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Lactobacillus Genome

Lois Bayigga, David P Kateete, Deborah J Anderson, Musa Sekikubo, Damalie Nakanjako
The vaginal microbial community ("microbiota") is a key component of the reproductive health of women, providing protection against urogenital infections. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by bacterial overgrowth and a shift away from a lactobacillus-dominated profile towards increased percentages of strict anaerobic species. BV is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as an increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections , pre-term births and pelvic inflammatory disease...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Paulraj Kanmani, Leonardo Albarracin, Hisakazu Kobayashi, Elvira Maria Hebert, Lucila Saavedra, Ryoya Komatsu, Brian Gatica, Ayako Miyazaki, Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Yoshihito Suda, Hisashi Aso, Shintaro Egusa, Takashi Mishima, Alexis Salas-Burgos, Hideki Takahashi, Julio Villena, Haruki Kitazawa
In lactic acid bacteria, the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) has been associated with some favorable technological properties as well as health-promoting benefits. Research works have shown the potential of EPS produced by lactobacilli to differentially modulate immune responses. However, most studies were performed in immune cells and few works have concentrated in the immunomodulatory activities of EPS in non-immune cells such as intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effects of EPS have not been studied in detail...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nilusha Malmuthuge, Philip J Griebel
Recent next generation sequencing studies on host-associated microbiomes generated debatable conclusions regarding the central dogma of fetal gut sterility. These observations challenge the concepts that microbial colonization of the gut begins during and after birth as well as the concept of antigen-independent prenatal maturation of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue in ruminants and humans. The placental barrier varies markedly among mammalian species with mice and humans having haemochorial placentas (fetal tissue in direct contact with maternal blood) versus epitheliochorial placentation (maternal and fetal blood separated by six tissue layers) in ruminants...
September 26, 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Elisa Salvetti, Hugh M B Harris, Giovanna E Felis, Paul W O'Toole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Wim Geeraerts, Luc De Vuyst, Frédéric Leroy
Although equine meats and their derived smoked or fermented products are popular in some regions of the world, they only form a minor fraction of the global meat consumption. The latter may explain why their associated bacterial communities have not received much attention. In the present study, 69 different samples of equine meats and meat products were investigated. The samples consisted of raw meat from horses (17 samples) and zebra (7), as well as non-fermented but smoked (24) and fermented (21) horse meat products...
September 22, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Daniela S Aliaga Goltsman, Christine L Sun, Diana M Proctor, Daniel B DiGiulio, Anna Robaczewska, Brian C Thomas, Gary M Shaw, David K Stevenson, Susan P Holmes, Jillian F Banfield, David A Relman
Recent studies suggest that the microbiome has an impact on gestational health and outcome. However, characterization of the pregnancy-associated microbiome has largely relied on 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based surveys. Here, we describe an assembly-driven, metagenomics-based, longitudinal study of the vaginal, gut, and oral microbiomes in 292 samples from 10 subjects sampled every three weeks throughout pregnancy. Nonhuman sequences in the amount of 1.53 Gb were assembled into scaffolds, and functional genes were predicted for gene- and pathway-based analyses...
October 2018: Genome Research
Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Ipputa Tada, Hisami Kobayashi, Akihito Endo, Shintaro Maeno, Atsushi Toyoda, Masanori Arita, Yasukazu Nakamura, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Moriya Ohkuma, Masanori Tohno
Three strains, JCM 5343T , JCM 5344 and JCM 1130, currently identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Although these strains shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with L. gasseri ATCC 33323T (99.9 %), they formed a clade clearly distinct from ATCC 33323T based on whole-genome relatedness. The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values of these three strains compared to L. gasseri ATCC 33323T were 93.4-93.7 and 53.1-54...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Andrea Comasio, Henning Harth, Stefan Weckx, Luc De Vuyst
In traditional sourdough fermentation recipes of artisan bakeries, often extra ingredients are added to the flour-water mixture. This may accentuate the aroma and taste of the baked products produced from such sourdoughs. This is made possible, for instance, by stimulating certain microbial activities during fermentation. This study examined the effects of the addition of citrate (a food-grade organic acid present in milk and lemons) on wheat sourdough fermentation in the presence of a citrate-positive, homofermentative, lactic acid bacterial starter culture strain, namely Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Chien-Hsun Huang, Shiao-Wen Li, Lina Huang, Koichi Watanabe
Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei , and Lactobacillus rhamnosus are phenotypically and genotypically closely related, and together comprise the L. casei group. Although the strains of this group are commercially valuable as probiotics, the taxonomic status and nomenclature of the L. casei group have long been contentious because of the difficulties in identifying these three species by using the most frequently used genotypic methodology of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Long used as the gold standard for species classification, DNA-DNA hybridization is laborious, requires expert skills, and is difficult to use routinely in laboratories...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Manuel Zúñiga, Vicente Monedero, María J Yebra
Members of the genus Lactobacillus are commonly found at the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosal surfaces of humans. This genus includes various species with a great number of potentially probiotic bacteria. Other often-used probiotic species belong to Bifidobacterium , a genus almost exclusively associated with the gut. As probiotics must survive and be metabolically active at their target sites, namely host mucosal surfaces, consumption of host-produced glycans is a key factor for their survival and activity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Junfang He, Xuegang Luo, Duxin Jin, Yunyang Wang, Tongcun Zhang
L. casei HZ1 was identified from Chinese traditional fermented milk, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptide was separated from its culture in our previous work. Here, LGH2 was a novel AMP, identified from the genome of L. casei HZ1. Altogether, roughly 52.76% of LGH2 was α -helical, with the remainder in β -strand and random coil in 50% TFE solution tested by CD. The peptide was also an amphipathic and cationic molecule, which was composed of 20 amino acid residues. The similarity of the amino acid sequence between LGH2 and Temporin-RN3 was highest...
