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Cerebral mapping

Kilian Fröhlich, Ralf A Linker, Tobias Engelhorn, Arnd Dörfler, De-Hyung Lee, Konstantin Huhn, Stefan Schwab, Max J Hilz, Frank Seifert, Klemens Winder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bowel incontinence in multiple sclerosis might be associated with specific lesion sites. This study intended to determine associations between bowel incontinence and cerebral multiple sclerosis lesions using a voxel-wise lesion symptom mapping analysis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of multiple sclerosis patients with self-reported bowel incontinence and matched controls. Lesions were manually outlined on T2-weighted MRI scans and transformed into stereotaxic space...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Simin Mahinrad, Marjolein Bulk, Isabelle van der Velpen, Ahmed Mahfouz, Willeke van Roon-Mom, Neal Fedarko, Sevil Yasar, Behnam Sabayan, Diana van Heemst, Louise van der Weerd
Animal studies suggest the involvement of natriuretic peptides (NP) in several brain functions that are known to be disturbed during Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether such findings extend to humans. In this study, we aimed to: (1) map the gene expression and localization of NP and their receptors (NPR) in human post-mortem brain tissue; (2) compare the relative amounts of NP and NPR between the brain tissue of AD patients and non-demented controls, and (3) compare the relative amounts of NP between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients and non-demented controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xianchun Duan, Jianghua Gan, Fan Xu, Lili Li, Lan Han, Can Peng, Qiuyu Bao, Ling Xiao, Daiyin Peng
Gene expression regulatory mechanisms in models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) have been assessed in some studies, but questions remain. The discovery of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between MCAO and control rats analyzed by next-generation RNA sequencing is of particular interest. These DEGs may help guide the clinical diagnosis of stroke and facilitate selection of the optimal treatment strategy. Twenty rats were equally divided into control and MCAO groups. Three rats from each group were randomly selected for RNA sequencing analysis...
2018: BioMed Research International
Alassane Thiam, Sabrina Baaklini, Babacar Mbengue, Samia Nisar, Maryam Diarra, Sandrine Marquet, Mouhamadou Mansour Fall, Michel Sanka, Fatou Thiam, Rokhaya Ndiaye Diallo, Magali Torres, Alioune Dieye, Pascal Rihet
Background: Host factors, including host genetic variation, have been shown to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Genome-wide linkage studies have mapped mild malaria resistance genes on chromosome 6p21, whereas NCR3-412 polymorphism (rs2736191) lying within this region was found to be associated with mild malaria. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 188 Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients (76 mild malaria patients, 85 cerebral malaria patients, and 27 severe non-cerebral malaria patients)...
2018: PeerJ
Jennifer L Agustus, Hannah L Golden, Martina F Callaghan, Rebecca L Bond, Elia Benhamou, Julia C Hailstone, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Jason D Warren
The functional neuroanatomical mechanisms underpinning cognition in the normal older brain remain poorly defined, but have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of aging and the impact of neurodegenerative diseases. Auditory processing is an attractive model system for addressing these issues. Here, we used fMRI of melody processing to investigate auditory pattern processing in normal older individuals. We manipulated the temporal (rhythmic) structure and familiarity of melodies in a passive listening, 'sparse' fMRI protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ronney B Panerai, Victoria J Haunton, Jatinder Singh Minhas, Thompson G Robinson
The gain and phase of the arterial blood pressure (BP)-cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) relationship, assessed by transfer function analysis (TFA), are widely used dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) metrics, but their reliability depend on the statistical significance of the magnitude squared coherence (MSC) function. We tested a new approach, based on inter-subject data, to estimate the confidence limits of MSC.
 Approach: Five minute beat-to-beat time series of mean arterial BP (MAP, Finometer) and CBFV (transcranial Doppler) were used for intra-subject (MAP and CBFV from same subject) and inter-subject (BP and CBFV swapped between subjects) estimates of MSC...
November 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Lena Václavů, Benoit N Meynart, Henk Jmm Mutsaerts, Esben Thade Petersen, Charles Blm Majoie, Ed T VanBavel, John C Wood, Aart J Nederveen, Bart J Biemond
Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and vascular inflammation, which can diminish the vasodilatory capacity of the small resistance arteries, making them less adept at regulating cerebral blood flow. Autoregulation maintains adequate oxygen delivery, but when vasodilation is maximized, the low arterial oxygen content can lead to ischemia and silent cerebral infarcts. We used magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral blood flow to quantify whole-brain cerebrovascular reserve in 36 adult patients with sickle cell disease (mean age, 31...
