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Objective: To obtain baseline data of pediatricians' clinical use of antibacterial agents in children in China, and provide evidence for the follow-up of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of children's clinical medications and the development of rational drug management measures and norms. Methods: A multi-center cross-sectional study was designed to conduct a network electronic questionnaire survey of doctors with child prescription rights in hospitals of all provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country through cluster sampling to understand the current status of antibacterial drugs use in 2016...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Joseph T Hicks, Lu-Yu Hwang, Sarah Baraniuk, Margaret White, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Nkechi Onwuka, Michael W Ross, Alan G Nyitray
Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk of developing anal cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) than the rest of the general population. Currently, there are no formal national guidelines in the US advising men how and when to get anal cancer screening. We sought to assess differences in demographics, familiarity and anxiety about anal cancer among men who report having had anal cancer screening (i.e. anal cytology and/or a digital anorectal examination (DARE)). Methods: MSM were recruited to participate in a study to assess the feasibility of teaching self and partner anal examinations as a means of screening for anal cancer...
December 6, 2018: Sexual Health
Daniele Moscheni, Federica Bertolotti, Laura Piveteau, Loredana Protesescu, Dmitry N Dirin, Maksym V Kovalenko, Antonio Cervellino, Jan Skov Pedersen, Norberto Masciocchi, Antonietta Guagliardi
Surface chemistry and core defects are known to play a prominent role in governing the photophysical properties of nanocrystalline semiconductors. Nevertheless, investigating them in small nanocrystals remains a complex task. Here, by combining X-ray scattering techniques in the wide- and small-angle regions and using the Debye Scattering Equation (DSE) method of analysis, we unveil a high density of planar defects in oleate-terminated zincblende (ZB) CdSe colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and size-dependent faceting within a square-cuboid morphology...
December 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Franco Romaní, Jimmy Carreazo Pariasca, Jackelin Aguilar Madrid, Daniel Espinoza Herrera
Traditionally, research institutions have focused their efforts on generating scientific knowledge and disseminating it through traditional mechanisms such as scientific publications. Recently, several Latin American countries, through entities dedicated to the promotion of Science, Technology, and Innovation, are promoting the development of scientific culture in the general population, through various strategies of dissemination, popularization, or scientific appropriation. The National Institute of Health has implemented strategies of scientific divulgation, such as programs of educational visits in museums, divulgation in social networks and events of scientific divulgation...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Sarah Vieira Figueiredo, Letícia Alexandre Lima, Débora Pena Batista E Silva, Raquel de Maria Carvalho Oliveira, Macedônia Pinto Dos Santos, Ilvana Lima Verde Gomes
OBJECTIVE: To know the main health guidance needs of family members of children with sickle cell disease. METHOD: Qualitative research, developed in a pediatric reference hospital of Ceará State, between April and May 2017, through the participation of 12 family members of children with sickle cell disease. The data were collected through semi-structured interviewees and analyzed according to the Bardin's Thematic Categorical Analysis. RESULTS: The relatives had divergent opinions about what this pathology would be and expressed the expectation of being broadly guided, from general information (signs and symptoms) to more complex ones about the disease, including major complications and ways of preventing them...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Bruno M Balboni, Tarcila S DA Silva, Fernando W C Andrade, Lucas J M DE Freitas, Victor H P Moutinho
Due to changes in the Amazon forest dynamics after the first cutting cycle, non exploited species become dominant in the forest. The lack of technological knowledge makes it hard to commercialize these woods, making the understanding of their physical-mechanical properties a fundamental step to properly define their applications. This study aimed to characterize physically and mechanically the wood of Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya and Eschweilera ovata from the second cutting cycle of the Tapajós National Forest, intending to commercially promote and to identify usages for them, as well as to evaluate the viability of replacement of highly commercialized species...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Salvatore Mastrangelo, Filippo Biscarini, Marco Tolone, Barbara Auzino, Marco Ragatzu, Andrea Spaterna, Roberta Ciampolini
The evaluation of genetic variability is a useful research tool for the correct management of selection and conservation strategies in dog breeds. In addition to pedigree genealogies, genomic data allow a deeper knowledge of the variability and genetic structure of populations. To date, many dog breeds, such as small regional breeds, still remain uncharacterized. Braque Français type Pyrénées (BRA) is a dog breed originating from a very old type of gun-dog used for pointing the location of game birds to hunters...