September 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Laura Ortiz-Velez, Javiera Ortiz-Villalobos, Abby Schulman, Jee-Hwan Oh, Jan-Peter van Pijkeren, Robert A Britton
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the microorganisms of choice for the development of protein delivery systems for therapeutic purposes. Although there are numerous tools to facilitate genome engineering of lactobacilli; transformation efficiency still limits the ability to engineer their genomes. While genetically manipulating Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (LR 6475), we noticed that after an initial transformation, several LR 6475 strains significantly improved their ability to take up plasmid DNA via electroporation...
September 3, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Ana B Flórez, Baltasar Mayo
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides produced by bacteria with antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may inhibit food-borne pathogens and spoilage organisms, and therefore have potential as natural preservatives. Lactobacillus plantarum LL441 produces a lantibiotic bacteriocin known as plantaricin C, a pore-forming antimicrobial peptide containing modified amino acids that inhibits cell wall synthesis by forming a complex with the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael G Gänzle, Jinshui Zheng
Sourdough is used in production of (steamed) bread as leavening agent (type I sourdoughs) or as baking improver to enhance flavour, texture, and shelf life of bread (type II sourdoughs). The long-term propagation of sourdoughs eliminates dispersal limitation and consistently leads to sourdough microbiota that are composed of host adapted lactobacilli. In contrast, community assembly in spontaneous cereal fermentations is limited by dispersal and nomadic or environmental lactic acid bacteria are the first colonizers of these sourdoughs...
August 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Muhammad Saeed, Xu Yatao, Zhang Tiantian, Ren Qian, Sun Chao
Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of L-theanine (an amino acid found only in green tea) as a feed additive in poultry especially broiler are limited. So, this study was conducted to explore the effects of L-theanine on the intestinal microbiome and immune response in a broiler. A total of 400-d-old chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D) using a complete randomized design. Treatments were as follows: A, control (basal diet); B, basal diet + 100 mg L-theanine/kg diet; C, basal diet + 200 mg L-theanine/kg diet; and D, basal diet + 300 mg L-theanine/kg diet...
August 30, 2018: Poultry Science
José Antonio Carrasco, Helena Lucena-Padrós, Manuel Brenes, José Luis Ruiz-Barba
Genes with the potential to code for enzymes involved in phenolic compound metabolism were detected in the genome of Lactobacillus pentosus IG1, isolated from a green olive fermentation. Based on homology, these genes could code for a 6-P-β Glucosidase, two different Tannases, a Gallate decarboxylase and a p-Coumaric decarboxylase. Expression of up to seven of these genes was studied in L. pentosus IG1 (olive fermentation) and CECT4023T (corn silage), including responses upon exposure to relevant phenolic compounds and different olive extracts...
December 2018: Food Microbiology
Alexandra B Crawley, Rodolphe Barrangou
The Lactobacillus genus encompasses a genetically and functionally diverse group of species, and contains many strains widely formulated in the human food supply chain as probiotics and starter cultures. Within this genetically expansive group, there are several distinct clades that have high levels of homology, one of which is the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. Of the uniting features, small genomes, low GC content, adaptation to dairy environments, and fastidious growth requirements, are some of the most defining characteristics of this group...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
T E Askelson, A B McMullin, T Duong
Although Lactobacillus species have been administered widely as probiotics in poultry production, the mechanisms responsible for their functionality are not well understood. The genetic tools available for use in lactobacilli are advanced but have not been applied widely to investigate their probiotic functionality in poultry. The genome sequence of Lactobacillus gallinarum ATCC 33199, originally isolated from the chicken crop, has recently been made available suggesting this organism as a potentially important model organism for probiotic research in poultry...
August 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Pasquale Filannino, Maria De Angelis, Raffaella Di Cagno, Giorgia Gozzi, Ylenia Riciputi, Marco Gobbetti
Triplets of Lactobacullus plantarum strains were isolated from nine contrasting habitats. Without any passage through other culture media, isolation and cultivation were on model media that strictly reproduced the chemical and physical conditions and stressors of the habitats of origin. Here, we demonstrated how L. plantarum regulates and shapes its transcriptome in response to contrasting habitats. Firstly, multivariate clustering analysis of transcriptional data (RNA-Seq), complemented with metabolomics and phenomics, grouped the strains according to the habitats of origin...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
S Biswas, L Turner, I Biswas
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium with a diverse ecological habitat. We recently isolated a L. rhamnosus strain (LRB) from a healthy baby-tooth that had naturally fallen out. We determined the whole genome sequence of LRB and found that the isolate is closely genetically related to an intestinal isolate, L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). However, the LRB genome had lost about a 75-kb segment and undergone a genomic rearrangement. We assessed LRB's capacity to survive in the gut environment, at least temporarily...
October 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
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