December 6, 2018: Haematologica
Chao Chai, Huiying Wang, Zhiqiang Chu, Jinping Li, Tianyi Qian, E Mark Haacke, Shuang Xia, Wen Shen
The purpose of this study was to noninvasively evaluate the changes of regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation (rSvO2 ) in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and investigate the relationship with clinical risk factors and neuropsychological testing. Fifty four (54) hemodialysis patients and 54 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in this prospective study. QSM data were reconstructed from the original phase data of susceptibility weighted imaging to measure the susceptibility of cerebral regional major veins in all subjects and calculate their rSvO2 ...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Donato Liloia, Franco Cauda, Andrea Nani, Jordi Manuello, Sergio Duca, Peter T Fox, Tommaso Costa
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The alteration landscape of the cerebral cortex" (Cauda et al., 2018). Here, we applied a metric called alteration negentropy (A-negentropy) on a large human neuroimaging dataset, in order to denote the "low structural alteration variety" of the altered brain areas. Furthermore, we reported the overview of the selection strategy, as well as the description and distribution of the selected studies from the voxel-based morphometry database of BrainMap (Vanasse et al...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Sabrina Oishi, Danyon Harkins, Nyoman D Kurniawan, Maria Kasherman, Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Richard M Gronostajski, Thomas H J Burne, Michael Piper
BACKGROUND: Nuclear Factor One X (NFIX) haploinsufficiency in humans results in Malan syndrome, a disorder characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly and intellectual disability. Although clinical assessments have determined the underlying symptomology of Malan syndrome, the fundamental mechanisms contributing to the enlarged head circumference and intellectual disability in these patients remains undefined. METHODS: Here, we used Nfix heterozygous mice as a model to investigate these aspects of Malan syndrome...
November 29, 2018: EBioMedicine
Yudan Ding, Yangpan Ou, Pan Pan, Xiaoxiao Shan, Jindong Chen, Feng Liu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a mental disorder that involves cerebral and cerebellar abnormalities. The cerebellum plays an indispensable role in the pathophysiology of SZ. However, individual studies pertaining to the structural and resting-state functional cerebellar abnormalities in patients with SZ have been inconsistent. To make a relatively robust conclusion with little interference, such as different disease episode times and antipsychotic treatment, we conducted this meta-analysis as a first attempt to comprehensively analyze and combine studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and functional connectivity strength (FCS) in first-episode and drug-naive SZ patients, employing the Seed-based d Mapping (SDM) method...
November 22, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Dao Pei Zhang, Hao Ran Li, Qian Kun Ma, Suo Yin, Yan Fang Peng, Huai Liang Zhang, Min Zhao, Shu Ling Zhang
Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of stroke and hypoperfusion among patients with isolated vertigo and vascular risk factors. Methods: We studied 157 patients with isolated vertigo who had undergone multimodal magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was used to measure the diameters of vertebrobasilar arteries and to evaluate morphologic changes to vessels. Measurements obtained included length of the basilar artery and curvature index for the vertebral artery (VA)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVENeurovascular coupling reflects the link between neural activity and changes in cerebral blood flow. Despite many technical advances in functional exploration of the brain, including functional MRI, there are only a few reports of direct evidence of neurovascular coupling in humans. The authors aimed to explore, for the first time in humans, the local cerebral blood flow of the primary motor cortex using ultra-high-frequency ultrasound (UHF-US) Doppler imaging to detect low blood flow velocity (1 mm/sec)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
N U Farrukh Hameed, Bin Wu, Fangyuan Gong, Jie Zhang, Hong Chen, Jinsong Wu
Two techniques, the translongitudinal cerebral fissure and transfrontal cortical approach, can be employed to resect posterior cingulate gyrus tumors. We demonstrate the transcortical technique comprising of multimodal imaging guidance and awake brain mapping which enabled maximum safe resection of dominant cingulate gyrus glioma. The patient, a 49-yr-old female, came to clinic after experiencing headache for a month. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans revealed a nonenhancing lesion of the left posterior cingulate gyrus...
