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Cerebral mapping

Kenney Roy Roodakker, Ali Alhuseinalkhudhur, Mohammed Al-Jaff, Maria Georganaki, Maria Zetterling, Shala G Berntsson, Torsten Danfors, Robin Strand, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Anna Dimberg, Elna-Marie Larsson, Anja Smits
PURPOSE: Oligodendrogliomas are heterogeneous tumors in terms of imaging appearance, and a deeper understanding of the histopathological tumor characteristics in correlation to imaging parameters is needed. We used PET-to-MRI-to-histology co-registration with the aim of studying intra-tumoral 11 C-methionine (MET) uptake in relation to tumor perfusion and the protein expression of histological cell markers in corresponding areas. METHODS: Consecutive histological sections of four tumors covering the entire en bloc-removed tumor were immunostained with antibodies against IDH1-mutated protein (tumor cells), Ki67 (proliferating cells), and CD34 (blood vessels)...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jung Youn Kim, Ji Eun Park, Youngheun Jo, Woo Hyun Shim, Soo Jung Nam, Jeong Hoon Kim, Roh-Eul Yoo, Seung Hong Choi, Ho Sung Kim
Background: Pseudoprogression is a diagnostic challenge in early post-treatment glioblastoma. We therefore developed and validated a radiomics model using multiparametric MRI to differentiate pseudoprogression from early tumor progression in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: The model was developed from the enlarging contrast-enhancing portions of 61 glioblastomas within 3 months after standard treatment with 6472 radiomic features being obtained from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps...
August 11, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Sui Li, Dong Zeng, Jiangjun Peng, Zhaoying Bian, Hao Zhang, Qi Xie, Yongbo Wang, Yuting Liao, Shanli Zhang, Jing Huang, Deyu Meng, Zongben Xu, Jianhua Ma
Cerebrovascular diseases, i.e., acute stroke, are a common cause of serious long-term disability. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography (CPCT) can provide rapid, highresolution, quantitative hemodynamic maps to assess and stratify perfusion in patients with acute stroke symptoms. However, CPCT imaging typically involves a substantial radiation dose due to its repeated scanning protocol. Therefore, in this work, we present a low-dose CPCT image reconstruction method to yield high-quality CPCT images and high-precision hemodynamic maps by utilizing the great similarity information among the repeated scanned CPCT images...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Xavier Guell, Jeremy D Schmahmann, John DE Gabrieli, Satrajit S Ghosh
A central principle for understanding the cerebral cortex is that macroscale anatomy reflects a functional hierarchy from primary to transmodal processing. In contrast, the central axis of motor and nonmotor macroscale organization in the cerebellum remains unknown. Here we applied diffusion map embedding to resting-state data from the Human Connectome Project dataset (n = 1003), and show for the first time that cerebellar functional regions follow a gradual organization which progresses from primary (motor) to transmodal (DMN, task-unfocused) regions...
August 14, 2018: ELife
Alessio Martucci, Massimo Cesareo, Carlo Nucci, Raffaele Mancino
Purpose: To report the case of a 57 years old woman who showed a macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), that is a combination of ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer, and peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (pRNFL) thickness reduction in association with left homonymous hemianopia subsequent to surgical excision of an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebral right occipital lobe 37 years before. Observations: One patient with left homonymous hemianopia due to surgical excision of an arteriovenous malformation in the right cerebral occipital lobe came to our attention for transient blurred vision...
