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Sharon R Lewis, Michael W Pritchard, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, David Jw Evans, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: During intensive care unit (ICU) admission, patients and their carers experience physical and psychological stressors that may result in psychological conditions including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Improving communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and their carers may alleviate these disorders. Communication may include information or educational interventions, in different formats, aiming to improve knowledge of the prognosis, treatment, or anticipated challenges after ICU discharge...
October 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yuxia Zou, Limin Peng, Shenda Weng, Dongdong Liang, Zhaofei Fan, Zhihao Wu, Xungang Tan, Shuang Jiao, Feng You
Androgens are critical hormones that regulate sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates, which is mainly mediated by androgen receptors (ARs). Reports on transcript variants of ar (AR encoding gene) in human are almost always associated with cancers and androgen insensitivity syndrome. However, the knowledge of ar variants in teleosts is scarce. In this study, arβ and two transcript variants of arα (arα1 and arα2) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were cloned and analyzed...
October 10, 2018: Gene
Dimitrios Chytas
PURPOSE: Although anatomy is a significant part of medical education, there is controversy surrounding the appropriate method of anatomy teaching. Although social media is used in medical teaching, it has not been clarified if social platforms could significantly influence anatomy education. The purpose of this narrative review was to investigate to what extent the existing literature supports that social media could play a significant role in anatomy education. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, ERIC and CINAHL plus were searched for studies with a purpose to investigate the correlation between social media and anatomy education...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Sonia Medina, Jacinta Collado-González, Federico Ferreres, Julián Londoño-Londoño, Claudio Jiménez-Cartagena, Alexandre Guy, Thierry Durand, Jean-Marie Galano, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo
BACKGROUND: In Colombia, agro-industrial residues represent an enormous economic and environmental problem, which could be reduced if different techniques for the addition of value to such residues were implemented by this industrial sector. One of the fruits with the highest export rates is Physalis peruviana (goldenberry); however, this fruit is generally marketed without its calyx, generating a large amount of residues. To develop a strategy to add value to these residues, it is essential to know their chemical composition...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Christoph Sander
Johannes de Sacrobosco's (c. 1195-c. 1256) On the Sphere, a short introduction into qualitative cosmology written in the thirteenth century, was the most widely used textbook on cosmology in the early-modern period, being reprinted, re-edited or commented over 320 times. While the reception and circulation of this work in the sixteenth and seventeenth century is well known, one fact has so far escaped the notice of scholars: Sphaera textbooks were subject to several acts of ecclesiastical censorship in the early modern period, even though the content of this work promoted a cosmology that opposed the allegedly heretical implications of Copernicanism...
October 12, 2018: NTM
Sherry Kit Wa Chan, O W T Li, C L M Hui, W C Chang, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of media reporting of a homicide committed by a patient with schizophrenia on the knowledge about and stigma regarding psychosis among the general Hong Kong population. The effects of using the term 'schizophrenia (jing-shen-fen-lei)' in the news on the perceptions of the new Chinese term 'psychosis (si-jue-shi-tiao)' were explored. METHODS: Random telephone surveys of the general Hong Kong population were conducted in April 2009 (1 month before the incident) and June 2009 (1 week after the incident)...
October 12, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Fahad D Alosaimi, Ayedh Alghamdi, Raya Alsuhaibani, Ghadah Alhammad, Amjad Albatili, Latifah Albatly, Bandar Althomali, Fadi Aljamaan, José R Maldonado
BACKGROUND: The Stanford Proxy Test for Delirium (S-PTD) is a tool developed to be completed by nurses at the end of their shift. It was designed to use the knowledge acquired during a full shift of nurse-patient interaction. The objective of our study was to validate the S-PTD among a mixed sample of patients in both the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an ICU and three general medical wards in a tertiary care hospital...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Shashidhar Cherukuri, Maria Bajo, Giacomo Colussi, Roberto Corciulo, Hafedh Fessi, Maxence Ficheux, Maria Slon, Eric Weinhandl, Natalie Borman
BACKGROUND: Utilization of home hemodialysis (HHD) is low in Europe. The Knowledge to Improve Home Dialysis Network in Europe (KIHDNEy) is a multi-center study of HHD patients who have used a transportable hemodialysis machine that employs a low volume of lactate-buffered, ultrapure dialysate per session. In this retrospective cohort analysis, we describe patient factors, HHD prescription factors, and biochemistry and medication use during the first 6 months of HHD and rates of clinical outcomes thereafter...
October 11, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Jay N Meegoda, Brian Li, Kush Patel, Lily B Wang
Anaerobic digestion is a technology that has been used by humans for centuries. Anaerobic digestion is considered to be a useful tool that can generate renewable energy and significant research interest has arisen recently. The underlying theory of anaerobic digestion has been established for decades; however, a great deal of current research is directed towards the optimization of anaerobic digestion under diverse digestion conditions. This review provides a summary of the processes underlying anaerobic digestion, commonly-utilized measurements of anaerobic sludge, operating parameters of anaerobic digesters, and methods of acceleration and optimization used to improve process efficiency...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alessandra Pannunzio, Mauro Coluccia
Prostaglandins and thromboxane are lipid signaling molecules deriving from arachidonic acid by the action of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2. The role of cyclooxygenases (particularly COX-2) and prostaglandins (particularly PGE₂) in cancer-related inflammation has been extensively investigated. In contrast, COX-1 has received less attention, although its expression increases in several human cancers and a pathogenetic role emerges from experimental models. COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms seem to operate in a coordinate manner in cancer pathophysiology, especially in the tumorigenesis process...
