yoshito Ishizaki, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is a childhood-onset encephalopathy, but the precise pathophysiology remains unclear. We encountered a child with Moyamoya syndrome and AESD. He exhibited left-predominant stenosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and later developed broad lesions in the left hemisphere, raising the possibility that insufficient blood supply relates to formation of the lesions. To test the hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between MCA volume and lesion extent in seven AESD children without preexisting diseases...
October 3, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Yuyao Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Hongjiang Wei, Victor Han, Wen-Zhen Zhu, Chunlei Liu
The human brain rapidly develops during the first two years following birth. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) provides information of iron and myelin variations. It is considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In the present work, QSM is performed on neonates, 1-year and 2-year old infants, as well as a group of adults for the purpose of reference. Age-specific templates representing common brain structures are built for each age group. The neonate and infant QSM templates have shown some unique findings compared to conventional T1w and T2w imaging techniques...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Yangyang Zou, Limin Chen, Tianfeng Hua, Min Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective function of endovascular cooling method on post-resuscitation syndrome (PRS) in porcine cardiac arrest (CA) model and its mechanism. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced and untreated for 8 minutes in 15 healthy male porcines, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was then initiated. All successful recovery animals were randomly divided into two groups by random number table. In normal temperature group, the core temperature was maintained at (38...
September 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Changqing Zhang, Ehsan Adeli, Zhengwang Wu, Gang Li, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
The early postnatal period witnesses rapid and dynamic brain development. However, the relationship between brain anatomical structure and cognitive ability is still unknown. Currently, there is no explicit model to characterize this relationship in the literature. In this paper, we explore this relationship by investigating the mapping between morphological features of the cerebral cortex and cognitive scores. To this end, we introduce a multi-view multi-task learning approach to intuitively explore complementary information from different time-points and handle the missing data issue in longitudinal studies simultaneously...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Liang Han, Neil K Savalia, Micaela Y Chan, Phillip F Agres, Anupama S Nair, Gagan S Wig
Adult aging is associated with differences in structure, function, and connectivity of brain areas. Age-based brain comparisons have typically rested on the assumption that brain areas exhibit a similar spatial organization across age; we evaluate this hypothesis directly. Area parcellation methods that identify locations where resting-state functional correlations (RSFC) exhibit abrupt transitions (boundary-mapping) are used to define cortical areas in cohorts of individuals sampled across a large range of the human adult lifespan (20-93 years)...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Francesca Di Giuliano, Eliseo Picchi, Fabrizio Sallustio, Valentina Ferrazzoli, Fana Alemseged, Laura Greco, Silvia Minosse, Valerio Da Ros, Marina Diomedi, Francesco Garaci, Simone Marziali, Roberto Floris
Background and purpose Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and multiphase CT angiography (mCTA) help selection for endovascular treatment (EVT) in anterior ischemic stroke (AIS). Our aim was to investigate the ability of perfusion maps and collateral score to predict functional outcome after EVT. Patients and methods Patients with M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion, evaluated by mCTA and CTP and treated with EVT within six hours of onset, were enrolled. Perfusion parametric maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and time to maximum of tissue residue function ( Tmax ) were generated; areas of altered perfusion were manually outlined to obtain volumes CBFv , CBVv , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]...
October 10, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Girolamo Crisi, Silvano Filice, Umberto Scoditti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the significance of regional hyperperfusion (RH) detected by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in a group of untreated stroke patients, within 24-36 hours after symptom onset. The relationship between RH volume and infarcted volume (DIV) as defined on diffusion weighted images (DWIs) was evaluated. METHODS: Of the 346 consecutive acute stroke patients who attended our center, we retrospectively reviewed MRI studies of 47 patients who were ineligible for standard treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Junjie Wu, Amit M Saindane, Xiaodong Zhong, Deqiang Qiu
PURPOSE: To study a multiband multi-echo EPI (M2-EPI) sequence for dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging with leakage correction and vascular permeability measurements, and to evaluate the benefits of increased temporal resolution provided by this acquisition strategy on the accuracy of perfusion and permeability estimations. METHODS: A novel M2-EPI sequence was developed, and a pharmacokinetic model accounting for contrast agent extravasation was used to produce perfusion maps and additional vascular permeability maps...
October 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Kevin Fh Lee, Michael D Wood, David M Maslove, John G Muscedere, J Gordon Boyd
Delirium is common during critical illness and is associated with morbidity and mortality, but its pathophysiology is unknown. We tested whether dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation (CA) contributes to the development of delirium. Adult patients ( n = 40) with respiratory failure and/or shock were prospectively enrolled. Continuous recordings of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) were obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during the first 72 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. CA function was estimated by the cerebral oximetry index (COx), which is the time-varying correlation between rSO2 and mean arterial pressure (MAP)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Enrique de Font-Réaulx Rojas, Edith Elizabeth Martínez Ochoa, Ramón López López, Luis Guillermo López Díaz
Background: Infrared thermography (IT) is a noninvasive, real-time diagnostic method that requires no contact with the patient and has a broad spectrum of potential applications in neurosurgery. It has been previously demonstrated the high sensitivity and specificity that IT has to detect brain blood flow changes. Case Description: The case is based on a 64-year-old diabetic and hypertensive male, to whom an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) incidental aneurysm was discovered...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Kushal J Shah, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
BACKGROUND: Indocyanine Green (ICG) videoangiography can assess cerebral bloodflow, but results are primarily qualitative. FLOW 800 software measures fluorescence dynamics and creates a semiquantitative color delay map for assessment of relative sequence of bloodflow within the vasculature. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 23 consecutive patients for whom FLOW 800 ICG videoangiography was utilized. They harbored aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF), or hemangioblastoma...
October 4, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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