2018: PloS One
Max E Schön, Kay Nieselt, Sigisfredo Garnica
Altitudinal gradients provide valuable information about the effects of environmental variables on changes in species richness and composition as well as the distribution of below ground fungal communities. Since most knowledge in this respect has been gathered on aboveground communities, we focused our study towards the characterization of belowground fungal communities associated with two different ages of Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees along an altitudinal gradient. By sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region on the Illumina platform, we investigated the fungal communities in a floristically and geologically relatively well explored forest on the slope of Mt...
2018: PloS One
Lobna Bouacida, Vanessa Suin, Veronik Hutse, Michaël Boudewijns, Reinoud Cartuyvels, Laurent Debaisieux, Emmanuel De Laere, Marie Hallin, Nicolas Hougardy, Katrien Lagrou, Els Oris, Elizaveta Padalko, Marijke Reynders, Gatien Roussel, Jean-Marc Senterre, Michel Stalpaert, Dominique Ursi, Carl Vael, Dolores Vaira, Jos Van Acker, Walter Verstrepen, Steven Van Gucht, Benoit Kabamba, Sophie Quoilin, Gaëtan Muyldermans
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of circulating HCV genotypes and subtypes in a country is crucial to guide antiviral therapy and to understand local epidemiology. Studies investigating circulating HCV genotypes and their trends have been conducted in Belgium. However they are outdated, lack nationwide representativeness or were not conducted in the general population. METHODS: In order to determine the distribution of different circulating HCV genotypes in Belgium, we conducted a multicentre study with all the 19 Belgian laboratories performing reimbursed HCV genotyping assays...
2018: PloS One
Małgorzata Konieczyńska, Piotr Bijak, Lien Desteghe, Hein Heidbuchel, Anetta Undas
INTRODUCTION Little is known about the current awareness of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and knowledge of thromboprophylaxis among patients receiving oral anticoagulation therapy (OAC). OBJECTIVES We sought to develop and evaluate the usefulness of the Jessa AF Knowledge Questionnaire (JAKQ) modified for VTE patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Consecutive patients at least one month since the VTE event (n=273, mean [SD] age 51 [17] years; 52.7% women; 55.9% unprovoked event) were enrolled at the study. RESULTS The median percentage of correct responses was 64...
December 5, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Sine Ravn Havmoeller, Per H Thomsen, Sanne Lemcke
Although there is limited knowledge about early signs of ADHD, deviations in motor development are suggested as a possible indicator of such early signs. The purpose of the present systematic review was to gather knowledge about motor development before three years of age in children later diagnosed with ADHD. A systematic search was completed in four research databases, and the quality of the identified studies was systematically assessed. Of 440 initial search results, only five studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully abstracted...
December 4, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Feiyue Deng, Anran Zhang, Catherine Chan
Developing culturally appropriate diabetes nutrition interventions for immigrants could be facilitated knowing what is successful in the home country and other relevant countries. The primary purpose of this scoping review was to identify the design and delivery methods of nutrition interventions for Chinese populations with type 2 diabetes, in their home countries and as immigrants to western countries. A total of 14 articles was retrieved and included. Overall, the approaches used in China often were modelled on intensive lifestyle programs although alternative strategies were also identified...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Ayse Cal, Mukerrem Kabatas Yildiz, Ilknur Aydin Avci
Introduction: Breast cancer is a common problem and it is important to understand the beliefs that increase awareness of breast cancer and guide early diagnosis behaviors. This research is planned to examine the knowledge and fear levels of breast cancer along with the spiritual characteristics of nurses. Methods: This is a descriptive type research. The domain of the research consists of women nurses working in Health Sciences University Samsun Education and Research Hospital. Sampling was not undertaken, rather 327 nurses who were on duty between January and May of 2016 and were willing to cooperate were incorporated into the study...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Jörg Fleischer, Jürgen Krieger
Pheromones are chemicals that serve intraspecific communication. In animals, the ability to detect and discriminate pheromones in a complex chemical environment substantially contributes to the survival of the species. Insects widely use pheromones to attract mating partners, to alarm conspecifics or to mark paths to rich food sources. The various functional roles of pheromones for insects are reflected by the chemical diversity of pheromonal compounds. The precise detection of the relevant intraspecific signals is accomplished by specialized chemosensory neurons housed in hair-like sensilla located on the surface of body appendages...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Eszter Vagdalt, Zsófia Ruttkay, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
BACKGROUND: In recent years, drug prevention networks and drug education programs have started using Web-based or mobile phone apps as novel prevention tools, testing their efficacy compared with face-to-face prevention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential of an interactive app called Once Upon a High (VoltEgySzer). METHODS: The app approaches drug prevention from 6 different aspects, and it addresses youngsters with 6 different modules: (1) interactive comics/cartoons, telling stories of recovery; (2) quiz game; (3) roleplay game; (4) introduction of psychoactive drugs; (5) information on the somatic and psychological effects of psychoactive substances; (6) list of available treatment units, rehabs, and self-support groups in Hungary...