November 28, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Kenneth A Rostowsky, Alexander S Maher, Andrei Irimia
With the advent of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), the ability to identify cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has become increasingly commonplace. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of post-traumatic CMBs remains controversial partly because it is unclear whether mTBI-related CMBs entail brain circuitry disruptions which, although structurally subtle, are functionally significant. This study combines magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (MRI and DTI) to map white matter (WM) circuitry differences across 6 months in 26 healthy control volunteers and in 26 older mTBI victims with acute CMBs of traumatic etiology...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Linda A Allen, James R Schmidt, Christopher T Thompson, Brian E Carlson, Daniel A Beard, Julian H Lombard
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether salt-induced angiotensin II suppression contributes to impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation. METHODS: Cerebral autoregulation was evaluated with laser-Doppler flowmetry during graded reductions of blood pressure. Autoregulatory responses in rats fed high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet vs low salt (LS; 0.4% NaCl) diet were analyzed using linear regression analysis, model-free analysis, and a mechanistic theoretical model of blood flow through cerebral arterioles...
November 27, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Lucy C Beishon, Ronney B Panerai, Thompson G Robinson, Hari Subramaniam, Victoria J Haunton
Background: The incidence of dementia is predicted to rise rapidly, but sensitive diagnostic tests remain elusive. Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) can occur at an early stage of cognitive decline, and can be measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the CBFv changes that occur in healthy older adults (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), in response to a language task from the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE-III)...
September 28, 2018: JAD Reports
Tobias Kammerer, Valentina Faihs, Nikolai Hulde, Andreas Bayer, Max Hübner, Florian Brettner, Walter Karlen, Julia Maria Kröpfl, Markus Rehm, Christina Spengler, Simon Thomas Schäfer
Objective: Normobaric (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) are associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS) and cognitive dysfunction. Only few variables, like heart-rate-variability, are correlated with AMS. However, prediction of AMS remains difficult. We therefore designed an expedition-study with healthy volunteers in NH/HH to investigate additional non-invasive hemodynamic variables associated with AMS. Methods: Eleven healthy subjects were examined in NH (FiO2 13...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Sean P Polster, Agnieszka Stadnik, Amy L Akers, Ying Cao, Gregory A Christoforidis, Maged D Fam, Kelly D Flemming, Romuald Girard, Nicholas Hobson, James I Koenig, Janne Koskimäki, Karen Lane, James K Liao, Cornelia Lee, Seán B Lyne, Nichol McBee, Leslie Morrison, Kristina Piedad, Robert Shenkar, Matthew Sorrentino, Richard E Thompson, Kevin J Whitehead, Hussein A Zeineddine, Daniel F Hanley, Issam A Awad
BACKGROUND: More than a million Americans harbor a cerebral cavernous angioma (CA), and those who suffer a prior symptomatic hemorrhage have an exceptionally high rebleeding risk. Preclinical studies show that atorvastatin blunts CA lesion development and hemorrhage through inhibiting RhoA kinase (ROCK), suggesting it may confer a therapeutic benefit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether atorvastatin produces a difference compared to placebo in lesional iron deposition as assessed by quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) on magnetic resonance imaging in CAs that have demonstrated a symptomatic hemorrhage in the prior year...
November 26, 2018: Neurosurgery
Scott Marek, Joshua S Siegel, Evan M Gordon, Ryan V Raut, Caterina Gratton, Dillan J Newbold, Mario Ortega, Timothy O Laumann, Babatunde Adeyemo, Derek B Miller, Annie Zheng, Katherine C Lopez, Jeffrey J Berg, Rebecca S Coalson, Annie L Nguyen, Donna Dierker, Andrew N Van, Catherine R Hoyt, Kathleen B McDermott, Scott A Norris, Joshua S Shimony, Abraham Z Snyder, Steven M Nelson, Deanna M Barch, Bradley L Schlaggar, Marcus E Raichle, Steven E Petersen, Deanna J Greene, Nico U F Dosenbach
The cerebellum contains the majority of neurons in the human brain and is unique for its uniform cytoarchitecture, absence of aerobic glycolysis, and role in adaptive plasticity. Despite anatomical and physiological differences between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, group-average functional connectivity studies have identified networks related to specific functions in both structures. Recently, precision functional mapping of individuals revealed that functional networks in the cerebral cortex exhibit measurable individual specificity...
November 21, 2018: Neuron
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