December 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
David C Van Essen, Chad J Donahue, Matthew F Glasser
Cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex both vary enormously across species in their size and complexity of convolutions. We discuss the development and evolution of cortical structures in terms of anatomy and functional organization. We propose that the distinctive shapes of cerebral and cerebellar cortex can be explained by relatively few developmental processes, notably including mechanical tension along axons and dendrites. Regarding functional organization, we show how maps of myelin content in cerebral cortex are evolutionarily conserved across primates but differ in the proportion of cortex devoted to sensory, cognitive, and other functions...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Melodie Aubart, Steven Gazal, Pauline Arnaud, Louise Benarroch, Marie-Sylvie Gross, Julien Buratti, Anne Boland, Vincent Meyer, Habib Zouali, Nadine Hanna, Olivier Milleron, Chantal Stheneur, Thomas Bourgeron, Isabelle Desguerre, Marie-Paule Jacob, Laurent Gouya, Emmanuelle Génin, Jean-François Deleuze, Guillaume Jondeau, Catherine Boileau
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder related to variants in the FBN1 gene. Prognosis is related to aortic risk of dissection following aneurysm. MFS clinical variability is notable, for age of onset as well as severity and number of clinical manifestations. To identify genetic modifiers, we combined genome-wide approaches in 1070 clinically well-characterized FBN1 disease-causing variant carriers: (1) an FBN1 eQTL analysis in 80 fibroblasts of FBN1 stop variant carriers, (2) a linkage analysis, (3) a kinship matrix association study in 14 clinically concordant and discordant sib-pairs, (4) a genome-wide association study and (5) a whole exome sequencing in 98 extreme phenotype samples...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Muhammad Naveed, Syeda Khushbakht Kazmi, Mariyam Amin, Zainab Asif, Ushna Islam, Kinza Shahid, Sana Tehreem
Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is an autosomal recessive sporadic neurodevelopmental ailment with a trivial head size characteristic that is below 3-4 standard deviations. MCPH is the smaller upshot of an architecturally normal brain; a significant decrease in size is seen in the cerebral cortex. At birth MCPH presents with non-progressive mental retardation, while secondary microcephaly (onset after birth) presents with and without other syndromic features. MCPH is a neurogenic mitotic syndrome nevertheless pretentious patients demonstrate normal neuronal migration, neuronal apoptosis and neural function...
August 8, 2018: Genetics Research
Robert Zivadinov, Paul Polak, Ferdinand Schweser, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Deepa P Ramasamy, John G Baker, John J Leddy, Barry S Willer
BACKGROUND: Long-term consequences of playing professional football and hockey on brain function and structural neuronal integrity are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate multimodal metabolic and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences in retired professional contact sport athletes compared with noncontact sport athletes. METHODS: Twenty-one male contact sport athletes and 21 age-matched noncontact sport athletes were scanned on a 3 tesla (3T) MRI using a multimodal imaging approach...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Farid Atry, Rex Chin-Hao Chen, Jane Pisaniello, Sarah Brodnick, Aaron Suminski, Joseph Novello, Jared Ness, Justin Williams, Ramin Pashaie
We introduce an engineering approach to study spatiotemporal correlations between vasodynamics and the nearby neural activity in open-loop and closed-loop paradigms. 
 Approach: We integrated optogenetic technology with optical coherence tomography to apply spatiotemporal patterns of optical neurostimulation to the cortex of transgenic optogenetic mice and measure blood flow-rate, velocity, and diameter changes of selected middle cerebral artery branches.
 Main results: The spatiotemporal characteristics of blood flow-rate, velocity, and vessel diameter responses to localized neurostimulation light pulses were measured...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kensuke Takada, Yoshinori Maki, Masanori Kinosada, Ryota Ishibashi, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata
Metronidazole induced encephalopathy (MIE), an encephalopathy brought by an antibiotic, is characterized with cerebellar dysfunction, altered mental status and extrapyramidal symptoms. MIE can result in an acute manifestation, but MIE has not been reported as a stroke mimic. An 86-year-old patient undergoing metronidazole therapy for Clostridium difficile enteritis presented to our hospital with sudden disoriented status and motor weakness of the left extremities. Computed tomography (CT) was unrevealing of intracranial hemorrhagic change, and CT angiography did not show any apparent major occlusion or stenosis of the intracranial vessels...
August 3, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Weina Li, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Wensheng Hou, Jun Hu, Hua Feng, Xiaolin Zheng
Purpose: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuro-degenerative disorder that also damages extra-motor neural pathways. A significant proportion of existing evidence describe alterations in the strengths of functional connectivity, whereas the changes in the density of these functional connections have not been explored. Therefore, our study seeks to identify ALS-induced alternations in the resting-state functional connectivity density (FCD). Methods: Two groups comprising of 38 ALS patients and 35 healthy participants (age and gender matched) were subjected to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Antonio Cerasa, Loris Pignolo, Vera Gramigna, Sebastiano Serra, Giuseppe Olivadese, Federico Rocca, Paolo Perrotta, Giuliano Dolce, Aldo Quattrone, Paolo Tonin
Background : Technology-supported rehabilitation is emerging as a solution to support therapists in providing a high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific treatment, aimed at improving stroke recovery. End-effector robotic devices are known to positively affect the recovery of arm functions, however there is a lack of evidence regarding exoskeletons. This paper evaluates the impact of cerebral lesion load on the response to a validated robotic-assisted rehabilitation protocol. Methods : Fourteen hemiparetic patients were assessed in a within-subject design (age 66...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Qing Yu, Yongfu Wang, Fang Du, Shijun Yan, Gang Hu, Nicola Origlia, Grazia Rutigliano, Qinru Sun, Haiyang Yu, James Ainge, Shi Fang Yan, Frank Gunn-Moore, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Endophilin A1 (EP) is a protein enriched in synaptic terminals that has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous in vitro studies have shown that EP can bind to a variety of proteins, which elicit changes in synaptic transmission of neurotransmitters and spine formation. Additionally, we previously showed that EP protein levels are elevated in AD patients and AD transgenic animal models. Here, we establish the in vivo consequences of upregulation of EP expression in amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-rich environments, leading to changes in both long-term potentiation and learning and memory of transgenic animals...