December 4, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
C Lioult, B Le Neindre, P Gauberti, B Clin, A Palix, A Vabret, R Morello, J Dina
BACKGROUND: France is facing a new resurgence of measles. Since November 2017, the number of cases has been increasing sharply. Immunization coverage in the general population, all ages combined, is below the threshold required for a rapid decline of the virus propagation. Regarding health professionals, the rate of immunization against this disease is insufficiently documented. In this context, the Occupational Health Service of the University Hospital of Caen has carried out an inventory of health personnel knowledge of immunization against measles in the units the most exposed to risk...
December 1, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Kyle W Parker, Natalie A DiPietro Mager, Benjamin D Aronson, Christopher Hart
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to impact pharmacy students' personal and professional development through simulation of a board of pharmacy disciplinary hearing regarding addiction. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The mock board hearing was conducted as part of the required curriculum. Faculty obtained materials from a prior board hearing. The actual respondent, lawyer, former executive director, and a board agent participated. Students served as board members and president, asked questions of the witnesses, and deliberated per board procedure...
November 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Ivan Buljan, Ana Jerončić, Mario Malički, Matko Marušić, Ana Marušić
BACKGROUND: There are a few studies of alignment between different knowledge-indices for evidence-based medicine (EBM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the type of test used to assess knowledge of EBM affects the estimation of this knowledge in medical students. METHODS: Medical students enrolled in 1-week EBM course were tested with the Fresno, Berlin, and ACE tests at the beginning and the end of the course. We evaluated the ability of these tests to detect a change in the acquired level of EBM knowledge and compared the estimates of change with those of the Control group that was tested with the ACE and Berlin tests before and after an unrelated non-EBM course...
December 4, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Tobias Dombrowski, Christian Wrobel, Stefan Dazert, Stefan Volkenstein
BACKGROUND: Curriculum design and specific topic selection for on-site practical courses in clinical disciplines with limited teaching time is challenging. An electronic learning supported curriculum based on the flipped classroom principle has a high potential to effectively gain knowledge and education along with improving practical experience. Here, we demonstrate the introduction of a flipped classroom curriculum for practical courses in Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) in real world practice to improve the on-site time management and students' experience...
December 4, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Yasuhiro Murata, Katsuhiko Ando, Masanobu Usui, Hiromu Sugiyama, Akinobu Hayashi, Akihiro Tanemura, Hiroyuki Kato, Naohisa Kuriyama, Masashi Kishiwada, Shugo Mizuno, Hiroyuki Sakurai, Shuji Isaji
BACKGROUND: Anisakid nematodes (Anisakis spp. or Pseudoterranova spp.) usually infect gastric or intestinal walls, while they rarely infect in extra-gastrointestinal sites of human body. Generally, Anisakis spp. larvae are highly infected in fish intermediate hosts, whereas Pseudoterranova spp. larvae are very rarely infected. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports which have documented cases of hepatic anisakiasis caused by Pseudoterranova spp. This report describes the first documented case of hepatic anisakiasis due to infection with Pseudoterranova decipiens and clinical features of the hepatic anisakiasis through literature review...
December 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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