October 11, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Juliana Bahia, Michael SchrÖdl
Polyclads are a conspicuous group of marine invertebrates, the most charismatic members of the phylum Platyhelminthes. From Brazil, a total of 71 polyclad species were reported or described. Only three of them were recently described, five are recent records for the Brazilian coast, and 55 were described by Ernest and Eveline Marcus, who were by far the most productive workers. However, they quite often published in Portuguese or German, rather than English, and have not designated type material or specified material deposited in museum collections...
October 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Liye Xu, Jin Cheng Song, Xiu Hua Sun, Zi Fen Gao, Li Lv, Jie Zhu
RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of Richter's syndrome (RS) is rare and only a few cases were discussed. Of these published cases, either they were accompanied with lymph node involvement or with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To our knowledge, this is the first published case of RS of the brain and meninges diagnosed concurrently with CLL in the absence of any evidence of lymphoma outside of the CNS. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 67-year-old female presented with slurred speech, headache, and left-sided hemiparesis...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Astrid Kerstine Buch, Johannes Busch, Seija Ylijoki-Sørensen, Jytte Banner
On average, two suicides occur in Denmark every day. In order to prevent suicides, it is important to understand their nature. The forensic autopsy plays an important role by providing detailed knowledge of the cause and manner of death. Unfortunately, the autopsy rate for suicides in Denmark is very low. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors that may affect the decision to perform a forensic autopsy and thereby affect the autopsy rate of suicidal deaths in the Capital area of Copenhagen. Data from 6211 death certificates from the Capital area of Copenhagen, Denmark, over a study period of six years, were investigated...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
James J L Tee, Yesa Yang, Angelos Kalitzeos, Andrew Webster, James Bainbridge, Michel Michaelides
PURPOSE: Quantitative study of retinal structure, progression rates and interocular symmetry in RPGR-associated retinopathy using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: SETTING: Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK SUBJECTS: 38 subjects MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Two SD-OCT-derived ellipzoid zone (EZ) metrics with repeatability assessments. EZ width (EZW) measurements were made on transfoveal line scans...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Arlo Adams, Aarati Sriram, A Wayne Vogl
Sertoli cells of the mammalian seminiferous epithelium form unique subcellular actin-related structures at intercellular junctions. The appearance of these so called "tubulobulbar complexes" (TBCs) precedes both sperm release at the apex of the epithelium and the movement of early spermatogenic cells out of the spermatogonial stem cell niche at the base of the epithelium. TBCs are considered to be part of the mechanism of junction endocytosis by Sertoli cells. The structures contain junction proteins and morphologically identifiable junctions, and are associated with markers of endocytosis...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Sachiko Ozawa, Manuela Villar-Uribe, Daniel R Evans, Vivek Kulkarni, Por Ir
Unnecessary injections increase the risk of blood-borne infections as well as pose an avoidable financial burden on patients. Perceptions in rural Cambodia that medical drug injections provide the best quality medical care have resulted in a large proportion of the population seeking injections across medical conditions. As private providers have a higher propensity to offer injections, patients pursue more expensive care contributing to a greater financial burden. This study aimed to use an educational intervention to improve participant knowledge about injections and health insurance in order to build informed trust in safer injection practices and health insurance...
October 11, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Maarten Van Geel, Kang Yu, Tobias Ceulemans, Gerrit Peeters, Kasper van Acker, Willem Geerts, Miguel M Ramos, Cindy Serafim, Pierre Kastendeuch, Georges Najjar, Thierry Ameglio, Jérôme Ngao, Marc Saudreau, Michael Waud, Bart Lievens, Paula M L Castro, Ben Somers, Olivier Honnay
Trees in urban areas face harsh environmental conditions. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM) form a symbiosis with many tree species and provide a range of benefits to their host through their extraradical hyphal network. Although our understanding of the environmental drivers and large scale geographical variation of EcM communities in natural ecosystems is growing, our knowledge of EcM communities within and across urban areas is still limited. Here we characterized EcM communities using Illumina miseq sequencing on 175 root samples of the urban tree Tilia tomentosa from three European cities, namely Leuven (Belgium), Strasbourg (France) and Porto (Portugal)...
October 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jeton Shatri, Selim Cerkezi, Veton Ademi, Valvita Reci, Sadi Bexheti
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate different anatomic variations and dimensions of anterior part of the CW and their prevalence on Kosovo's population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observative descriptive and retrospective study performed at the University Clinical Center, Clinic of Radiology. The three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used for MRA imaging to evaluate the anatomy of the CW in 513 adults without clinical manifestations for cerebrovascular disease...
October 12, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Alexandra Camargo, Krislyn M Boggs, Marc Auerbach, Rachel D Freid, Ashley F Sullivan, Janice A Espinola, Carlos A Camargo
OBJECTIVES: While many U.S. emergency departments (ED) have a "pediatric ED," there is, to our knowledge, no accepted criteria for this type of ED. We investigated the prevalence, distribution, staffing, and characteristics of self-reported pediatric areas in U.S. general EDs. METHODS: We conducted a survey of all 5,273 U.S. EDs to characterize emergency care in 2015. We then surveyed 130 of the 426 general EDs who reported having a pediatric area. Data collection for the second survey included confirmation of a pediatric area and information on that area's structure and staffing...
October 12, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Lisa F Platt
The current exploratory study investigates which variables predict commitment among cisgender women currently in a relationship with a transgender-identified partner. This study includes variables specific to gender diverse couples such as years in the relationship, amount of prior knowledge about transgender identity, and gender role beliefs. Also included are the general relationship factors of satisfaction, quality of alternatives, investment size, and the outcome variable of commitment, as described in the Investment Model of Commitment...
October 11, 2018: Family Process
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