July 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Andria L Ford, Dustin K Ragan, Slim Fellah, Michael M Binkley, Melanie E Fields, Kristin P Guilliams, Hongyu An, Lori C Jordan, Robert C McKinstry, Jin-Moo Lee, Michael R DeBaun
Silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) are associated with cognitive impairment in sickle cell anemia (SCA). SCI risk factors include low hemoglobin and elevated systolic blood pressure; however, mechanisms underlying their development are unclear. Using the largest, prospective study evaluating SCIs in pediatric SCA, we identified brain regions with increased SCI density. We tested the hypothesis that infarct density is greatest within regions where cerebral blood flow is lowest, further restricting cerebral oxygen delivery in the setting of chronic anemia...
July 30, 2018: Blood
Ryan C Brindle, Annie T Ginty, Anna C Whittaker, Douglas Carroll, Samuel J E Lucas
Recent evidence indicates that cerebral autoregulation (CA) might be more pressure passive than previously thought. That is, cerebral blood flow, traditionally thought to be regulated independently of prevailing mean arterial pressure (MAP), might fluctuate, to some extent, as a function of MAP. However, due to limitations associated with experimental usage of pharmaceuticals to manipulate MAP and inconsistent control of arterial carbon dioxide, questions remain regarding the MAP-cerebral blood flow relationship, especially during typical daily activities that alter MAP...
July 30, 2018: Psychophysiology
Juan R Cebral, Fernando Mut, Piyusha Gade, Fangzhou Cheng, Yasutaka Tobe, Juhana Frosen, Anne M Robertson
INTRODUCTION: Connecting local hemodynamics, biomechanics and tissue properties in cerebral aneurysms is important for understanding the processes of wall degeneration and subsequent aneurysm progression and rupture. This challenging problem requires integration of data from multiple sources. METHODS: This paper describes tools and techniques developed to integrate data from multiple sources, including clinical information, 3D imaging, intra-operative videos, ex-vivo micro-CT, and multi-photon microscopy...
July 28, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Stuart A Gilder, Michael Wack, Leon Kaub, Sophie C Roud, Nikolai Petersen, Helmut Heinsen, Peter Hillenbrand, Stefan Milz, Christoph Schmitz
That the human brain contains magnetite is well established; however, its spatial distribution in the brain has remained unknown. We present room temperature, remanent magnetization measurements on 822 specimens from seven dissected whole human brains in order to systematically map concentrations of magnetic remanence carriers. Median saturation remanent magnetizations from the cerebellum were approximately twice as high as those from the cerebral cortex in all seven cases (statistically significantly distinct, p = 0...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camilla Russo, Giuseppe Pontillo, Antonio Pisani, Francesco Saccà, Eleonora Riccio, Antonio Macera, Giovanni Rusconi, Arnaldo Stanzione, Pasquale Borrelli, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Enrico Tedeschi, Arturo Brunetti, Sirio Cocozza, Giuseppe Palma
INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to elucidate possible mechanisms of extrapyramidal damage in Fabry Disease (FD), a condition in which involvement of the motor system has been recently suggested, by simultaneously assessing morphometric and susceptibility changes of striatonigral pathway and their possible correlations with clinical variables. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated possible differences in terms of Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) values and volumes of different extrapyramidal relays, including striatum and substantia nigra (SN), in 30 FD patients (M/F = 11/19, mean age 42...
July 21, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Hugh Hekierski, Philip Pastor, Victor Curvello, William M Armstead
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children, and boys are disproportionately represented. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced and autoregulation is impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) is often normalized by use of vasoactive agents to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). In prior studies of male and female newborn and juvenile pigs, we observed that phenylephrine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine demonstrated different sex and age dependent abilities to prevent impairment of cerebral autoregulation and limit histopathology after TBI, despite equivalent CPP values...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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